Aquatic Ecological Monitoring and Wastewater Treatment in Agricultural Systems

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Biosystem and Biological Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2021) | Viewed by 8265

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
National Institute of Environmental Research, Han River Environment Research Center, Gyeonggi-do 12585, Republic of Korea
Interests: water quality; taste odor compounds; anthropogenic impacts; emerging pollutants; phytoplankton; ecological index; water monitoring and treatment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water quality and ecological management are the most important parts of agricultural economy and system development. In addition, facilities that can deal with pollutants generated by agriculture are also very meaningful (wastewater treatment facility). This is because there is a possibility that another harmful compound may be produced during the process. Various organic and inorganic compounds are used to grow crops, and these compounds are likely to enter nearby rivers or streams in the type of nonpoint pollutants caused by rainfall, adversely affecting the agricultural ecosystem. However, studies of predictive techniques are needed because precipitation is frequent and unpredictable due to climate change. Agriculture has the longest history among many industries and is directly and indirectly related to the development of human life. Therefore, for agricultural growth, it is necessary to predict the agricultural aquatic ecosystem with modeling techniques using water quality and ecological monitoring results due to various environment changes.

In this Special issue, we will focus on monitoring and modeling for water quality, ecosystem, wastewater facility, phytoplankton and zooplankton, taste order compounds, nonpoint sources, and anthropogenic impact. We welcome novel research, reviews, and opinion pieces covering all related topics.

Dr. Jongkwon Im
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Water quality
  • Phytoplankton/zooplankton
  • Wastewater
  • Emerging pollutants
  • Modeling
  • Taste odor compounds
  • Micro/trace pollutants
  • Nonpoint pollutants
  • Climate change/hydrological processes
  • Anthropogenic impacts

