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Encyclopedia, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The design of ultra-small structures is a topic of major interest in engineering science, due to the recent attention given to smart nanodevices. It is acknowledged that the accurate modeling of nanosystems must take into account scale effects in order to properly capture size-dependent behaviour. In this context, non-local continuum mechanics provides refined tools to effectively model nanostructural responses. Ground-breaking non-local methodologies are illustrated and discussed in this work to solve challenging structural problems, ranging from higher order and curved nanobeams to nanoplates. Non-linear problems at the nanoscale are addressed by exploiting integral elasticity. Non-local methodologies for modeling structural assemblages, as well as nanobeam-nanofoundation interactions, are illustrated, applied and commented upon. View this paper
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7 pages, 346 KiB  
Entry
Tokenization in the Theory of Knowledge
by Robert Friedman
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 380-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010024 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3802
Definition
Tokenization is a procedure for recovering the elements of interest in a sequence of data. This term is commonly used to describe an initial step in the processing of programming languages, and also for the preparation of input data in the case of [...] Read more.
Tokenization is a procedure for recovering the elements of interest in a sequence of data. This term is commonly used to describe an initial step in the processing of programming languages, and also for the preparation of input data in the case of artificial neural networks; however, it is a generalizable concept that applies to reducing a complex form to its basic elements, whether in the context of computer science or in natural processes. In this entry, the general concept of a token and its attributes are defined, along with its role in different contexts, such as deep learning methods. Included here are suggestions for further theoretical and empirical analysis of tokenization, particularly regarding its use in deep learning, as it is a rate-limiting step and a possible bottleneck when the results do not meet expectations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Data Science)
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9 pages, 716 KiB  
Entry
A Methodology for Air Temperature Extrema Characterization Pertinent to Improving the Accuracy of Climatological Analyses
by Ana Žaknić-Ćatović and William A. Gough
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 371-379; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010023 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1165
Definition
The suggested methodology for the characterization of temperature extrema presents a multistep preprocessing procedure intended to derive extrema time series of correctly identified and thermally defined daily air temperature extrema pairs. The underlying conceptual framework for this approach was developed in response to [...] Read more.
The suggested methodology for the characterization of temperature extrema presents a multistep preprocessing procedure intended to derive extrema time series of correctly identified and thermally defined daily air temperature extrema pairs. The underlying conceptual framework for this approach was developed in response to the existing gaps in the current state of daily extrema identification and the development of extrema-based synthetic air temperature time series. A code consisting of a series of algorithms was developed to establish four-parameter criteria for a more accurate representation of daily variability that allows easy replication of temperature distribution based on the correct characterization of daily temperature patterns. The first preprocessing step consists of subjecting the high-frequency temperature time series to a theoretical diurnal observing window that imposes latitudinally and seasonally crafted limits for the individual identification of daily minima and maxima. The following pre-processing step involves the supplementation of air temperature extrema with the information on the occurrence of extrema timing deemed as vital information for the reconstruction of the temperature time series. The subsequent step involves the application of an innovative temperature pattern recognition algorithm that identifies physically homogeneous air temperature populations based on the information obtained in previous steps. The last step involves the use of a metric for the assessment of extrema temperature and timing parameters’ susceptibility to climate change. The application of the presented procedure to high-frequency temperature data yields two strains of physically homogeneous extrema time series with the preserved characteristics of the overall temperature variability. In the present form, individual elements of this methodology are applicable for correcting historical sampling and air temperature averaging biases, improving the reproducibility of daily air temperature variation, and enhancing the performance of temperature index formulae based on daily temperature extrema. The objective of this analysis is the eventual implementation of the presented methodology into the practice of systematic temperature extrema identification and preprocessing of temperature time series for the configuration of physically homogeneous air temperature subpopulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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9 pages, 240 KiB  
Entry
Charter Schools: An Alternative Option in American Schooling
by Tong Tong, Shelby Leigh Smith, Michael Fienberg and Adam Kho
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 362-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010022 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4837
Definition
Charter schools are educational institutions in the United States funded through taxation but operated privately under a charter or contract with a public entity, providing alternative public education options to families. Charter schools are subject to fewer rules and regulations and have greater [...] Read more.
