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Dairy, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 11 articles

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Article
Embryo Morphokinetic Activity Evident in Short Videos of In Vitro Bovine Embryos
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 849-861; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040058 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Embryo transfer (ET) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are increasing in use by dairy producers as a means to breed their animals as these assisted reproductive techniques can optimize the genetics of the dairy breed or enable “beef on dairy” programs to increase [...] Read more.
Embryo transfer (ET) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are increasing in use by dairy producers as a means to breed their animals as these assisted reproductive techniques can optimize the genetics of the dairy breed or enable “beef on dairy” programs to increase the profitability of the dairy. Due to the advantages of ET and IVF, it is anticipated that their use will continue to increase despite the status of underwhelmingly low pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy rates of bovine ET/IVF remain below 56%, with many dairy producers implementing beef on dairy programs reporting pregnancy to be lower than 23%. The inability to objectively evaluate embryo health prior to transfer into a recipient is a contributing factor to this problem as 20% of transferred embryos are inviable at the time of transfer and have little chance of establishing a pregnancy. The objective of this research was to evaluate bovine embryo real-time morphokinetic activity based on 30 s video recordings of day 7.5 morulas and correlate morphokinetic activity to developmental outcomes. Eighty-eight embryos were recorded in standard embryo culture conditions with an SMZ-1000 Stereo zoom microscope and TE-300 Nikon inverted microscope. The difference in the embryo’s morphokinetic activity was measured frame-by-frame and correlated to embryo hatching outcomes. It was found that embryos with lower morphokinetic activity demonstrated higher hatching rates and developmental outcomes, suggesting measurement of embryo morphokinetic activity is a noninvasive and non-subjective method to evaluate embryo competency prior to transfer and can be used to improve the reproductive efficiency and profitability of IVF/ET of dairy cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproduction)
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Article
Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Dairy Products Traded in São Paulo, Brazil: An Update
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 842-848; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040057 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct an up-to-date investigation on the occurrence levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n = 40), pasteurized milk (n = 44), ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk (n [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to conduct an up-to-date investigation on the occurrence levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of raw milk (n = 40), pasteurized milk (n = 44), ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk (n = 27), Minas cheese (n = 57), and yogurt (n = 44) traded in São Paulo state, Brazil. AFM1 was extracted from fluid milks and dairy products using immunoaffinity columns and determined by high performance liquid chromatography. AFM1 was detected at the mean level of 0.080 ± 0.071 µg/L or kg in 72 samples (34.0%) evaluated in the study (n = 212). Detectable levels of AFM1 were observed in five samples of raw milk (12.5%), 16 samples of pasteurized milk (36.4%), 13 samples of UHT milk (48.1%), 27 samples of cheese (47.4%), and 11 samples of yogurt (25.0%), although none of them had concentrations above the maximum permitted levels (MPL) for AFM1 adopted in Brazil. However, 11.7% (n = 13) of samples of raw, pasteurized, and UHT milks would have AFM1 concentrations above the MPL of 0.05 μg/L adopted in the EU. The maximum level was detected in one cheese sample containing 0.695 µg/kg. Although none of the samples exceeded the Brazilian MPL, the high frequencies of AFM1 in Brazilian milk products warrant concern about their contribution to the human exposure to aflatoxins. Because aflatoxins are among the most potent carcinogens known, the results of this trial stress the need for stringent measures in the milk production system to avoid AFM1 in milk and derived products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)
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Review
Positive Welfare Indicators in Dairy Animals
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 814-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040056 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Nowadays, there is growing interest in positive animal welfare not only from the view of scientists but also from that of society. The consumer demands more sustainable livestock production, and animal welfare is an essential part of sustainability, so there is interest in [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is growing interest in positive animal welfare not only from the view of scientists but also from that of society. The consumer demands more sustainable livestock production, and animal welfare is an essential part of sustainability, so there is interest in incorporating positive welfare indicators into welfare assessment schemes and legislation. The aim of this review is to cite all the positive welfare indicators that have been proposed for dairy animals in theory or practice. In total, twenty-four indicators were retrieved. The most promising are exploration, access to pasture, comfort and resting, feeding, and behavioral synchronicity. Qualitative behavioral assessment (QBA), social affiliative behaviors, play, maternal care, ear postures, vocalizations, visible eye white, nasal temperature, anticipation, cognitive bias, laterality, and oxytocin have been also studied in dairy ruminants. QBA is the indicator that is most often used for the on-farm welfare assessment. Among all dairy animals, studies have been performed mostly on cattle, followed by sheep and goats, and finally buffaloes. The research on camel welfare is limited. Therefore, there is a need for further research and official assessment protocols for buffaloes and especially camels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Nutrition and Welfare)
Article
Functional and Safety Characterization of Weissella paramesenteroides Strains Isolated from Dairy Products through Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 799-813; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040055 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Strains belonging to the Weissella genus are frequently recovered from spontaneously fermented foods. Their functional, microbial-modulating, and probiotic traits enhance not only the sensorial properties but also the nutritional value, beneficial effects, and safety of fermented products. Sporadic cases of opportunistic pathogenicity and [...] Read more.
