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Eng. Proc., 2022, SFU/ICAFT 2022

The 28th Saxon Conference on Forming Technology SFU and the 7th International Conference on Accuracy in Forming Technology ICAFT

Chemnitz, Germany | 2–3 November 2022 

Volume Editors: Martin Dix and Verena Kräusel

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The double conference consisting of the 28th Saxon Conference on Forming Technology SFU and the 7th International Conference on Accuracy in Forming Technology ICAFT deals with the latest developments [...] Read more.
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Proceeding Paper
Design of a Combined Tool for Sheet Tailoring during Press Hardening
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026001 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Press hardening is used to produce complex parts by hardening them in a die. This results in martensitic structures with high strength values but low ductility. However, for real components, the combination of places with high strength or high ductility is required. One [...] Read more.
Press hardening is used to produce complex parts by hardening them in a die. This results in martensitic structures with high strength values but low ductility. However, for real components, the combination of places with high strength or high ductility is required. One possibility is using a combined tool (i.e., tailoring methods) instead of joining parts by welding or gluing. Therefore, this work was focused on the construction and design of a partly heated and partly cooled tool for press hardening. This makes it possible to process high-strength steels and achieve different mechanical properties at different points in the stamping. To achieve intensive cooling, part of the tool was made by 3D printing, making it possible to create effective cooling channels in the functional part of the tool. The second part of the tool was heated by heating cartridges. FEM in DEFORM software was used to lay out the heating cartridges and cooling channels. The tool was successfully installed on a hydraulic press, including the first tests to achieve omega profiles with different mechanical properties. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Forging of Zinc Alloys—A Feasibility Study
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026002 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Brass is a material that can be used for a wide range of products, e.g., door fittings and handles, products from the electrical sector, installation technology from the sanitary sector, hydraulics, and pneumatic components. For Germany and northern Italy, where many of the [...] Read more.
Brass is a material that can be used for a wide range of products, e.g., door fittings and handles, products from the electrical sector, installation technology from the sanitary sector, hydraulics, and pneumatic components. For Germany and northern Italy, where many of the above- mentioned products are manufactured, the processing volume is estimated at approx. 500,000–600,000 tons of brass per year. These products are often manufactured by means of forging and subsequently machined. The cross-industry use of extruded wrought zinc alloys in forming technology as a substitute for commercially available brass materials has a high CO2 emission saving potential of up to 40%. In this paper, a basic investigation of the forming of wrought zinc alloys is carried out and compared with brass and aluminum. In detail, the formability and the upset ratio are determined. In addition, the information obtained at laboratory level is verified by exemplary production selected parts on the industry level. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
A Contribution to the Automation of Roll Bending of Heavy Plates by Upgrading Roll Bending Machines with Artificial Intelligence
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026003 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
At the current state of the art, the roll bending of heavy plates is mainly controlled and monitored manually. By automating these tasks, the economic efficiency of the process can be increased significantly. For this reason, the industry is looking for a solution [...] Read more.
At the current state of the art, the roll bending of heavy plates is mainly controlled and monitored manually. By automating these tasks, the economic efficiency of the process can be increased significantly. For this reason, the industry is looking for a solution to modernize the used machine tools. Therefore, in this paper, an AI-based prognosis model and an associated optical monitoring system were developed. The prediction model assists the plant operator by calculating the expected forming result. Here, it is trained with empirical process data, determined by the monitoring system. The two components were tested numerically and experimentally. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Response of Thin Sheet Metal on the Excitation in Electromagnetic Forming
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026004 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Due to their low inertia, vibrations are stimulated during electromagnetic forming of thin sheets, whereby the excitation might involve the impact on the die and the oscillation of the electromagnetic forces. Depending on the configuration of the pulsed power generator and the resulting [...] Read more.
Due to their low inertia, vibrations are stimulated during electromagnetic forming of thin sheets, whereby the excitation might involve the impact on the die and the oscillation of the electromagnetic forces. Depending on the configuration of the pulsed power generator and the resulting tool coil current, forced and free workpiece vibrations could be observed in experiments. The results indicate an influence of the vibrations on the springback behavior after thin sheet metal forming. Due to the workpiece vibration, the forming behavior changed. The results emphasize the need of designing pulsed power generators that adapt to the desired process. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Electrical Contacting of Aluminum Bus Bars Using Clinching and Functional Elements
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026005 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 193
Abstract
As a joining-by-forming process, clinching and the use of functional elements enable low-energy joining of components through form, force, and, under certain conditions, material closure. In addition to the transmission of mechanical forces, these joining processes can be qualified for additional electrical contact [...] Read more.