Charter schools are educational institutions in the United States funded through taxation but operated privately under a charter or contract with a public entity, providing alternative public education options to families. Charter schools are subject to fewer rules and regulations and have greater autonomy than traditional public schools over operations, curriculum, and instruction, although have greater stakes in school accountability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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22 pages, 17725 KiB  
Entry
Primary Progenitor Tenocytes: Cytotherapeutics and Cell-Free Derivatives
by Alexis Laurent, Corinne Scaletta, Philippe Abdel-Sayed, Wassim Raffoul, Nathalie Hirt-Burri and Lee Ann Applegate
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 340-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010021 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1629
Definition
Primary progenitor tenocytes are diploid cells that may be cultured in vitro and therapeutically used for allogeneic musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. Firstly, technical aspects of cell banking, biotechnological manufacturing, and extensive preclinical characterization data have confirmed that FE002-Ten primary progenitor tenocytes may be safely [...] Read more.
Primary progenitor tenocytes are diploid cells that may be cultured in vitro and therapeutically used for allogeneic musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. Firstly, technical aspects of cell banking, biotechnological manufacturing, and extensive preclinical characterization data have confirmed that FE002-Ten primary progenitor tenocytes may be safely considered for human cytotherapeutic use (e.g., in tissue engineering products, standardized transplants). Parallelly, lyophilized progenitor tenocyte extracts (e.g., stabilized cells or cell-free derivatives) were shown to optimally act as potent hyaluronan-based hydrogel functionalizing agents, useful for stability enhancement against oxidative product degradation. Therefore, primary progenitor tenocytes (e.g., FE002-Ten cell source) may potentially be used in diverse clinical presentations of tendon-related pathologies, ranging from volumetric tissue replacement (i.e., for the promotion of enhanced graft bio-integration) to local management of tissular inflammation and pain (i.e., ancillary action of the cellular extracts for the functional enhancement of injectable hyaluronan-based preparations). Overall, the primary progenitor tenocytes investigated under the Swiss progenitor cell transplantation program were shown to represent highly standardized biotechnological materials with a versatility of potential therapeutic uses after formulation into an array of cytotherapeutic preparations or cell-free devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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13 pages, 294 KiB  
Entry
Image-Based Sexual Abuse: Online Gender-Sexual Violations
by Matthew Hall, Jeff Hearn and Ruth Lewis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 327-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010020 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6425
Definition
Image-based sexual abuse describes the offline or online non-consensual sharing of real or fake images or videos with (un)known others of a person that are either sexually explicit or sexually suggestive. New information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide many open-ended and undefined possibilities [...] Read more.
Image-based sexual abuse describes the offline or online non-consensual sharing of real or fake images or videos with (un)known others of a person that are either sexually explicit or sexually suggestive. New information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide many open-ended and undefined possibilities for image-based sexual abuse (IBSA), such as ‘revenge pornography’, ‘upskirting’, deepfake pornography, sexual spycamming, and cyberflashing, to name just a few. These forms of abuse refer to the online, and also at times offline, non-consensual distribution or sharing of explicit images or videos of someone else by ex-partners, partners, others, or hackers seeking revenge, entertainment, or peer group status. The vast majority of these are committed by men against women. Given the many adverse impacts on physical and psychological health and well-being it has on its victim-survivors, exploring this form of online gender-sexual abuse and violation becomes an important endeavor. Situating the discussion within debates on gender and sexuality, the entry discusses the increasing use of new technologies for online gender-sexual abuse and violation, highlighting the motivations of those perpetrating IBSA, the negative physical and psychological impacts of IBSA on victim-survivors, and what has been, and could be, done to combat image-based sexual abuses and other misuses of new technologies, notably through legal, policy, and practice interventions within and between nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Sciences)
16 pages, 2568 KiB  
Review
Approaches to the Development of Advanced Alloys Based on Refractory Metals
by Igor Razumovskii, Boris Bokstein and Mikhail Razumovsky
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 311-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010019 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
The most promising directions of the development of heat-resistant alloys (HRAs) based on refractory metals are analyzed. The microstructures characteristic of HRAs, which it is advisable to form in promising alloys, are considered. The stability factors of the microstructure with respect to the [...] Read more.