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
Water Quality, Source Identification, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Using Multivariate Analysis in the Han River Watershed, South Korea
by Jong Kwon Im, Young Seuk Kim, Yong Chul Cho, Taegu Kang and Sang Hun Kim
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3111; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123111 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the irrigation water quality, major pollution sources, and human health hazards by focusing on heavy metal concentrations in the surface water of the Han River watershed, South Korea that supplies water for consumption and irrigation. Here, Mn was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the irrigation water quality, major pollution sources, and human health hazards by focusing on heavy metal concentrations in the surface water of the Han River watershed, South Korea that supplies water for consumption and irrigation. Here, Mn was found to have the highest mean concentration, with the maximum concentration recorded at IH-2. The heavy metal concentrations were higher during summer and fall than that during spring. The mean concentration of heavy metals was relatively high in the downtown area (1.8 times) and downstream of the wastewater treatment facilities (1.3 times), indicating that the wastewater treatment facilities (WTFs) may be the primary source of pollution. Water at most of the sites were found to be suitable for irrigation. However, the sodium absorption ratio and soluble sodium percentage indicated that IH-2 was unsuitable. The results of the principal component analysis indicated that anthropogenic (vehicle and industrial) activities were the primary sources of metal pollution. Ingestion was identified as the primary exposure pathway in terms of health risks. However, the hazard quotients and hazard index for all pathways were below the safety limit (<1) for children and adults. Full article
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17 pages, 2867 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Spatiotemporal Variations in the Water Quality of the Han River Basin, South Korea, Using Multivariate Statistical and APCS-MLR Modeling Techniques
by Yong-Chul Cho, Hyeonmi Choi, Soon-Ju Yu, Sang-Hun Kim and Jong-Kwon Im
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122469 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
This study evaluated the spatiotemporal variability of water quality in the Han River Basin (HRB) as well as the contributions of potential pollution sources using multivariate statistical and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) modeling techniques. From 2011 to 2020, data on [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the spatiotemporal variability of water quality in the Han River Basin (HRB) as well as the contributions of potential pollution sources using multivariate statistical and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) modeling techniques. From 2011 to 2020, data on water quality parameters were collected from 14 sites in the Ministry of Environment’s water quality monitoring network. Using spatiotemporal cluster analysis, these sites were classified into two periods over the year (dry and wet seasons) and into three regions: low pollution region (LPR), moderate pollution region (MPR), and high pollution region (HPR). Through principal component analysis, we identified four potential factors accounting for 80.1% and 74.1% of the total variance in the LPR and MPR, respectively, and three that accounted for 72.7% of the total variance in the HPR. APCS-MLR results indicated domestic sewage and phytoplankton growth (25%), domestic sewage and seasonal influence (29%), and point pollution sources caused by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater discharge (31%) as potential factors for the LPR, MPR, and HPR. These results demonstrate that the multivariate statistical techniques and the APCS-MLR model can be effectively used to monitor network design, quantitatively evaluate potential pollution sources, and establish efficient water quality management policies. Full article
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14 pages, 6493 KiB  
Article
An Approach to Drought Vulnerability Assessment Focused on Groundwater Wells in Upland Cultivation Areas of South Korea
by Hyungjin Shin, Gyumin Lee, Jaenam Lee, Jaeyoung Lee, Minji Park and Changi Park
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091783 - 6 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1542
Abstract
This study aimed to present an approach that identifies priority management areas to drought focused on field crops and groundwater wells using the MCDM method. Groundwater wells are the primary source of water during drought for field crops. Nevertheless, the systematic management of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to present an approach that identifies priority management areas to drought focused on field crops and groundwater wells using the MCDM method. Groundwater wells are the primary source of water during drought for field crops. Nevertheless, the systematic management of groundwater wells has not been achieved. Thus, this paper intends to establish a plan that can manage groundwater wells through a vulnerability assessment. This study used TOPSIS, a widely applied multi-criterion decision-making algorithm, to evaluate 158 cities and counties in Korea. This study chose the assessment factors by focusing on drought and classifying the positive and negative elements of the wells. Precipitation, groundwater level, and pumping capacity were considered to have positive effects, while cultivated area, the number of consecutive days without rain, and the proportion of private groundwater wells were considered as negative factors. As a result, the pumping capacity per cultivation area is the major factor affecting management priorities and groundwater well vulnerability. This study presents an approach to assess the drought vulnerability of field crops focused on groundwater wells and select a priority management area, which facilitates efficient well management and reduces damage to crops caused by local droughts. Full article
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14 pages, 1912 KiB  
Article
Geographical Distribution and Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Tributaries of the Han River Watershed
by Jong-Kwon Im, Yong-Chul Cho, Hye-Ran Noh and Soon-Ju Yu
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050956 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with negative impacts on the aquatic ecosystem, are increasingly released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. Water samples were collected from five areas of the Han River Watershed (HRW) tributaries, South Korea, to detect 11 VOCs, which were classified [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with negative impacts on the aquatic ecosystem, are increasingly released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. Water samples were collected from five areas of the Han River Watershed (HRW) tributaries, South Korea, to detect 11 VOCs, which were classified as halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs). Among the 11 VOCs, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride were undetected. The highest concentration compounds were chloroform (0.0596 ± 0.1312 µg/L), trichloroethylene (0.0253 ± 0.0781 µg/L), and toluene (0.0054 ± 0.0139 µg/L). The mean concentration (0.0234 µg/L) and detection frequency (37.0%) of HAHs were higher than those of AHs (0.0036 µg/L, 21.0%, respectively). The Imjin Hantan River area exhibited the highest mean concentration (0.2432 µg/L) and detection frequency (22.9%), because it is located near industrial complexes, thus, highlighting their role as important VOC sources. However, the detected VOCs had lower concentrations than those permitted by the EU, WHO, USA, and South Korea drinking water guidelines. Ecological risks associated with the VOCs were estimated by risk quotient (RQ); consequently, the predicted no-effect concentration was 0.0029 mg/L, and the toluene and styrene RQ values were >1 and >0.5, respectively. The findings may facilitate policymakers in designing pollution control strategies. Full article
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