Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Farming Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 27001

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute for Mediterranean Agriculture and Forest Systems ISAFoM, Ercolano, 80055 Portici, NA, Italy
Interests: environment sustainability; environmental impact assessment; sustainable development; agriculture environmental analysis; sustainable agriculture; climate change; soil hydrological modeling; soil and water conservation; land use planning; hydrology; crop management
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Guest Editor
Department of Viticulture and Enology, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740, USA
Interests: viticulture; grapevine physiology; digital agriculture; precision agriculture; modelling; plant-soil relationships; irrigation; sensors; artificial intelligence and robotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milano, MI, Italy
Interests: crop modeling; nitrate leaching; soil organic carbon; conservation agriculture; N2O emissions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate changes are occurring in every region globally. According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)), the chances of crossing the global warming level of 1.5°C or even 2°C in the coming decades are concrete if a rapid reduction in greenhouse gas emissions at large a scale is not realized. However, there are more issues than just temperature. Climate change is bringing multiple different changes to different regions—which will all be exacerbated with further warming. These include changes in the water cycle (intensive rainfall and associated flooding, intensive drought, erratic rainfall patterns, etc.) with different intensities by region.

In this global context, the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), have underlined the need for an increase in crop productivity and quality based on scientific and sustainable practices to improve resource use efficiency (water and nutrient), thereby also contributing to meeting the broader aims of food security, rural development and livelihood enhancement.

Climate change can negatively affect the suitability of current agricultural areas to food production, undermining the resilience of agriculture systems. Temperature changes can directly influence the duration of the growing season or the establishment of different phenological stages, determining a territory’s suitability for specific crop cultivation. A reduction in rainfall can affect a crop’s water availability and thereby its yield, without considering the possible direct effects of the expected increased risk of extreme events (heat waves, intensive rainfall, etc.). In the cropping systems’ management, the expected conditions imply a change in the current type and timing of agronomic practices (e.g., sowing and harvesting date, fertilization, irrigation) and offer the opportunity to define novel strategies of adaptation to and mitigation of future climates.

Based on these premises, modern farmers need to be jugglers able to produce healthy food (SDG 2&3), protect ground and surface water quality (SDG6), conserve energy (SDG7), support climate mitigation by carbon capture and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (SDG13), and protect life on land by soil conservation and by enhancing biodiversity (SDG15) under climate change.

The scientific community is called upon to support the farmers in their activities by evaluating climate change’s effects on agricultural systems, identifying and scientifically assessing sustainable practices, and providing them with clear prospects for the future.

This Special Issue calls for original and innovative manuscripts related to recent research on Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Systems’ Adaptations. The topics of the submitted manuscripts may include:

  • Analysis of the effect of climate change on agricultural systems through simulation modeling.
  • Identification of the best agronomic practices for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change.
  • The development and application of innovative sensors or technologies in the field or remotely to monitor the effect of climate change.
  • The development and application of DSS systems to help farmers face climate change. 

This Special Issue welcomes diverse article types, including original research, reviews, and perspective papers (upon consultation with the Editors).

Dr. Antonello Bonfante
Prof. Dr. Luca Brillante
Dr. Alessia Perego
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • simulation modeling
  • best practices
  • agricultural systems resilience
  • sustainability
  • SDGs