The most promising directions of the development of heat-resistant alloys (HRAs) based on refractory metals are analyzed. The microstructures characteristic of HRAs, which it is advisable to form in promising alloys, are considered. The stability factors of the microstructure with respect to the diffusion coarsening of the hardening phases are discussed. Two groups of alloys are considered as the most promising HRAs based on refractory metals. First, the principles for design of HRAs based on (Pt, Ir)-Sc with heterophase γ-γ’ microstructure, where γ-matrix is a (Pt, Ir) solid solution with a FCC lattice, and γ’ is a strengthening phase with the structure L12 by analogy with Ni-base superalloys, are developed. The resistance of γ-γ’ microstructure in Ni, Pt and Ir alloys against the process of diffusion-limited coarsening is analyzed. It is shown that the diffusion permeability of Pt is several times less than that of Ni, so one should expect that Pt-based HRAs will not be inferior to Ni-based HRAs in terms of structural stability. The second group includes HRAs based on many not noble refractory metals. It is shown that solid solutions of the system (Ti, Zr, Hf, Ta, Nb) with a BCC lattice can be considered as a matrix of advanced refractory HRAs. The results of experimental studies of alloys based on (Ti, Zr, Hf, Ta, Nb) additionally alloyed with elements contributing to the formation of strengthening intermetallic and silicide phases are discussed. The issues of segregation of alloying elements at the grain boundaries of refractory alloys and the effect of segregation on the cohesive strength of the boundaries are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
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32 pages, 1220 KiB  
Review
Nonlocal Elasticity for Nanostructures: A Review of Recent Achievements
by Raffaele Barretta, Francesco Marotti de Sciarra and Marzia Sara Vaccaro
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 279-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010018 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Recent developments in modeling and analysis of nanostructures are illustrated and discussed in this paper. Starting with the early theories of nonlocal elastic continua, a thorough investigation of continuum nano-mechanics is provided. Two-phase local/nonlocal models are shown as possible theories to recover consistency [...] Read more.
Recent developments in modeling and analysis of nanostructures are illustrated and discussed in this paper. Starting with the early theories of nonlocal elastic continua, a thorough investigation of continuum nano-mechanics is provided. Two-phase local/nonlocal models are shown as possible theories to recover consistency of the strain-driven purely integral theory, provided that the mixture parameter is not vanishing. Ground-breaking nonlocal methodologies based on the well-posed stress-driven formulation are shown and commented upon as effective strategies to capture scale-dependent mechanical behaviors. Static and dynamic problems of nanostructures are investigated, ranging from higher-order and curved nanobeams to nanoplates. Geometrically nonlinear problems of small-scale inflected structures undergoing large configuration changes are addressed in the framework of integral elasticity. Nonlocal methodologies for modeling and analysis of structural assemblages as well as of nanobeams laying on nanofoundations are illustrated along with benchmark applicative examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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12 pages, 290 KiB  
Entry
Telemental Health and Diverse Populations amid COVID-19
by Jiadong Yu and D. A. Bekerian
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 267-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010017 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4144
Definition
Telemental health is defined as the delivery of psychological and mental health services via telecommunication technologies, including telephone-delivered therapy, videoconferencing, and internet-delivered programs. Research indicates that telemental health services are as effective as in-person services, and a dramatic increase in the use of [...] Read more.
Telemental health is defined as the delivery of psychological and mental health services via telecommunication technologies, including telephone-delivered therapy, videoconferencing, and internet-delivered programs. Research indicates that telemental health services are as effective as in-person services, and a dramatic increase in the use of telemental health has been observed during COVID-19. However, there are still persistent challenges and concerns about mental health providers’ competencies, clients’ data privacy, and legal and regulatory issues during this pandemic. Additionally, disparities in the use of telemental health services with diverse populations, based on factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, language, and culture, have been identified during this pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
22 pages, 3205 KiB  
Entry
Tracking Eye Movements as a Window on Language Processing: The Visual World Paradigm
by Marta Tagliani and Michela Redolfi
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 245-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010016 - 25 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3801
Definition
This entry overviews the pioneering experimental studies exploiting eye movement data to investigate language processing in real time. After examining how vision and language were found to be closely related, herein focus the discussion on the evolution of eye-tracking methodologies to investigate children’s [...] Read more.