As a joining-by-forming process, clinching and the use of functional elements enable low-energy joining of components through form, force, and, under certain conditions, material closure. In addition to the transmission of mechanical forces, these joining processes can be qualified for additional electrical contact within the scope of functional integration for electro-mobile applications. For this purpose, maximizing the force and material closure is necessary to ensure a long-term, stable transmission of electrical currents. To this end, the electrical properties of the joints were optimized. The investigations carried out show the long-term behavior under normal operating conditions and the short-circuit case. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Numerical Prediction of the Influence of Process Parameters and Process Set-Up on Damage Evolution during Deep Drawing of Rectangular Cups
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026006 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The manufacturing of three-dimensional components by deep drawing is performed using flat sheets. The material properties of the sheets are influenced by the deep drawing process by means of microstructural effects (e.g., anisotropy, residual stresses, voids, lattice defects). The resulting effects, especially voids [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of three-dimensional components by deep drawing is performed using flat sheets. The material properties of the sheets are influenced by the deep drawing process by means of microstructural effects (e.g., anisotropy, residual stresses, voids, lattice defects). The resulting effects, especially voids and lattice defects, influence the component in the form of damage accumulation and evolution. Depending on the process route and parameters, different load paths are created, which lead to different damage evolution scenarios. This paper numerically investigated the influence of process parameter (drawing ring radius) as well as process set-up (multi-step deep drawing and reverse drawing) during deep drawing and the associated load paths on damage evolution in rectangular cups made out dual phase steel DP800. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Augmented Reality Support for Commissioning and Monitoring of Electromechanical Multipoint Die Cushion
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026007 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Commissioning die cushions of a press is a highly complex task, and errors in the process must be avoided. Augmented Reality (AR) can help the engineer to overcome the encountered problems by visualizing the current situation with a superimposed 3D model, providing necessary [...] Read more.
Commissioning die cushions of a press is a highly complex task, and errors in the process must be avoided. Augmented Reality (AR) can help the engineer to overcome the encountered problems by visualizing the current situation with a superimposed 3D model, providing necessary instruction steps derived from the actual data of the press control and monitoring system, and checking the received data for errors. This paper describes an industrial AR-based concept to support an electromechanical multipoint die cushion commissioning process. It shows how an AR application can support workers in this production use case to avoid failures and reduce the needed commissioning time, resulting in higher productivity. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Producing and Processing of Thin Al/Mg/Al Compounds
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026008 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Research activities considering lightweight design are dedicated to substituting classic mild steels by light metal alloys. Magnesium is especially promising due to its beneficial strength–density ratio, but its industrial use is still limited due to, e.g., unfavorable corrosion properties. Thus, a methodology for [...] Read more.
Research activities considering lightweight design are dedicated to substituting classic mild steels by light metal alloys. Magnesium is especially promising due to its beneficial strength–density ratio, but its industrial use is still limited due to, e.g., unfavorable corrosion properties. Thus, a methodology for applying thin aluminum layers to magnesium base material by hot roll cladding has been developed. This paper characterizes the compound via peel tests, lap shear tests, Nakajima tests and deep drawing tests, thus identifying beneficial process parameters. It proves high interlaminar adhesion strength and significantly better formability then the bare magnesium core material. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Virtual Tryout: Case Study on Simulation-Based Design and Die Spotting of Forming Tools
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026009 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The iterative development process of forming tools is cost- and labor-intensive. The main reason for this is the high complexity of interaction between forming machine, tool structure, and process, which is currently only partially taken into account in simulations and during tool tryout. [...] Read more.
The iterative development process of forming tools is cost- and labor-intensive. The main reason for this is the high complexity of interaction between forming machine, tool structure, and process, which is currently only partially taken into account in simulations and during tool tryout. By digitizing the tool development process, it is possible to save iteration loops during the design phase before tool production and during rework in the adjustment phase. In this article, a novel approach for the consideration of the elastic properties of the clamping surfaces of the forming machine within the forming simulation is presented. A case study on the virtualization of pressure distribution (PD) during the die spotting process and the derivation of recommended actions for the rework based on virtual PDs was conducted. The results demonstrate the potential for saving time, cost, and labor during the tryout process in sheet metal forming. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Towards Cognitive Forming Machines: Utilization of Digital Twin-Based Virtual Sensors
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026010 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 292
Abstract
The high degree of individuality as well as complexity in metal-forming technology is still challenging regarding the development, integration, and operation of cognitive IoT technologies, such as sensors. In particular, the requirements for these systems in terms of robustness and sensitivity are often [...] Read more.