Strains belonging to the Weissella genus are frequently recovered from spontaneously fermented foods. Their functional, microbial-modulating, and probiotic traits enhance not only the sensorial properties but also the nutritional value, beneficial effects, and safety of fermented products. Sporadic cases of opportunistic pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance have deprived safety status from all Weissella species, which thus remain understudied. Our study increased the number of available high-quality and taxonomically accurate W. paramesenteroides genomes by 25% (9 genomes reported, leading to a total of 36 genomes). We conducted a phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis of the most dominant Weissella species (W. cibaria, W. paramesenteroides, W. viridescens, W. soli, W. koreensis, W. hellenica and W. thailadensis). The phylogenetic tree corroborated species assignment but also revealed phylogenetic diversity within the Weissella species, which is likely related to the adaptation of Weissella in different niches. Using robust alignment criteria, we showed the overall absence of resistance and virulence genes in Weissella spp., except for one W. cibaria isolate carrying blaTEM-181. Enrichment analysis showed the association of Weissella species several CAZymes, which are essential for biotechnological applications. Additionally, the combination of CAZyme metabolites with probiotics can potentially lead to beneficial effects for hosts, such as the inhibition of inflammatory processes and the reduction of cholesterol levels. Bacteriocins and mobile genetic elements MGEs (Inc11 plasmid and ISS1N insertion sequence) were less abundant, however W. thailadensis and W. viridescens showed significant association with specific bacteriocin-encoding genes. Lastly, an analysis of phenotypic traits underlined the need to carefully evaluate W. cibaria strains before use as food additives and suggested the possibility of employing W. paramesenteroides and W. hellenica in the fermentation process of vegetable products. More studies providing high-resolution characterization of Weissella strains from various sources are necessary to elucidate the safety of Weissella spp. and exploit their beneficial characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Microbiota)
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Article
Effect of Major Diseases on Productivity of a Large Dairy Farm in a Temperate Zone in Japan
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 789-798; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040054 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between major diseases (clinical mastitis, peracute mastitis, metabolic disorders, peripartum disorders) and four parameters related to productivity (305-day milk yield, number of days open, culling rate, death rate) on a large dairy [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between major diseases (clinical mastitis, peracute mastitis, metabolic disorders, peripartum disorders) and four parameters related to productivity (305-day milk yield, number of days open, culling rate, death rate) on a large dairy farm in a temperate zone with approximately 2500 Holstein cows. Data were collected from 2014 to 2018 and involved 9663 calving records for 4256 cows. We found negative effects of clinical mastitis, peracute mastitis, metabolic disorders, and peripartum disorders on the productivity of cows. Clinical-mastitis-suffered cows with multiple diseases had more days open compared with those with clinical mastitis alone and the healthy group, and they had a higher death rate than the healthy group, whereas there was no difference in death rate between the clinical mastitis only and healthy groups. Cows suffering from peracute mastitis, metabolic disorders, and peripartum disorders with either single or multiple diseases exhibited reduced productivity compared with the healthy group. Our findings clearly show that major diseases of cows in a temperate zone have severely negative effects on their productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Health)
Review
Mapping Welfare: Location Determining Techniques and Their Potential for Managing Cattle Welfare—A Review
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 776-788; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040053 - 29 Oct 2022
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Several studies have suggested that precision livestock farming (PLF) is a useful tool for animal welfare management and assessment. Location, posture and movement of an individual are key elements in identifying the animal and recording its behaviour. Currently, multiple technologies are available for [...] Read more.