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Linking Climate Change Awareness, Climate Change Perceptions and Subsequent Adaptation Options among Farmers
by Ghulam Mustafa, Bader Alhafi Alotaibi and Roshan K. Nayak
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030758 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2906
Abstract
Several studies have reported farmers’ perceptions of climate change, but there is inadequate knowledge available on the farm households’ climate change awareness (CCA) in Pakistan. This study was undertaken to assess farmers’ CCA. For this purpose, the study collected the data from southern [...] Read more.
Several studies have reported farmers’ perceptions of climate change, but there is inadequate knowledge available on the farm households’ climate change awareness (CCA) in Pakistan. This study was undertaken to assess farmers’ CCA. For this purpose, the study collected the data from southern and central Punjab, Pakistan, through a purposively multistage random sampling technique. Binary logit and odds ratio were used to analyse the data. The analysis of the study shows that the majority of respondents were aware of climate change but had differing perceptions of climate change. This research showed that 70.8% of farmers are aware of climate change and reported their awareness level on winter and summer rainfall and temperature, the growing season length (GSL) of crops, the sea level rise, and the causes of climate changes and conceptual understanding of it while persistently denying climate change. However, many farmers did not perceive decreasing winter (48%) and summer (31.2%) precipitation, the majority of the farmers could not perceive in the GSL of summer (63.2%) and winter (64.4%) crops, while few did not notice increased winter (36.4%) and summer (33.6%) temperature, respectively. Financial and non-financial factors such as education (1.16), experience (1.07), distance to markets (1.07), non-agricultural income (2.83), access to agricultural credit (0.29) and marketing of produce (6.10), access to extension services (3.87) and the number of adaptation strategies (1.30) were pointedly related to farm households’ CCA. These odds values in the parenthesis show that the likelihood of CCA increases/decreases as these determinants increase. Moreover, the results of the study show that CCA is a significant predictor of adaptation to climate change. Main adaptation strategies opted for by farmers include changing crop variety and type, changing planting dates, tree plantation, increasing/changing fertilizer, soil and water conservation, off-farm income and diversification. Further, the study finds that some farmers did not perceive climate change as it takes time to be visible, but they are aware of climate change. Therefore, there is a need to reshape the households’ perception of climate change and enhance farmers’ CCA through existing extension services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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13 pages, 2006 KiB  
Article
A Novel Mineral Composition Increases Soybean Crop Yield by Mitigating Stress Induced by Ultraviolet-A and -B Radiation
by André L. Abreu, Priscila L. Gratão, Carlos A. V. Rodriguez and Gilmar S. Sousa Junior
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010138 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important environmental abiotic stress that consistently affects the yield potential of agricultural crops causing hidden yield losses; few practical solutions are available for protecting large-scale field cultivation. Here, we assess the protective effect of a novel mineral composition [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important environmental abiotic stress that consistently affects the yield potential of agricultural crops causing hidden yield losses; few practical solutions are available for protecting large-scale field cultivation. Here, we assess the protective effect of a novel mineral composition principally based upon a concentrated suspension of microparticles of crystalline and insoluble quartz sand applied as foliar spray over the top of plants to mitigate the stress effects of UV-A or UV-B radiation. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) plants were cultivated under three alternative UVR exposure scenarios (no UV, +UV-A, +UV-B) to compare sprayed and unsprayed plants. Measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents demonstrated the effects of +UV-A and +UV-B on plants and the effectiveness of the foliar spray in mitigating such stress. Biometric assessment showed that root weight, foliar biomass and number of pods of unsprayed plants were negatively impacted by both +UV-A and +UV-B; whereas, in sprayed plants, the damages for both +UV-A and +UV-B were almost entirely mitigated. The results of this study endorse the use of quartz sand microparticles as a promising tool for growers to achieve sustainable yields in soybeans and potentially other field crops in the face of increasing challenges due to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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19 pages, 3877 KiB  
Article
Adapting Tea Production to Climate Change under Rapid Economic Development in China from 1987 to 2017
by Yuncheng Zhao, Yinlong Xu, Lei Zhang, Mingyue Zhao and Chunyi Wang
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12123192 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), as one of the most important cash crops in China, plays an important role in increasing farmers’ incomes and guaranteeing a high quality of life. Tea production has been greatly influenced by both climate change and economic development [...] Read more.
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), as one of the most important cash crops in China, plays an important role in increasing farmers’ incomes and guaranteeing a high quality of life. Tea production has been greatly influenced by both climate change and economic development in China. However, without a scientific understanding of the interaction mechanism of climate change and the impetus from rapid economic development on tea production practices in China, it is difficult to take adaptive actions to meet the climate change challenges for the tea industry. In this paper, we firstly assessed the potential impacts of climate change on tea climate suitability by empirical formula calculation using meteorological data; then, the effects from the additional climatic stress due to warming on tea production were detected with the annual statistical tea yield record on a municipal level. The contribution of socioeconomic development to the tea industry was evaluated with the comparison of the movement of China’s national economy’s and tea industry’s gravity center during the period of 1987–2017. Finally, a conceptual adaptation framework was built to demonstrate the interaction mechanisms between climate change, tea production, and the economic development. The results showed that there was a negative impact of climate change on tea production in mainland China, with the percentage of high tea climate suitability (>0.9) areas dropping by 45% to 32%, while opportunities of enlarging the tea cultivating area emerged in the north tea production region where the tea climate suitability increased. We found that the tea planting area expanded northwards from 33° N in 1987 to 35° N in 2017 to take advantage of the favorable climatic resources due to warming, and tea planting decreased at an altitude of 100–400 m while increasing to higher altitude of 400–2000 m to avoid hot temperature damage and seek the optimum environment in high mountainous areas for tea production. In addition, the tea production moved westward along the longitude, decreasing obviously at 117–121° E while increasing significantly at 98–104° E and 107–110° E. Meanwhile, the tea production gravity center showed a westward movement consistent with the national economic gravity center moving trend, which means that tea industry development was driven by multiple socioeconomic factors and climatic forcings. A conceptual framework was built in this paper, aiming to show a robust adaptation mechanism for the tea system to maximize the benefits and minimize the damages from the altered climatic resources under rapid economic development in mainland China. The results in this study would help deepen the understanding of the adaptation process and practices for tea production in mainland China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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13 pages, 5761 KiB  