The high degree of individuality as well as complexity in metal-forming technology is still challenging regarding the development, integration, and operation of cognitive IoT technologies, such as sensors. In particular, the requirements for these systems in terms of robustness and sensitivity are often in conflict and prevent the widespread use of such systems. In this paper, a method for creating digital twin-based virtual sensors is introduced, which can resolve this target conflict. Furthermore, the method is linked to an approach for developing and identifying the digital twin representing the elasto-mechanical behavior of the machine under process condition to sensing technology. The resulting approach is demonstrated by creating virtual sensors to monitor the elasto-mechanical behavior of a servo-mechanical-forming press. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Sealing Technologies for the Manufacturing of Bipolar Plates via Active and Passive Hydroforming
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026011 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Hydrogen technology is central to the process of turning away from fossil fuels. Electrolyzers and fuel cells of various sizes are needed to implement the hydrogen strategy. The cost-efficient forming of bipolar plates is key to the implementation of this strategy. Based on [...] Read more.
Hydrogen technology is central to the process of turning away from fossil fuels. Electrolyzers and fuel cells of various sizes are needed to implement the hydrogen strategy. The cost-efficient forming of bipolar plates is key to the implementation of this strategy. Based on previous research, this paper presents active and passive hydroforming using the example of the production of bipolar plates for fuel cells. Furthermore, different systems for sealing the hydroforming pressure between tool and sheet are presented and compared with regard to their behavior in forming tests, their failure characteristics and the resulting process parameters. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Mastering the Complexity of Incremental Forming: Geometry-Based Accuracy Prediction Using Machine Learning
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026012 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 247
Abstract
The envisaged flexibility of Single Point Incremental Forming is contradicted by its highly complex deformation behavior, making the process easy to implement but difficult to fully control. This paper describes a regression method that uses Gradient Tree Boosting to predict the deviations for [...] Read more.
The envisaged flexibility of Single Point Incremental Forming is contradicted by its highly complex deformation behavior, making the process easy to implement but difficult to fully control. This paper describes a regression method that uses Gradient Tree Boosting to predict the deviations for a given input geometry, which can replace the physical part production needed for the optimization of generating toolpaths. This paper elaborates on the calculation of the geometric features used by the regressor and the selection of an appropriate training dataset. The method is validated using a generated dataset of fully freeform ellipsoid workpiece geometries. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Hydroforming of High-Strength Aluminum Tubes with Thermo-Mechanical Manufacturing Processes
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026013 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The amount of complex profile components in car bodies increases due to the emerging electromobility. High-strength aluminum alloys are ideally suited as material for automotive applications due to their extraordinary lightweight construction potential. The presented study focuses on the transfer of established thermo-mechanical [...] Read more.
The amount of complex profile components in car bodies increases due to the emerging electromobility. High-strength aluminum alloys are ideally suited as material for automotive applications due to their extraordinary lightweight construction potential. The presented study focuses on the transfer of established thermo-mechanical manufacturing processes for sheet metal components to hydroforming of tube material. Demonstrator components are produced from EN AW-7020 using W-temper-forming and hot forming and compared numerically and experimentally. The results show that the determined material properties are sufficiently accurate to numerically represent the temperature-supported processes with excellent precision. The formed components can be used to demonstrate the potential of hydroforming for high-strength aluminum tubes using W-temper-forming and hot forming. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Forming Potential of Current Dual-Phase Steel Developments with Strengths of 800 MPa
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026014 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Modern car bodies are constantly relying on higher proportions of high- and ultra-high-strength steels. In the past, the increase in material strengths led to a conflict regarding the complexity of component geometries. Limits of material formability were reached, and compromises had to be [...] Read more.
Modern car bodies are constantly relying on higher proportions of high- and ultra-high-strength steels. In the past, the increase in material strengths led to a conflict regarding the complexity of component geometries. Limits of material formability were reached, and compromises had to be made in part design. By integrating application-oriented problems into the material development, these limits are expanded with respect to the given requirements. Within the present study, for three dual-phase steels with a tensile strength of 800 MPa, practical laboratory tests are presented and their benefits in component manufacture are discussed. In particular, the material ductility has an essential role for the forming process. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Production of Metallic Bipolar Plates Made of Stainless Steel by Incremental Hollow Embossing Using Rollers
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026015 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 263
Abstract
As the main functional element of the fuel cell, the bipolar plate ensures the functions of media distribution, electron conduction, and mechanical stability of the entire fuel cell stack. Currently, metallic bipolar half-plates are manufactured using clocked, shaping processes (stretch forming). A transfer [...] Read more.