This entry overviews the pioneering experimental studies exploiting eye movement data to investigate language processing in real time. After examining how vision and language were found to be closely related, herein focus the discussion on the evolution of eye-tracking methodologies to investigate children’s language development. To conclude, herein provide some insights about the use of eye-tracking technology for research purposes, focusing on data collection and data analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
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21 pages, 3372 KiB  
Review
The Production of Isophorone
by Timm Ruther, Marc-André Müller, Werner Bonrath and Matthias Eisenacher
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 224-244; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010015 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5754
Abstract
Isophorone is a technically important compound used as a high-boiling-point solvent for coatings, adhesives, etc., and it is used as a starting material for various valuable compounds, including isophorone diisocyanate, a precursor for polyurethanes. For over 80 years, isophorone has been synthesized via [...] Read more.
Isophorone is a technically important compound used as a high-boiling-point solvent for coatings, adhesives, etc., and it is used as a starting material for various valuable compounds, including isophorone diisocyanate, a precursor for polyurethanes. For over 80 years, isophorone has been synthesized via base-catalyzed self-condensation of acetone. This reaction has a complex reaction mechanism with numerous possible reaction steps including the formation of isophorone, triacetone dialcohol, and ketonic resins. This review provides an overview of the different production processes of isophorone in liquid- and vapor-phase and reviews the literature-reported selectivity toward isophorone achieved using different reaction parameters and catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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22 pages, 4915 KiB  
Entry
From Bioinspiration to Biomimicry in Architecture: Opportunities and Challenges
by Natasha Chayaamor-Heil
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 202-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010014 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 8779
Definition
The term “bioinspiration” defines a creative approach based on the observation of biological principles and transfer to design. Biomimicry is the recent approach, which describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with an interdisciplinary cooperation between biology and other fields [...] Read more.
The term “bioinspiration” defines a creative approach based on the observation of biological principles and transfer to design. Biomimicry is the recent approach, which describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with an interdisciplinary cooperation between biology and other fields with the goal of solving practical problems addressing innovation or sustainable development. Architecture has been influenced by many aspects of natural and social sciences, among these, biology is currently blending into design activities. Bioinspiration has evolved and shifted architectural practices towards numerous innovative approaches through different bioarchitectural movements from the past until the present. However, there is a blur of biomimicry within bioinspiration in architecture between the direct copy of mere natural forms and the true understanding of biological principles, which is the pivot of sustainable development. The main challenge remains in the gap between the profound knowledge of biology, its related scientific fields and the creative process of architectural design, including cross-disciplinary collaboration between architects and biologists. This entry presents main bioarchitectural movements and how it leads to today’s biomimicry. It proposes to define biomimicry methodologies and how this approach applies to architectural design contexts through the study of existing case studies. The opportunities, challenges and the future outlook of the field will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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20 pages, 7114 KiB  
Review
Tautomerism of β-Diketones and β-Thioxoketones
by Poul Erik Hansen
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 182-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010013 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
The present overview concentrates on recent developments of tautomerism of β-diketones and β-thioxoketones, both in solution and in the solid state. In particular, the latter has been a matter of debate and unresolved problems. Measurements of 13C, 17O, and 2H [...] Read more.
The present overview concentrates on recent developments of tautomerism of β-diketones and β-thioxoketones, both in solution and in the solid state. In particular, the latter has been a matter of debate and unresolved problems. Measurements of 13C, 17O, and 2H chemical shifts have been used. Deuterium isotope effects on chemical shifts are proposed as a tool in the study of this problem. Photoconversion of β-diketones and β-thioxoketones are discussed in detail, and the incorporation of β-diketones into molecules with fluorescent properties is assessed. Finally, docking studies of β-diketones are scrutinized with an emphasis on correct tautomeric structures and knowledge about barriers to interconversion of tautomers. Full article
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14 pages, 2166 KiB  
Entry
Reducing CO2 in Passivhaus-Adapted Affordable Tropical Homes
by Karl Wagner
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 168-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010012 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2229
Definition
On average, houses including those in the tropics are responsible for almost 39% of the global carbon emission caused by non-renewables, first and foremost by fuel. Looking at the worldwide map of residential buildings’ contribution compared with commercial, the worldwide national maximum of [...] Read more.