Several studies have suggested that precision livestock farming (PLF) is a useful tool for animal welfare management and assessment. Location, posture and movement of an individual are key elements in identifying the animal and recording its behaviour. Currently, multiple technologies are available for automated monitoring of the location of individual animals, ranging from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to ultra-wideband (UWB), RFID, wireless sensor networks (WSN) and even computer vision. These techniques and developments all yield potential to manage and assess animal welfare, but also have their constraints, such as range and accuracy. Combining sensors such as accelerometers with any location determining technique into a sensor fusion system can give more detailed information on the individual cow, achieving an even more reliable and accurate indication of animal welfare. We conclude that location systems are a promising approach to determining animal welfare, especially when applied in conjunction with additional sensors, but additional research focused on the use of technology in animal welfare monitoring is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Digital Dairy)
Article
The Role of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus thermophilus on Physical Properties of Stirred Skim Milk Gel
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 761-775; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040052 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The techno-functionality of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Streptococcus thermophilus in stirred fermented milk is affected by several extrinsic (e.g., base milk composition) and intrinsic (e.g., amount and properties of EPS) factors. The aim of this study was to use skim milk models to identify [...] Read more.
The techno-functionality of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Streptococcus thermophilus in stirred fermented milk is affected by several extrinsic (e.g., base milk composition) and intrinsic (e.g., amount and properties of EPS) factors. The aim of this study was to use skim milk models to identify the key factors that influence the physical properties of stirred fermented milk with EPS. For that, fermentation was carried out with one of three single S. thermophilus strains (intrinsic factors) at two casein:whey protein ratios of the base milk, two acidification activities of the starters, and two fermentation temperatures (extrinsic factors). The effects of the factors on the acidification kinetics, EPS amount, susceptibility to syneresis, and texture properties were then discriminated by a multivariate ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis. Strains producing ropy EPS mainly determined the texture properties, whereas the extrinsic factors primarily affected the acidification kinetics and EPS amount. When capsular EPS were also present, the syneresis was lower; however, this effect was more pronounced after enrichment of base milk with whey protein. The EPS amount did not correlate with the texture or syneresis, pointing to the importance of other factors such as the EPS location (type) and EPS–protein interactions for their functionality in stirred fermented milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailoring Physical Properties of Fermented Dairy Products)
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Article
Economic Feasibility, Benefits and Challenges of On-Farm Artisanal Cheese Making in South Africa
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 747-760; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040051 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
There is limited information regarding artisanal cheese making that can help entrepreneurs evaluate business opportunities and make realistic business decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the economic feasibility, benefits and challenges of on-farm artisanal cheese making. A model was designed [...] Read more.
There is limited information regarding artisanal cheese making that can help entrepreneurs evaluate business opportunities and make realistic business decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the economic feasibility, benefits and challenges of on-farm artisanal cheese making. A model was designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of processing hard pecorino-style cheese and soft fresh ricotta on four different smallholder farms. The study assumed a small-scale family-owned business with an average herd size of 10 lactating cows, using 80 L of raw milk a day to make cheese. Projected Cash Flow Statement was used to determine the economic feasibility of cheese making. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using a factor of 10% to determine the changes in net cash flows by varying the milk volume, cheese selling price and both. The positive projected cash flow after the sensitivity analysis for the four farms ranged from $24,073.84 to $33,783.5. The breakeven quantity for the four farms ranged from 325.82 kg to 357.88 kg per year.Overall, the results show that artisanal cheese making is economically viable under the given model assumptions. However, the major challenge noted is that most farmers lack knowledge in terms of the processing techniques, market opportunities and production costs involved in cheese making. Access to this information by small-scale milk producers is vital in considering cheese making as a business. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivering Sustainable Dairy Products with Added Value)
Review
Mastitis: What It Is, Current Diagnostics, and the Potential of Metabolomics to Identify New Predictive Biomarkers
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 722-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040050 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Periparturient diseases continue to be the greatest challenge to both farmers and dairy cows. They are associated with a decrease in productivity, lower profitability, and a negative impact on cows’ health as well as public health. This review article discusses the pathophysiology and [...] Read more.