Article
Factors Driving Autumn Quercus Flowering in a Thermo-Mediterranean Area
by Herminia García-Mozo, Rocío López-Orozco, Jose Oteros and Carmen Galán
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112596 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
The flowering period of plants is a critical time since it determines their reproductive success. Flowering is controlled by different factors including genetic regulation and environmental conditions. In the Mediterranean area, favourable conditions usually occur in spring, when most plant species flower including [...] Read more.
The flowering period of plants is a critical time since it determines their reproductive success. Flowering is controlled by different factors including genetic regulation and environmental conditions. In the Mediterranean area, favourable conditions usually occur in spring, when most plant species flower including those of the Mediterranean Quercus genus. This paper reveals and analyses an unusual and lesser-known phenomenon occurring in the two main Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystems of South Europe, the Mediterranean forest and “dehesa”, that is, a second flowering occurring in autumn for the species Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (holm oak). The continuous pollen monitoring of the atmosphere in the city of Cordoba (southern Spain) for 25 years, together with field phenological observations in the area, has indicated that, apart from the main pollination period in spring, secondary flowerings also occasionally occur in this area, specifically in autumn. The present work examines these uncommon pollination events detected in the autumns of certain years with the aim of determining the main environmental factors that influence and control them. During the 25-year study period, there were 7 years in which a secondary Quercus flowering was detected in the area from the second half of October until the end of November. The univariate statistical analysis of the influence of environmental variables determined that the meteorological conditions in September were the most influential. Low mean temperatures, together with record rainfall in that month, led to autumn flowering events. The phenological characteristics of the spring pollen season were also influential. In the years with a shorter spring, the Quercus pollen season tended to present autumn flowerings. A multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model was built to explain the effects of the different variables on the occurrence of autumn pollination. The results indicated that the combined effect of three predicting variables, September rainfall, the length of the spring pollen season, and the end of the spring pollen season, explained 92% of the variance. The validation showed a strong relationship between the expected and the observed autumn pollen concentrations. Therefore, the present analysis of a long-term pollen database revealed that the main causes of this unusual second flowering in autumn were strongly related to climate change, i.e., strong dry summers and warm autumns. In addition, the results showed that the phenomenon was more frequent in the years with low pollination during spring due to different meteorological events potentiated by climate change, such as dryness or heavy rain episodes, as a way of ensuring acorn crops. The results explain how this unusual and lesser-known phenomenon in agroforestry dynamics is related to the adaptation to climate change and the main factors that are driving it, as well as the potential consequences for these important and endangered Mediterranean ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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23 pages, 4052 KiB  
Article
Climate-Smart Tillage Practices with Straw Return to Sustain Crop Productivity
by Zhen Liu, Ning Wang, Jinling Lü, Lan Wang, Geng Li and Tangyuan Ning
Agronomy 2022, 12(10), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102452 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Climate change seriously threatens global crop production. However, there are few reports on field crop yield and yield components based on long-term different climate conditions. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the differences in crop yield and yield components [...] Read more.
Climate change seriously threatens global crop production. However, there are few reports on field crop yield and yield components based on long-term different climate conditions. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the differences in crop yield and yield components in long-term tillage and straw returning under different climate regions. Conventional tillage (CT) and rotary tillage (RT) in combination with no straw return and whole straw return (S) were conducted under a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system in cool-wet and warm-dry regions from 2010 to 2019. We hypothesized that long-term suitable tillage under warm-dry or cool-wet regions can increase the yield and components of wheat and maize, and temperature and precipitation had significant effects on crop yield and yield components. Conventional tillage with straw return (CTS) in the warm-dry region and rotary tillage with straw return (RTS) in the cool-wet region can increase the yield and yield components of wheat and maize, respectively, compared with CT. The yield stability of wheat was higher than that of maize under the two climate conditions. Compared with tillage practices, the effects of experimental sites and straw return on crop yield and yield components were more remarkable. The combination of mean temperature, annual precipitation, and yield components explained 75% and 100% of the variance in the wheat yield and maize yield, respectively. The thousand-kernel weight was the key factor in regulating wheat yield, and kernel number was the key factor in regulating maize yield. In conclusion, the combination of rotary tillage in cool-wet regions or conventional tillage in warm-dry regions with straw return is a good technique for increasing crop security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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19 pages, 2153 KiB  
Article
A Novel Crop Shortlisting Method for Sustainable Agricultural Diversification across Italy
by Eranga M. Wimalasiri, Ebrahim Jahanshiri, Alessia Perego and Sayed N. Azam-Ali