As the main functional element of the fuel cell, the bipolar plate ensures the functions of media distribution, electron conduction, and mechanical stability of the entire fuel cell stack. Currently, metallic bipolar half-plates are manufactured using clocked, shaping processes (stretch forming). A transfer to a continuous forming process, such as incremental hollow embossing using rollers, promises a significant increase in productivity and, thus, profitability. Based on experimentally determined material parameters, a realistic forming simulation was set up. Significant evaluation parameters are geometric accuracy, sheet thinning, and springback. In addition, specific requirements for the manufacturing equipment have to be derived. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Control System Design for a Semi-Finished Product Considering Over- and Underbending
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026016 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
In the last decades, the application of automatic control techniques in freeform bending processes was limited to the motion control of the bending die, i.e., the workpiece itself was not considered inside the closed-loop control system. In a previous work, a simple preliminary [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the application of automatic control techniques in freeform bending processes was limited to the motion control of the bending die, i.e., the workpiece itself was not considered inside the closed-loop control system. In a previous work, a simple preliminary model for the workpiece was used as a foundation for developing a closed-loop system for freeform bending that includes both the geometry and the mechanical properties of the semi-finished product. However, this approach did not consider the fact that the same geometry can be reached by either over- or underbending the tube. In this work, the previously developed system model is extended to include this physical property of the system. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Decreasing the Commissioning Time of Optical Multi-Camera Inspection Systems by Simulating Surface Coverage Using the Example of Formed Bipolar Plates
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026017 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Implementing “first-time-right” production processes increases a production line’s sustainability and minimizes rejects. Multi-camera systems are a key element since they can quickly detect defects without contact. However, it is still a time-consuming challenge to determine the correct number and position of cameras to [...] Read more.
Implementing “first-time-right” production processes increases a production line’s sustainability and minimizes rejects. Multi-camera systems are a key element since they can quickly detect defects without contact. However, it is still a time-consuming challenge to determine the correct number and position of cameras to achieve gapless surface monitoring of complex components. This proposal aims to develop a new software tool that automatically calculates and visualizes surface coverage by using bipolar plates as an example. With this method, 100% surface coverage inspections become feasible, and the cost of commissioning multi-camera inspection systems can be significantly decreased. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Implementation of an Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit with Two Control Variables in a Drawing Cushion Application
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026018 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Forming machines and their subsystems, e.g., the drawing cushion in sheet metal-forming machines, pose high power as well as precision requirements in both the positioning and the force, which are directly linked to the quality of the produced part. In addition to ensuring [...] Read more.
Forming machines and their subsystems, e.g., the drawing cushion in sheet metal-forming machines, pose high power as well as precision requirements in both the positioning and the force, which are directly linked to the quality of the produced part. In addition to ensuring quality, energy efficiency becomes increasingly important. The first step towards energy efficiency is utilizing direct drives, which reduce the energy consumed by the machine significantly, compared to valve-controlled applications. Additional potential for energy loss reduction lies in the implementation of a direct drive unit with the two control variables, motor speed and displacement volume. The control variable distribution results in an influence on the dynamics of the system. This influence is studied in this paper. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Prediction of Material Failure in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026019 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Incremental sheet metal forming offers the possibility of producing formed parts in small batches efficiently and in a resource-saving manner. However, in order to exploit this potential, a high level of process understanding and process-relevant material data are required. Based on experimental and [...] Read more.
Incremental sheet metal forming offers the possibility of producing formed parts in small batches efficiently and in a resource-saving manner. However, in order to exploit this potential, a high level of process understanding and process-relevant material data are required. Based on experimental and simulation-based examinations, the forming limit curve (FLC) and fracture forming limit line (FFL) are determined to predict the material failure of critical geometry elements of the formed part (e.g., wall angle > 65°) by means of FEM and to avoid it via process adaptation. These critical geometry elements are experimentally validated via optical geometry measurements (GOM Atos). Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Deep Rolling of Bores Using Centrifugal Force
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026020 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Deep rolling is a mechanical surface treatment for the specific modification of edge zone properties. In this process, the surface is plastically deformed by a rolling element. The roughness, residual stresses and hardness in particular can be positively influenced. An external pressure unit [...] Read more.
