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Parasitologia, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 10 articles

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10 pages, 3542 KiB  
Article
A Mortality Event Involving Endangered Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Associated with Gyrodactylus conei n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) Effectively Treated with Parasite-S (Formalin)
by Eric Leis, Jennifer Bailey, Ryan Katona, Isaac Standish, Sara Dziki, Rebekah McCann, Justin Perkins, Nathan Eckert and Wes Baumgartner
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 205-214; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020021 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
In January 2020, a mortality event was documented in endangered Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) at the Neosho National Fish Hatchery (Neosho, MO, USA). Moribund fish appeared emaciated, with hemorrhages on the fins and rostrums. Mortality steadily increased, prompting an investigation into [...] Read more.
In January 2020, a mortality event was documented in endangered Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) at the Neosho National Fish Hatchery (Neosho, MO, USA). Moribund fish appeared emaciated, with hemorrhages on the fins and rostrums. Mortality steadily increased, prompting an investigation into the cause. No viral or bacterial pathogens were detected; however, a high number of the novel Gyrodactylus sp. was identified on the fins and body surface of the affected fish. Treatment of the parasites with a formalin product was effective, and mortality decreased. Herein, we describe the novel species Gyrodactylus conei using a combination of morphological and molecular data. Due to the listing of the host as an endangered species, the concept of parasite conservation is also discussed. Full article
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11 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Stability of the Biological Activity of Voriconazole against Acanthamoeba castellanii
by Barbara Czerniak Rodrigues, Maria Luiza Carneiro Büchele, Carolina de Jesus de Camargo, Fabíola Branco Filippin-Monteiro and Karin Silva Caumo
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 194-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020020 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare cornea disease caused by species of the Acanthamoeba genus. The antifungal voriconazole blocks the ergosterol synthesis in the protozoan membrane and is active against the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba spp. Due to the low stability of [...] Read more.
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare cornea disease caused by species of the Acanthamoeba genus. The antifungal voriconazole blocks the ergosterol synthesis in the protozoan membrane and is active against the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba spp. Due to the low stability of voriconazole, its options for eye drops are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the stability of the biological activity of voriconazole against two strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii and one clinical isolate from a patient with AK. To evaluate the stability of the biological activity of voriconazole, strains of A. castellanii (ATCC 50492) were exposed to different periods and voriconazole concentrations stored at 4 °C for 7, 15, and 30 days. The cytotoxicity assays were performed using SIRC (ATCC CCL-60™) cell line. The results indicated the amoebicidal effect of voriconazole against Acanthamoeba spp. within 24 h and 48 h of exposure, and the voriconazole solution was stable and retained antiamoebic activity when stored at 4 °C for up to 30 days. In the cytotoxicity test, the result demonstrated low cytotoxicity of the drug to the corneal rabbit cell line. However, there is a need to carry out further synergistic effects with other antiamoebic drugs and then in vivo experiments in the AK animal model. Full article
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13 pages, 6071 KiB  
Article
Molecular Detection of Cryptosporidium Species in Wildlife and Humans at the Wildlife-Human Interface around Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda
by Claire Mack Mugasa, Bernadette Basuta Mirembe, Sylvester Ochwo, Joseph Nkamwesiga, Christian Ndekezi, Tobias Tusabe, Abubakar Musoba and Clovice Kankya
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 181-193; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020019 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
To date, information on Cryptosporidium spp. infection status among people and wild animals living at the wildlife-human interface such as Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) is scarce. The aim of this study is to document the molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild [...] Read more.