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071636 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Whilst current policies recognize the impacts that changes in climates and markets have imposed on the Italian food system, less attention is given to the development of systematic approaches to identify alternative cropping systems across Italy and the European continent. In this article, [...] Read more.
Whilst current policies recognize the impacts that changes in climates and markets have imposed on the Italian food system, less attention is given to the development of systematic approaches to identify alternative cropping systems across Italy and the European continent. In this article, a novel evidence-based crop shortlisting method was developed to address crop diversification needs for Italy as an example for the whole of Europe. In order to shortlist possible options from a pool of 2700 crops, a crop–climate–soil matching exercise was performed across Italian territory, and crops with more than 70% suitability were chosen for further analysis. In the second phase, a multi-criteria ranking index was employed to assign ranks to chosen crops of four main types: (i) cereals and pseudocereals, (ii) legumes, (iii) starchy roots/tubers, and (iv) vegetables. To provide a comprehensive analysis, all of the abovementioned criteria were compared for both major crops that are grown in the region and potential underutilised crops (UCs). The results of evaluation of four major criteria (namely (a) calorie and nutrition demand, (b) functions and uses, (c) availability and accessibility to their genomic material, (d) possession of adaptive traits, and (e) physiological traits) revealed the potential for teff, faba bean, cowpea, green arrow arum, Jerusalem artichoke, Fig-leaved Gourd, and Watercress. We discuss the implication of utilising such systematic approaches to crop selection and developing transformative solutions for food security with the aim of providing a primer for mainstreaming UCs in policy and investment plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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24 pages, 29835 KiB  
Article
Zero-Tillage Effects on Durum Wheat Productivity and Soil-Related Variables in Future Climate Scenarios: A Modeling Analysis
by Àngela Puig-Sirera, Marco Acutis, Marialaura Bancheri, Antonello Bonfante, Marco Botta, Roberto De Mascellis, Nadia Orefice, Alessia Perego, Mario Russo, Anna Tedeschi, Antonio Troccoli and Angelo Basile
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020331 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Adoption of zero-tillage practices with residue retention in field crops has been introduced as an alternative soil-management technique to counteract the resource degradation and high production costs derived from intensive tillage. In this sense, the biophysical models are valuable tools to evaluate and [...] Read more.
Adoption of zero-tillage practices with residue retention in field crops has been introduced as an alternative soil-management technique to counteract the resource degradation and high production costs derived from intensive tillage. In this sense, the biophysical models are valuable tools to evaluate and design the most suitable soil-management technique in view of future climate variability. The aim of this study was to use the ARMOSA process-based crop model to perform an assessment of tillage (T) and no-tillage (No-T) practices of durum-wheat-cropping systems in the Campania region (South of Italy) under current and future climate scenarios. First, the model was calibrated using measurements of soil water content at different depths, leaf area index, and aboveground biomass in the T and No-T treatments during the 2013–2014 season. Then, the model was further applied in the T and No-T treatments to future climate data for 2020–2100 that was generated by the COSMO-CLM model using the RCP4.5 and 8.5 paths. Results of the calibration depicted that the model can accurately simulate the soil-crop-related variables of both soil-management treatments, and thus can be applied to identify the most appropriate conservation agricultural practices in the durum-wheat system. The simulation of soil water content at different depths resulted in small relative root mean square errors (RRMSE < 15%) and an acceptable Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r > 0.51); and the goodness-of-fit indicators for simulated LAI and AGB resulted in acceptable RRMSE (RRMSE < 28%), and high r (r > 0.84) in both soil-management treatments. Future climate simulations showed that No-T management will deliver 10% more wheat yield than the T, with an annual average 0.31% year−1 increase of soil organic carbon, and an increase of 3.80% year−1 for N uptake, which can diminish the N leaching. These results suggest that No-T could be implemented as a more resilient management for farming system in view of climate uncertainty and scarcity of resources. Therefore, these findings support the potential of the ARMOSA model to evaluate the soil-crop response of the durum-wheat system under different management conditions and to design appropriate soil-management practices for current and future climate predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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24 pages, 6873 KiB  
Article
Adaptation Potential of Current Wheat Cultivars and Planting Dates under the Changing Climate in Ethiopia
by Tsedale Demelash, Martial Amou, Amatus Gyilbag, Goitom Tesfay and Yinlong Xu
Agronomy 2022, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12010037 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3329
Abstract
Global warming poses a severe threat to food security in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the primary driver of low wheat productivity is attributed to climate change. Due to the sparsity of observation data, climate-related impact analysis is poorly understood, and the adaptation strategies [...] Read more.
Global warming poses a severe threat to food security in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the primary driver of low wheat productivity is attributed to climate change. Due to the sparsity of observation data, climate-related impact analysis is poorly understood, and the adaptation strategies studied so far have also been insufficient. This study adopted the most popular DSSAT CERES-Wheat model and the ensemble mean of four GCMs to examine the quantitative effects of adjusted sowing dates and varieties on wheat yield. The two new cultivars (Dandaa and Kakaba), with reference to an old cultivar (Digelu), were considered for the mid-century (2036–2065) and late-century (2066–2095) under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios. The results showed that the Dandaa cultivar demonstrates better adaptation potential at late sowing with a yield increase of about 140 kg/ha to 148 kg/ha for the mid- and late-century under RCP4.5. However, under RCP 8.5, Kakaba demonstrates higher adaptation potential with a yield gain for early sowing of up to 142 kg/ha and 170 kg/ha during the mid- and late-century, respectively. Late sowing of the Dandaa cultivar is recommended if GHG emissions are cut off at least to the average scenario, while the Kakaba cultivar is the best option when the emissions are high. The adaptation measures assessed in this study could help to enhance wheat production and adaptability of wheat to the future climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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Review