On average, houses including those in the tropics are responsible for almost 39% of the global carbon emission caused by non-renewables, first and foremost by fuel. Looking at the worldwide map of residential buildings’ contribution compared with commercial, the worldwide national maximum of 33.5% CO2 of housing is caused by residential buildings in Uzbekistan. In an overwhelming number of most countries, their values are significantly lower, due to comparably lower energy demand than commercial buildings and because affordable homes increasingly use small PV to cater for their own basic needs. However, with the rising temperature and a likewise growing imperative to cool homes from about 30 °C onwards basically by split-unit air conditioners, the residential houses’ portion of CO2-emission might dramatically increase to survive such more common hot periods in the future. In combination with air conditioners needing some airtightness, the first purpose of this entry is to show that bv 2050 in tropical regions, there will be no alternative to relatively airtight houses if the temperatures rise at the present speed. This is one alternative to an uncontrollable and life-threatening migration of millions of people to cooler but still livable regions in 2050. To trigger necessary changes toward homes that can better avert the heat, using the method of qualitative comparative content analysis, passive houses (PH) have emerged as adaptations to the tropical climate. Therefore, the second purpose of this in-depth study with the perspective of social science, is to reveal a comparative closer qualitative look at the tropicalized PH-approach. It is probably the most civilized building energy-saving strategy on the planet and can systematically keep the threatening increasing heat outside. However, before utilizing the concept, herein need to investigate why PH-technology as a whole concept with all its modules discussed earlier has been very slow to “go South” into the tropical region (the original PH will be referred to as “PH1”). The reason is that some qualitative differences of the more affordable and more simplistic tropicalized “PH2” make it easier and more realistic to penetrate the market, without letting go meaningful R&D-insights of PH1. As a probably facilitating future solution, the result is the triple-tabled option to utilise more synergies between the usually closed PH1 and the more open and flexibly naturally ventilated PH2. Unlike the PH-platform, ZEMCH is a related concept which tries to cater specifically to the significantly growing market for lower-income homes to go for carbonless energy. The conclusion is that scaling for residential buildings as mass products using passive house technology in combination with ZEMCH could turn out to become an important topic. It comprises the question in how far low or no carbon affordable homes based on the PH-concept in combination with ZEMCH-applications also may come into play as standard and to help mother Earth’s struggle for survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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25 pages, 1454 KiB  
Entry
Mozambique: Country Profile
by Edgar Cambaza
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 143-167; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010011 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 9290
Definition
Mozambique is a Southern African tropical country; it forms a 4330 km coastline on the Indian Ocean side. It is one of the continent’s five former Portuguese colonies, with the economy relying mainly on agriculture and mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
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21 pages, 6223 KiB  
Entry
Challenges in Sewer System Maintenance
by Dino Obradović, Marija Šperac and Saša Marenjak
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 122-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010010 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5951
Definition
A sewer system is an important infrastructure of every settlement. A sewer system is a set of construction facilities used for the quick removal of wastewater from the humans’ immediate environment and its transport to a wastewater treatment plant or direct discharge into [...] Read more.