Periparturient diseases continue to be the greatest challenge to both farmers and dairy cows. They are associated with a decrease in productivity, lower profitability, and a negative impact on cows’ health as well as public health. This review article discusses the pathophysiology and diagnostic opportunities of mastitis, the most common disease of dairy cows. To better understand the disease, we dive deep into the causative agents, traditional paradigms, and the use of new technologies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mastitis. This paper takes a systems biology approach by highlighting the relationship of mastitis with other diseases and introduces the use of omics sciences, specifically metabolomics and its analytical techniques. Concluding, this review is backed up by multiple studies that show how earlier identification of mastitis through predictive biomarkers can benefit the dairy industry and improve the overall animal health. Full article
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Article
Milk Coagulation Properties: A Study on Milk Protein Profile of Native and Improved Cattle Breeds/Types in Sri Lanka
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 710-721; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040049 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 346
Abstract
This study was conducted to assess the variations of milk coagulation properties (MCP) among two native cattle types, e.g., Thamankaduwa White (TW), Lankan cattle (LC) and two improved cattle breeds, e.g., Friesian (FR) and Jersey (JS), in relation to distinctive milk protein compositions. [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to assess the variations of milk coagulation properties (MCP) among two native cattle types, e.g., Thamankaduwa White (TW), Lankan cattle (LC) and two improved cattle breeds, e.g., Friesian (FR) and Jersey (JS), in relation to distinctive milk protein compositions. MCP traits, including rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd firmness, meltability and yield, were measured. The milk protein profile of each breed/type was analyzed using capillary zone electrophoresis. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among two native and improved cattle breeds/types in relation to RCT. Friesian and TW milk had the longest and shortest (p < 0.05) RCT, respectively. There was no significant difference in firmness among the four breeds/types. The highest (p < 0.05) coagulum yield was recorded for TW milk, followed by LC, JS and FR. TW milk had the highest (p < 0.05) meltability values. As revealed by the protein profiles, κ-casein concentration was significantly higher in TW milk compared to the other three breeds/types. None of the other milk protein fractions showed significant differences among the four breeds/types. The overall results indicate the superior MCP of TW milk, emphasizing the value of native breeds which could be exploited in the development of niche dairy products while supporting the conservation effort of the native cattle gene pool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
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Article
Raw Milk for Provolone Valpadana PDO Cheese: Impact of Modified Cold Storage Conditions on the Composition of the Bacterial Biota
Dairy 2022, 3(4), 700-709; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3040048 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The raw milk for production of long-ripened, spicy type, Provolone Valpadana (PV) PDO cheese must be stored, refrigerated, and processed within 60 h from the first milking, according to European and Consortium regulations. Low-temperature storage conditions preserve the hygienic quality, but also reduce [...] Read more.
The raw milk for production of long-ripened, spicy type, Provolone Valpadana (PV) PDO cheese must be stored, refrigerated, and processed within 60 h from the first milking, according to European and Consortium regulations. Low-temperature storage conditions preserve the hygienic quality, but also reduce the diversity and content of dairy microbiota, which is important to define the characteristics and quality of raw milk cheeses. Eleven bulk, raw milk samples were stored, at laboratory level, under two different time/temperature conditions (i.e., 10 °C or 12 °C for 15 h, then cooled to 4 °C for 45 h). The count of different bacterial groups and the diversity of bacterial communities were determined before and after storage by culture-dependent and DNA metabarcoding methods, respectively. The two-step cold storage conditions increased the mesophilic, psychrotrophic, lipolytic, and proteolytic bacterial load, without affecting the hygienic quality of milk. Among the 66 dominant and 161 subdominant taxa retrieved by DNA metabarcoding, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and the lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Lactococcus and Streptococcus were present in almost all the raw milk samples, and their relative abundance was positively related with the total bacterial count. The storage conditions tested could be considered for eventual application in long-ripened PV cheese production to rationalize storage, transfer, and processing of raw milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Microbiota)
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