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13 pages, 591 KiB  
Review
Bases for the Establishment of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora) as a New Crop for Colombia
by Luis F. Campuzano-Duque, Juan Carlos Herrera, Claire Ged and Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair
Agronomy 2021, 11(12), 2550; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122550 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5868
Abstract
Robusta coffee (C. canephora) covers 36% of world coffee production and has strategic relevance as a beverage that it is produced by thousands of small-scale producers around the world. Although mainly grown in Africa and Asia as opposed to Latin America, [...] Read more.
Robusta coffee (C. canephora) covers 36% of world coffee production and has strategic relevance as a beverage that it is produced by thousands of small-scale producers around the world. Although mainly grown in Africa and Asia as opposed to Latin America, this situation is changing. Colombia is recognized as a producer of high-quality Arabica (C. arabica L.) coffee, however we argue that Robusta represents a great economic opportunity for small scale producers, for the industrialization of new products and for emerging coffee chains. Therefore, the objective of this review is to outline the agronomic value of Robusta coffee as a “new crop” in Colombia. As background we compare the better-known Arabica to the Robusta coffees from a Latin American perspective. Robusta shows differences in geographical distribution, genetics, originating species, physiology and phenology. Robusta and Arabica also differ in their chemistry, sensory attributes, industrial use, segments of market and price. Despite the marked differences between the two coffees, the popularity and consumption of Robusta has been on the increase due to the expansion of markets in emerging economies and in developed markers for home espresso preparation where it is used in high quality coffee blends. Robusta is currently replacing areas of other coffees due to hotter temperatures to which it is adapted. Although Robusta is still new to Colombia, this species has potential adaptation in lowland areas considered “non-traditional” for Colombian coffee cultivation and as a valuable component of agro-ecological production systems. Robusta is a novel crop option for certain regions that is needed for the future of coffee in Latin America and for growth of coffee production and consumption in Colombia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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Other