Deep rolling is a mechanical surface treatment for the specific modification of edge zone properties. In this process, the surface is plastically deformed by a rolling element. The roughness, residual stresses and hardness in particular can be positively influenced. An external pressure unit is usually used to generate the forces required for plastic deformation. The acquisition costs associated with the pressure unit and the space required reduce the attractiveness of deep rolling. In this work, the possibility of generating the required forces by exploiting the rotational speed of machining center spindles for processing bores is shown. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Remote Service for Production Machines Using a 3D Collaborative Environment and Digital Twins
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026021 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
As digital twins are bringing increasing benefits to the product development process, their growing popularity is noticeable. While they are already very popular within the development process, they are not very common in service applications, although they have great potential for usage in [...] Read more.
As digital twins are bringing increasing benefits to the product development process, their growing popularity is noticeable. While they are already very popular within the development process, they are not very common in service applications, although they have great potential for usage in remote maintenance, remote training, and optimization tasks, without the need to stop physical production. This article aims to describe a structure of a digital twin in a collaborative environment that enables service experts to guide field technicians through maintenance tasks using an interactive simulation of a production machine and immersive technologies. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
A Response Surface Methodology Approach to Develop a Multiphysics Simulation Model of a Tensile Friction Test
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026022 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 175
Abstract
High Strength Steels (HSS) are widely used in the automotive industry to reduce the vehicle’s weight and improve fuel efficiency. The press hardening process is used, for instance, to form and harden low-alloyed steel simultaneously. A deep understanding of the interfacial phenomena and [...] Read more.
High Strength Steels (HSS) are widely used in the automotive industry to reduce the vehicle’s weight and improve fuel efficiency. The press hardening process is used, for instance, to form and harden low-alloyed steel simultaneously. A deep understanding of the interfacial phenomena and the friction behavior at high temperatures is significant in describing the process, especially when considering Finite Elements (FE) analysis. In this paper, the results of a series of tensile friction tests carried out with aluminum-silicon coated low alloyed steel 22MnB5 for different values of drawing speed, temperature, and die pressure are investigated. All tests were conducted by a special test rig designed by the authors. Following the Surface Response Methodology approach, a Central Composite Design was used to identify the best fitting friction model that approximates the friction coefficient behavior depending on the main testing parameters. The identified model can explain up to 88% of the variability of the response variable and predict the friction coefficient with acceptable error. In conclusion, a FE multi-physical model of the tensile friction test, which combines a structural and a thermal analysis, was created and validated by LS Dyna software simulations. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Development of a Metal-Based Lightweight Approach Consisting of Cold-Formable Magnesium Sheets in Combination with a Multi-Purpose Powder Coating System
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026023 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 161
Abstract
This paper will give an overview about the development of a material system, which consists of a novel formable magnesium alloy that is provided with an effective corrosion protection coating. The corrosion protection is to be realized in the form of a forming [...] Read more.
This paper will give an overview about the development of a material system, which consists of a novel formable magnesium alloy that is provided with an effective corrosion protection coating. The corrosion protection is to be realized in the form of a forming stable powder coating, which can be applied in the coil coating process. To improve the tribological properties, additional additives are added to the powder coating. Within this paper, first results concerning tribological and forming behavior of the new lightweight material system are given. For the benchmark, the results are compared with commercially available AZ31 Mg alloy. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Mechanical Surface Treatment of Cold-Extruded Workpieces
Eng. Proc. 2022, 26(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022026024 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Cold-forming processes represent important technologies in steel processing. Cold-formed workpieces are often case-hardened in an energy- and cost-intensive process. Alternative finishing can be carried out by means of mechanical surface treatments, such as deep rolling or machine hammer peening. Since the limitations of [...] Read more.
Cold-forming processes represent important technologies in steel processing. Cold-formed workpieces are often case-hardened in an energy- and cost-intensive process. Alternative finishing can be carried out by means of mechanical surface treatments, such as deep rolling or machine hammer peening. Since the limitations of deep rolling of cold-formed workpieces have been insufficiently explored, this work investigates cause-and-effect relationships between the process parameters of full forward extrusion and deep rolling and the resulting surface integrity. For the experimental investigation, the material 16MnCr5 is used. The focus of the workpiece analysis is on the resulting residual stresses, hardness, and roughness. Full article
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