A sewer system is an important infrastructure of every settlement. A sewer system is a set of construction facilities used for the quick removal of wastewater from the humans’ immediate environment and its transport to a wastewater treatment plant or direct discharge into an appropriate recipient. In order for the sewer system to perform its purpose properly, its proper maintenance is required. Maintenance of a sewer system is very demanding since the system is mostly underground which makes it difficult to be accessed and maintained. The maintenance of a sewer system can be preventive (regular) or corrective (reactive). The regular maintenance occurs at certain intervals, whereas the reactive maintenance occurs in the case of some unforeseen event. This paper presents the history of sewer systems, as well as basic and alternative types of sewer systems. Furthermore, challenges that arise during sewer system maintenance and difficulties that maintenance employees face in their work are presented in this paper, as well as the ways in which sewer systems are maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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15 pages, 1192 KiB  
Entry
The Impact of AI Technologies on E-Business
by Maria Jimenez Castillo and Hamed Taherdoost
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 107-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010009 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 11139
Definition
The outbreak of COVID-19 has entirely changed how consumers behave, due to an over-reliance on online shopping. With the global pandemic demanding people to stay home, multiple companies had to find innovative strategies to remain competitive and adapt to these rapid changes. However, [...] Read more.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has entirely changed how consumers behave, due to an over-reliance on online shopping. With the global pandemic demanding people to stay home, multiple companies had to find innovative strategies to remain competitive and adapt to these rapid changes. However, the pandemic has also propelled the development of technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI). AI concerns the engineering of machines and programs to make them intelligent, make decisions on their own or provide humans with information that will aid them in the decision-making process. Artificial intelligence software can be programmed according to an organization’s needs and performance goals. Although AI offers e-businesses multiple advantages, in order to differentiate themselves from their competitors, it is still a relatively new technology. A lack of understanding of its implementation will hinder organizations from reaping the full benefits of this technology. Moreover, multiple disputes regarding AI’s ethicality and privacy concerns have led to further research focused on making these systems more reliable and ethical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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5 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Encyclopedia in 2022
by Encyclopedia Editorial Office
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 102-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010008 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
14 pages, 342 KiB  
Entry
Traumatic Optic Neuropathy: Update on Management
by Mohammad Reza Hosseini Siyanaki, Mohammed A. Azab and Brandon Lucke-Wold
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 88-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010007 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6116
Definition
Traumatic optic neuropathy is one of the causes of visual loss caused by blunt or penetrating head trauma and is classified as both direct and indirect. Clinical history and examination findings usually allow for the diagnosis of traumatic optic neuropathy. There is still [...] Read more.
Traumatic optic neuropathy is one of the causes of visual loss caused by blunt or penetrating head trauma and is classified as both direct and indirect. Clinical history and examination findings usually allow for the diagnosis of traumatic optic neuropathy. There is still controversy surrounding the management of traumatic optic neuropathy; some physicians advocate observation alone, while others recommend steroid therapy, surgery, or both. In this entry, we tried to highlight traumatic optic neuropathy’s main pathophysiologic mechanisms with the most available updated treatment. Recent research suggests future therapies that may be helpful in traumatic optic neuropathy cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
11 pages, 1181 KiB  
Entry
Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Methods and Concepts
by Hamed Taherdoost and Mitra Madanchian
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 77-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010006 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 142 | Viewed by 65416
Definition
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) is one of the main decision-making problems which aims to determine the best alternative by considering more than one criterion in the selection process. MCDM has manifold tools and methods that can be applied in different fields from finance to [...] Read more.
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) is one of the main decision-making problems which aims to determine the best alternative by considering more than one criterion in the selection process. MCDM has manifold tools and methods that can be applied in different fields from finance to engineering design. This entry aims to provide a survey on the MCDM concept, its applications, main categories, and different methods. The final section provides manifold information and statistics on the published works in the MCDM fields. Some of the main methods are also listed in this section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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17 pages, 836 KiB  
Review
Consciousness: A Strategy for Behavioral Decisions
by Bjørn Grinde
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 60-76; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010005 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
Most multicellular animals have a nervous system that is based on the following three components: (1) sensory cells gather information and send it to processing units; (2) the processing units use the information to decide what action to take; and (3) effector neurons [...] Read more.
Most multicellular animals have a nervous system that is based on the following three components: (1) sensory cells gather information and send it to processing units; (2) the processing units use the information to decide what action to take; and (3) effector neurons activate the appropriate muscles. Due to the importance of making the right decisions, evolution made profound advances in processing units. I review present knowledge regarding the evolution of neurological tools for making decisions, here referred to as strategies or algorithms. Consciousness can be understood as a particularly sophisticated strategy. It may have evolved to allow for the use of feelings as a ‘common currency’ to evaluate behavioral options. The advanced cognitive capacity of species such as humans further improved the usefulness of consciousness, yet in biological terms, it does not seem to be an optimal, fitness-enhancing strategy. A model for the gradual evolution of consciousness is presented. There is a somewhat arbitrary cutoff as to which animals have consciousness, but based on current information, it seems reasonable to restrict the term to amniotes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Sciences)
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14 pages, 326 KiB  
Entry
Doctoral Supervision: A Best Practice Review
by Martyn Polkinghorne, Julia Taylor, Fiona Knight and Natalie Stewart
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 46-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010004 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8722
Definition
A “doctoral student” is the term for a student undertaking the highest level of university degree (a doctorate). “Supervisor” is the term for the academic, or academics, who act as their guide. Unlike taught classroom-based degree courses, doctoral degrees in the UK are [...] Read more.