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13 pages, 3300 KiB  
Concept Paper
Towards Climate Change Preparedness in the MENA’s Agricultural Sector
by Ajit Govind
Agronomy 2022, 12(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020279 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) represents a substantial area of the terrestrial landmass encompassing several countries and ecosystems. This area is generally drier and warmer compared to the rest of the world, and has extreme resource limitations that are highly vulnerable [...] Read more.
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) represents a substantial area of the terrestrial landmass encompassing several countries and ecosystems. This area is generally drier and warmer compared to the rest of the world, and has extreme resource limitations that are highly vulnerable to a changing climate, geopolitical instability and land degradation. This paper will first identify the nature of climate change in the region by analyzing a downscaled climate data and identifying the hotspots of climate change in MENA. It was found that the climate vulnerability is quite high, with the mean annual temperature increasing by as much as 4–6 degrees towards the end of the century. The nature precipitation under climate change is quite speculative, with the Maghreb region showing the highest vulnerability. Based on these results, five action points are postulated that may be implemented to rapidly progress our understanding of climate vulnerability and enhance the climate change preparedness in MENA’s agri-food sector, to take necessary actions to adapt to a changing climate with a systemic resilience perspective. These include working towards: (1) enhancing the sustainability of the rainfed-desert transitional belt (Rangelands) in the MENA; (2) enhancing the sustainability of agri-food systems in the food baskets of MENA and (3) working towards fostering a collective intelligence to support climate change research in the MENA. (4) The need for foresight advice on resilient food systems under climate change and (5) the need for transformative policies for stabilization and reconstruction under climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptations to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems)
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