To date, information on Cryptosporidium spp. infection status among people and wild animals living at the wildlife-human interface such as Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) is scarce. The aim of this study is to document the molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild animals, and people, around QENP in the Kasese District. A total of 308 patients from four health centres and 252 wildlife animals from six species across 13 sampling areas were analysed microscopically and with PCR for Cryptosporidium spp. detection. The parasitological and molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans was 40% and 53%, respectively; Kasenyi Health Centre recorded the highest percentage of positive stool samples for both tests. Wildlife species had an overall molecular percentage positivity of 30.16%; however, considering individual animal species that were sampled, the Waterbucks had the highest positivity rate, that is, 54.54%. All the samples were confirmed as genus Cryptosporidium with less species discrimination as our PCR target was a short fragment. There is a need to investigate the risk factors that predispose to high Cryptosporidium infection in the study area, especially in Kasenyi. In-depth investigation of the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. circulating at the human, livestock, and wildlife interface is imperative in devising disease management strategies. Full article
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9 pages, 764 KiB  
Communication
The Richness of Sarcocystis Species in the Common Gull (Larus canus) and Black-Headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) from Lithuania
by Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu and Petras Prakas
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 172-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020018 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
The common gull (Larus canus) and the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) are common waterbird species in Lithuania. Until now, the composition of Sarcocystis species in these birds was unknown. The current study aimed to identify Sarcocystis spp. by the [...] Read more.
The common gull (Larus canus) and the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) are common waterbird species in Lithuania. Until now, the composition of Sarcocystis species in these birds was unknown. The current study aimed to identify Sarcocystis spp. by the morphological examination of sarcocysts found in the muscle tissues and by DNA sequence analysis. Between 2011 and 2019, the leg muscles of 42 common gulls and 63 black-headed gulls were tested for Sarcocystis spp. Based on the methylene blue staining of squashed muscle samples, sarcocysts were detected in six common gulls (14.3%) and in six black-headed gulls (9.5%). Under a light microscope, one type of microcyst was observed. Sarcocysts were thread-like (2860–8250 × 40–180 μm) and had a smooth and thin (0.8–1.4 μm) cyst wall, while bradyzoites were banana-shaped and 5.0–9.2 × 1.3–2.4 μm in size. The sequencing of complete ITS1 showed the presence of S. columbae, S. halieti and S. wobeseri in the common gull and S. columbae and S. halieti in the black-headed gull. The highest intraspecific genetic variability was established for S. halieti, which is characterized by a wide host range. This species is considered to be pathogenic, therefore further histopathological examination of the various organs of gulls is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcocystis in Domestic and Wildlife Animals)
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12 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
Empirical Anthelmintic Therapy for Patients with Eosinophilia in Nepal: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Karawan Badarni, Prithuja Poudyal, Sudeep Shrestha, Surendra Kumar Madhup, Mohje Azzam, Ami Neuberger, Niv Zmora, Yael Paran, Yuri Gorelik and Eli Schwartz
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 160-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020017 - 22 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Eosinophilia is common in low-resource countries and usually implies helminthiasis. Since helminthiasis is a common cause of eosinophilia and its diagnosis is cumbersome, we hypothesized that broad-spectrum anthelmintic therapy may decrease the eosinophil count and eventually cure helminthiasis, whether microbiologic diagnosis is established [...] Read more.
Eosinophilia is common in low-resource countries and usually implies helminthiasis. Since helminthiasis is a common cause of eosinophilia and its diagnosis is cumbersome, we hypothesized that broad-spectrum anthelmintic therapy may decrease the eosinophil count and eventually cure helminthiasis, whether microbiologic diagnosis is established or not. We recruited patients with eosinophilia aged 5 years and older who presented to Dhulikhel hospital, Nepal. Patients were treated with albendazole and ivermectin. A stool sample for microscopy was obtained. Of a total of 113 patients, 106 had a follow-up visit and 56 were classified as responders to treatment (defined as a decrease in eosinophil count to below 500 cells/µL, or an absolute decrease of more than 1000 cells/µL). For all patients, we found an absolute decrease in the eosinophil count and for the responding group (more than 50% of the whole cohort), the eosinophil count decreased substantially. All stool samples were negative. The reason for a lack of response in the remaining patients is unclear. In order to ascertain whether eosinophilia should be an indication for anthelmintic treatment, a randomized controlled study of empirical treatment after a thorough microbiologic workup is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Change and Parasites)
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9 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia duodenalis in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Algerian Sahara
by Sadiya Maxamhud, Nassiba Reghaissia, AbdElkarim Laatamna, Houssem Samari, Nacira Remdani, Eleni Gentekaki and Anastasios D. Tsaousis
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 151-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020016 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
(1) Intestinal microbial parasites are major contributors to the global burden of gastrointestinal disease. Such infections are mainly caused by Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites are transmitted either directly or indirectly through oral–fecal routes. Previous reports suggested [...] Read more.