A “doctoral student” is the term for a student undertaking the highest level of university degree (a doctorate). “Supervisor” is the term for the academic, or academics, who act as their guide. Unlike taught classroom-based degree courses, doctoral degrees in the UK are normally only, or mainly, focused upon a single intensive research study into a specific topic. Such degree courses facilitate the development of students into highly specialist autonomous researchers capable of independent thought. Typically, a blend of support is provided to each doctoral student which consists of an elective development program of research methods learning opportunities alongside dedicated supervisor support from one or more academic members of staff called “supervisors”. It is the expectation that each supervisor will act as a guide and mentor for the doctoral student, thereby enabling them to successfully complete their program of research. This entry relates primarily to the UK model of supervising a doctoral student. Doctoral programs in other countries may differ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
18 pages, 570 KiB  
Entry
Impacts of Prefabrication in the Building Construction Industry
by Patrícia Fernandes Rocha, Nuno Oliveira Ferreira, Fernando Pimenta and Nelson Bento Pereira
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 28-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010003 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 10939
Definition
Interest in sustainable construction has been increasing due to recent events. The limitations of natural resources and the scale of global impacts, specifically as a result of the effects of global climate change, have consequences for the construction sector. These changes are giving [...] Read more.
Interest in sustainable construction has been increasing due to recent events. The limitations of natural resources and the scale of global impacts, specifically as a result of the effects of global climate change, have consequences for the construction sector. These changes are giving rise to a need to reassess the way we face the built environment and rethink new solutions for construction systems or methods that contribute to mitigating negative consequences, among which we highlight the prefabrication method. This new scenario, characterised by the need to meet the decarbonisation goals set for 2050, as well as the effects of the spread of the pandemic crisis, emphasizes the importance of understanding the impacts that may occur in the construction industry, which are essentially understood as increases in sustainability, productivity, quality and, consequently, as reductions in deadlines, costs, and dependence on labour. Therefore, this entry seeks to study on the existing literature on prefabrication, seeking to gather relevant information on the new advances, challenges, and opportunities of this construction method whose approach has been mostly focused on partial or specific aspects for case studies, both highlighting the potential and identifying the gaps and opportunities of prefabrication in this new context. The prefabrication method brings benefits compared to the conventional method, and may be an alternative, as it has more positive global impacts on the environment, the economy, and society, and consequently on the sustainable development of construction, despite some limitations that have been reported and that should be looked into in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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13 pages, 311 KiB  
Review
Effects of in Utero SARS-CoV-2 Exposure on Newborn Health Outcomes
by Margaret H. Kyle and Dani Dumitriu
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 15-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010002 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 600 million people worldwide, including millions of pregnant women. While newborns exposed to other viruses in utero are sometimes at high risk for vertical transmission, a substantial body of literature since early [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 600 million people worldwide, including millions of pregnant women. While newborns exposed to other viruses in utero are sometimes at high risk for vertical transmission, a substantial body of literature since early 2020 has demonstrated that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected mother to neonate is rare, and that newborns who do become infected with SARS-CoV-2 generally have favorable outcomes. In this review, the authors evaluate the existing literature on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential mechanisms and discuss short- and long-term health outcomes in newborns who were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero. The authors conclude that vertical transmission and adverse neonatal and infant/child outcomes are unlikely, but that neonates exposed to prenatal maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection may be at slightly higher risk for preterm birth, possibly related to increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease in pregnant women, placental changes, or infection timing. Ultimately, the need for additional and longer-term follow-up data in this population is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
14 pages, 254 KiB  
Entry
Local Government Emergency Management
by Christopher L. Atkinson
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010001 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5666
Definition
According to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), emergency management is “charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to threats/hazards and cope with disasters” (FEMA, n.d.). Local government emergency management involves the efforts of municipalities, cities, counties, and special [...] Read more.
According to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), emergency management is “charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to threats/hazards and cope with disasters” (FEMA, n.d.). Local government emergency management involves the efforts of municipalities, cities, counties, and special government entities in responding to threats/hazards and coping with emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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