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Fuels, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 4 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A FactsSage Simulation Study on the Interaction of Synthetic Petcoke Slags with Alumina Crucibles
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 48-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010004 - 26 Feb 2021
Abstract
In entrained flow gasifiers, inorganic species in solid fuels are converted to slag, which flows continuously along the gasifier’s refractory lining. Slag viscosity is critical for its continuous flow and, consequently, reliable operation of the gasifier. Viscosity of synthetic petcoke ash was measured [...] Read more.
In entrained flow gasifiers, inorganic species in solid fuels are converted to slag, which flows continuously along the gasifier’s refractory lining. Slag viscosity is critical for its continuous flow and, consequently, reliable operation of the gasifier. Viscosity of synthetic petcoke ash was measured in a high temperature viscometer (up to 1500 °C) using high alumina crucibles. Crucible material was found to dissolve in slag, causing thinning and leading to formation of holes on the walls. To explain this dissolution, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed in FactSage™ (Thermfact/CRCT, Montreal, QC, Canada and GTT-Technologies, Aachen, Germany) using different synthetic petcoke ash compositions in 100% H2, 5% H2/ 95% N2, 69.5% CO/30.5% CO2, and 100% O2 atmospheres. An inverse correlation was found between crucible dissolution and alumina content in the slag. Rates of dissolution of alumina from crucible into slag varied significantly in the different atmospheres. The correlation was validated experimentally by heating six synthetic slags with varying compositions to 1500 °C in 5% H2/N2 (to simulate viscometer’s atmosphere) gas. SEM-EDS analysis of the samples confirmed that the sample with lower initial content of alumina in the slag showed higher amounts of aluminum at the slag–crucible interface. Additions of alumina in the synthetic petcoke ash (containing up to 49.74% V2O5) mitigated crucible dissolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Natural and Synthetic Petroleum Coke Slag Viscosities under Reducing Conditions: Applicability of Predictive Models Using Factsage and Modified Urbain Model
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 37-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010003 - 05 Feb 2021
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Abstract
The viscosity of slag from an operating integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant utilising petroleum coke and a synthetic petcoke slag with the same composition made from chemical grade oxides in a reducing environment for gasification application were investigated in this study. A [...] Read more.
The viscosity of slag from an operating integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant utilising petroleum coke and a synthetic petcoke slag with the same composition made from chemical grade oxides in a reducing environment for gasification application were investigated in this study. A high temperature rotating bob-type viscometer was used to measure viscosity between temperatures of 1250–1375 °C. Natural and synthetic ash had similar viscosities above 1300 °C in this study. The viscosity was predicted by using FactSage, a thermodynamic modelling software, in conjunction with different viscosity models, available in the open literature. Percentage deviations of predicted viscosities from different models with experimentally measured values ranged from about 41 to 151%. Crystallisation of the slag was noted in SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy– energy dispersive spectroscopy) and FactSage results. Solid phases from FactSage predictions were used to modify the Kalmanovitch–Frank model with the Roscoe method. It predicted the viscosity of the slag accurately between 1250 and 1375 °C. Average percentage deviation from measured natural ash viscosity was about 11%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Validation of an Innovative Approach for GDI Spray Pattern Recognition
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 16-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010002 - 21 Jan 2021
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Abstract
In the present automotive scenario, along with hybridization, GDI technology is progressively spreading in order to improve the powertrain thermal efficiency. In order to properly match the fuel spray development with the combustion chamber design, using robust and accurate diagnostics is required. In [...] Read more.
In the present automotive scenario, along with hybridization, GDI technology is progressively spreading in order to improve the powertrain thermal efficiency. In order to properly match the fuel spray development with the combustion chamber design, using robust and accurate diagnostics is required. In particular, for the evaluation of the injection quality in terms of spray shape, vision tests are crucial for GDI injection systems. By vision tests, parameters such as spray tip penetration and cone angles can be measured, as the operating conditions in terms of mainly injection pressure, injection strategy, and chamber counter-pressure are varied. Provided that a complete experimental spray characterization requires the acquisition of several thousand spray images, an automated methodology for analyzing spray images objectively and automatically is mandatory. A decisive step in a spray image analysis procedure is binarization, i.e., the extraction of the spray structure from the background. Binarization is particularly challenging for GDI sprays, given their lower compactness with respect to diesel sprays. In the present paper, two of the most diffused automated binarization algorithms, namely the Otsu and Yen methods, are comparatively validated with an innovative approach derived from the Triangle method—the Last Minimum Criterion—for the analysis of high-pressure GDI sprays. GDI spray images acquired with three injection pressure levels (up to 600 bar) and two different optical setups (backlight and front illumination) were used to validate the considered algorithms in challenging conditions, obtaining encouraging results in terms of accuracy and robustness for the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spray Analysis and Combustion Assessment of Diesel-LPG Fuel Blends in Compression Ignition Engine
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010001 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
A major challenge for internal combustion engines (ICEs), and diesel engines, in particular, is the reduction of exhaust emissions, essentially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). In this regard, the potential of LPG-diesel blends was evaluated in this work. The LPG and [...] Read more.
A major challenge for internal combustion engines (ICEs), and diesel engines, in particular, is the reduction of exhaust emissions, essentially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). In this regard, the potential of LPG-diesel blends was evaluated in this work. The LPG and diesel blends were externally prepared by exploiting their perfect miscibility at high pressures. Two diesel-LPG mixtures with 20% and 35% by mass LPG concentrations were tested. In terms of spatial and temporal evolution, the spray characterization was performed for the two blends and pure diesel fuel through high-speed imaging technique. The combustion behavior, engine performance and exhaust emissions of LPG-diesel blends were evaluated through a test campaign carried out on a single-cylinder diesel engine. Diesel/LPG sprays penetrate less than pure diesel. This behavior results from a lower momentum, surface tension and viscosity, of the blend jets in comparison to diesel which guarantee greater atomization. The addition of LPG to diesel tends to proportionally increase the spray cone angle, due to the stronger turbulent flow interaction caused by, the lower density and low flash-boiling point. Because of improved atomization and mixing during the injection phase, the blends have shown great potential in reducing PM emissions, without affecting engine performance (CO2 emissions). The addition of LPG resulted in a significant smoke reduction (about 95%) with similar NOx emissions and acceptable THC and CO emissions. Furthermore, the low cetane number (CN) and high low-heating value (LHV) ensuring leaner air-fuel mixture, and improvements in terms of efficiency, particularly for a blend with a higher concentration of LPG. Full article
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