(1) Intestinal microbial parasites are major contributors to the global burden of gastrointestinal disease. Such infections are mainly caused by Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites are transmitted either directly or indirectly through oral–fecal routes. Previous reports suggested that camels could play a role in the zoonotic transmission of various clinically and veterinary important intestinal parasites, however, limited data are available on intestinal infections of camels, particularly on a molecular level. We aimed to explore the occurrence of these three parasites in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. (2) A total of 68 samples—63 stool samples from camels and five from the environment—were collected from two desert regions in Algeria and analyzed using PCR and qPCR methods. (3) Overall, 7% of the camels tested positive for zoonotic subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., while 16% of the camels tested positive for G. duodenalis. Two environmental samples also tested positive for G. duodenalis. None of the samples were positive for Entamoeba histolytica. (4) Our results provide one of the first molecular-based identification of these gut parasites in dromedary camels in Algeria. The presence of G. duodenalis in the host and the environment unveils, in part, the circulation route of this parasite. Our results will spearhead further investigations into the prevalence and epidemiology of gut parasites in hoofed animals and raise questions concerning their role in health and disease in the area. Full article
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9 pages, 941 KiB  
Article
Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis in Hemodialysis Patients in Senegal
by Mame Cheikh Seck, Moustapha Mbow, Sidy Mohamed Seck, Yacine Ameth Dia, Ibrahima Diallo, Marouba Cisse, Moctar Gningue, Victoria Daou, Baratou Coundoul, Yaya Kane, Mouhamadou Moustapha Cisse, Adama Kama, Khadim Diongue, Papa Aly Thiam Gueye, Cheikh Faye, Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Alioune Dièye, Souleymane Mboup and Daouda Ndiayeadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 142-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020015 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients results in either reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis or acute infection. In the framework of the kidney transplantation program in Senegal, the serological screening of potential pre-transplant and transplanted patients can prevent the disease. This study aimed to assess the [...] Read more.
Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients results in either reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis or acute infection. In the framework of the kidney transplantation program in Senegal, the serological screening of potential pre-transplant and transplanted patients can prevent the disease. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a cohort of hemodialysis patients, candidates for kidney transplantation. To this end, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 in six dialysis units from five regions. Blood samples and sociodemographic data were collected from each patient. IgG and IgM against T. gondii antibodies were assessed by a chemiluminescent method using Architect ci4100, and statistical analysis was performed using R software. Overall, 211 hemodialysis patients aged from 18 to 77 years were enrolled. The mean age was 42.62 years ± 13.6, and the sex ratio M/F was 1.24. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 41.7%, with the highest value being recorded in the region of Kaolack (44.4%). Patients aged over 60 years were more typically infected, at a proportion of 56.0%. Regarding sex, males elicited a higher prevalence (44.4.%) than females did. Patients of an upper socioeconomic status were less affected, and contact with cats was not associated with toxoplasmosis. By education level, the illiterate group was most affected one. Overall, this first study of toxoplasmosis among Senegalese hemodialysis patients indicates high seroprevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Host–Parasite Interactions)
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26 pages, 3309 KiB  
Review
Metazoan Marine Parasites of Costa Rica: A Review
by Alberto Solano-Barquero, Alicia Rojas and Jorge Cortés
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 116-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020014 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4545 | Correction
Abstract
Many new marine parasite species are added every year. Still, in some places, mainly tropical regions, marine parasites have been little studied. An exhaustive review of the indexed publications where species of parasites are reported in the marine environments of Costa Rica was [...] Read more.
Many new marine parasite species are added every year. Still, in some places, mainly tropical regions, marine parasites have been little studied. An exhaustive review of the indexed publications where species of parasites are reported in the marine environments of Costa Rica was carried out. The history of research on marine parasites in this region is also reviewed. A total of 146 species of marine parasites have been reported in Costa Rica as parasites of 61 different species of hosts. Most of these parasites correspond to trematodes and cestodes, found mainly in the digestive tract of their vertebrate hosts. In Costa Rica, marine parasites have been studied mainly in sea turtles, elasmobranchs, fish, and dolphins. Most marine parasites have been reported based on morphological identifications of adult stages, and most of the work done so far consists of taxonomic identifications (species reports), with little contribution to the pathology and other aspects of the parasites–hosts interactions. The technical difficulties for research in marine parasitology, the lack of sampling in certain groups of hosts, and the lack of a consolidated research group in marine wildlife parasitology in Costa Rica are factors that have prevented a greater and faster advance in the knowledge of the biodiversity of marine parasites in this country. Full article
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7 pages, 268 KiB  
Communication
Analysis of the Perception of Brazilian Medical Students about Chagas Disease
by Everton Rodrigues Clovis, Daniel Cesaretto Cristal, Giulia Montanari, João Pedro Graceti Machado, Yago Visinho dos Reis, Dayse da Silva Rocha and Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 109-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020013 - 1 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Considering that health professionals at Brazil had doubts about the entomoepidemiological issues of Chagas disease (CD), and that many of them highlighted not feeling totally safe for clinical care, the knowledge of 281 Brazilian medical students was evaluated through a cross-sectional, descriptive, prospective, [...] Read more.
Considering that health professionals at Brazil had doubts about the entomoepidemiological issues of Chagas disease (CD), and that many of them highlighted not feeling totally safe for clinical care, the knowledge of 281 Brazilian medical students was evaluated through a cross-sectional, descriptive, prospective, and quantitative research. Most students demonstrated that they knew about the etiological agent of CD (Trypanosoma cruzi), since 279 students answered the questionnaire correctly. Furthermore, the medical students demonstrated knowledge of the main form of transmission of the parasite, as 278 students associated CD transmission with triatomines. On the other hand, approximately 25 students did not associate CD transmission with triatomine feces. Besides that, these future health professionals had difficulties in relation to the treatment of CD, as more than half of the students (176) wrongly answered that CD “is not curable” or “is curable in the chronic phase”. Based on the results obtained that point out the difficulties medical students have with CD, there is a need for undergraduate medical courses to address the neglected diseases holistically because the National Curriculum Guidelines for the medical course require the training of competent health professionals capable of integrating the biological, psychological, social, and environmental dimensions. Full article
8 pages, 1466 KiB  
Communication
Assessment of an In Vitro Tick Feeding System for the Successful Feeding of Adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Ticks
by Btissam Asri, Djamel Tahir, Alec Evans, Leon Nicolaas Meyer, Abdelkbir Rhalem, Mohammed Bouslikhane, Massaro Ueti and Maxime Madder
Parasitologia 2023, 3(2), 101-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/parasitologia3020012 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
This study assessed the efficiency of a new in vitro tick feeding system for the adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick and compared the impact of different blood anticoagulating factors on their feeding process. A total of 10 feeders were each seeded with 30 or [...] Read more.
This study assessed the efficiency of a new in vitro tick feeding system for the adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick and compared the impact of different blood anticoagulating factors on their feeding process. A total of 10 feeders were each seeded with 30 or 60 R. appendiculatus adults. Bovine blood was added into each unit and changed every 12 h for 4 to 10 days during which tick attachment and engorgement was assessed. The tick attachment observed 4 days after feeding was 80.0% (48/60), 75.8% (182/240), and 70.8% (170/240) for lithium heparin, citrate phosphate dextrose, and defibrinated blood, respectively, with no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the anticoagulants used. However, the ticks fed on heparinized and defibrinated blood reached repletion status. The in vitro tick feeding system was successfully used to feed adult R. appendiculatus ticks until repletion. This system could be used to facilitate studies on tick-pathogen interactions, such as those involved in the East Coast fever disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Host–Parasite Interactions)
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