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Dairy, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 13 articles

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Article
Association of Feed Efficiency, Feeding Rate, and Behaviour with the Milk Performance of Dairy Cows
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 684-694; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040053 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Identification of the associations of cow feed efficiency with feeding behaviour and milk production is important for supporting recommendations of strategies that optimise milk yield. The objective of this study was to identify associations between measures of feed efficiency, feed intake, feeding rate, [...] Read more.
Identification of the associations of cow feed efficiency with feeding behaviour and milk production is important for supporting recommendations of strategies that optimise milk yield. The objective of this study was to identify associations between measures of feed efficiency, feed intake, feeding rate, rumination time, feeding time, and milk production using data collected from 26 dairy cows during a 3 month period in 2018. Cows averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 2.2 ± 1.7 lactations, 128 ± 40 days in milk, 27.5 ± 5.5 kg/day milk, 1.95 ± 0.69 kg feed/1 kg milk—the measure used to express feed conversion ratio (FCR), 575 ± 72 min/day rumination time, and 264 ± 67 min/day feeding time during the observation period. The coefficient of variation for rumination time (min/d) was 12.5%. A mixed linear model was selected for analyses. The most feed inefficient cows with the highest FCR (≥2.6 kg feed/1 kg milk) showed the lowest milk yield (24.8 kg/day), highest feed intake (78.8 kg), highest feeding rate (0.26 kg/min) and BCS (3.35 point). However, the relative milk yield (milk yield per 100 kg of body weight) was the highest (4.01 kg/day) in the most efficient group with the lowest FCR (≤1.4 kg feed/1 kg milk). Our study showed that the most efficient cows with the lowest FCR (≤1.4 kg feed/1 kg milk) had the highest rumination time (597 min/day; p < 0.05), feeding time (298 min/day; p < 0.05), rumination/activity ratio (4.39; p < 0.05) and rumination/feeding ratio (2.04; p < 0.05). Less active cows (activity time 164 min/day; p < 0.05) were the most efficient cows with the lowest FCR (≤1.4 kg feed/1 kg milk). The behavioural differences observed in this study provide new insight into the association of feed behaviour and feed efficiency with milk performance. Incorporating feeding behaviour into the dry matter intake model can improve its accuracy in the future and benefit breeding programmes. Full article
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Article
Accuracy of Subclinical Ketosis Detection with Rapid Test Methods for BHBA in Blood in Commercial Dairy Farms
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 671-683; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040052 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
This study gives an overview of the performance and accuracy of devices used for the fast measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood for the on-farm indication of subclinical ketosis. Data were collected on ten dairy farms. In each farm, blood samples were taken [...] Read more.
This study gives an overview of the performance and accuracy of devices used for the fast measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood for the on-farm indication of subclinical ketosis. Data were collected on ten dairy farms. In each farm, blood samples were taken from ten cows on four test days (2, 4, 9 and 11), resulting in 400 samples. The reference method was the BHBA concentration in blood serum (BHBALAB). Four different devices that measure BHBA in whole blood were tested. The thresholds applied for identifying subclinical ketosis were ≥1.0, ≥1.2 and ≥1.4 mmol/L in blood serum. The BHBALAB was assigned in three classes: low—≤0.9 mmol/L; high—>0.9 mmol/L; and total—all values unclassified. Due to initial negative effects on the health and performance of cows with BHBA levels ≥0.9 mmol/L, this cut-off was chosen. The Passing–Bablok regression revealed different constant as well as absolute biases for each device in the aforementioned classes. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve indicated highly accurate results, with 94–97% accuracy levels. As an overall conclusion, the performance of the devices was good and supports their use by farmers for the detection of subclinical ketotic cows in their herds. Full article
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Article
Migration of Cefquinome Antibiotic Residues from Milk to Dairy Products
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 658-670; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040051 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of cefquinome in different dairy products during the processing of naturally contaminated milk or spiked milk. The analysis of cefquinome residues in milk, skimmed milk, buttermilk, whey, cream, butter, curd, and cheese samples [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of cefquinome in different dairy products during the processing of naturally contaminated milk or spiked milk. The analysis of cefquinome residues in milk, skimmed milk, buttermilk, whey, cream, butter, curd, and cheese samples was performed using a water:acetonitrile solvent extraction and C18 dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up, followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) determination. The target concentration of cefquinome was achieved in the spiked milk (100 µg kg−1). During its processing, the antibiotic migrated primarily with the skimmed milk as opposed to cream (ratios of 3.6:1 and 2.8:1 for experiments A and B, respectively), and with the buttermilk during butter manufacture (ratios of 6.9:1 and 4.6:1), but was equal in the curd and whey during the manufacture of cheese. In the milk collected from treated animals, the measured concentration of cefquinome was considerably high (approx. 5000 µg kg−1). The results obtained from the dairy products were similar to those obtained in the spiked study (ratios of 8.2:1 and 3.1:1 for experiments A and B, respectively, during the separation of skimmed milk and cream; 6.0:1 and 5.0:1 for A and B, respectively, during the separation of buttermilk and butter). However, during cheesemaking, cefquinome migrated with the whey after cutting the curd, with ratios of 0.54:1 and 0.44:1 for experiments A and B, respectively. The difference in the migration of cefquinome between curd and whey in spiked and animal studies is probably due to the different concentration levels in the two different experiments. The results of this study showed that, in dairy products manufactured from milk containing cefquinome residues, the drug migrated primarily with the high-water-containing fractions. Full article
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Article
Insights from Initial Variant Detection by Sequencing Single Sperm in Cattle
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 649-657; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040050 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Meiotic de novo mutation (DNM) is one of the important phenomena contributing to gamete genome diversity. However, except for humans and a few model organisms, they are not well studied in livestock, including cattle. Moreover, bulk sperm samples have been routinely utilized in [...] Read more.
Meiotic de novo mutation (DNM) is one of the important phenomena contributing to gamete genome diversity. However, except for humans and a few model organisms, they are not well studied in livestock, including cattle. Moreover, bulk sperm samples have been routinely utilized in experiments, which include millions of single sperm cells and only report high-frequency variants. In this study, we isolated and sequenced 143 single sperms from two Holstein bulls and identified hundreds of candidate DNM events in ten sperms with deep sequencing coverage. We estimated DNM rates ranging from 1.08 × 10−8 to 3.78 × 10−8 per nucleotide per generation. We further validated 12 out of 14 selected DNM events using Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first single sperm whole-genome sequencing effort in livestock, which provided useful information for future studies of point mutations and male fertility. Our preliminary results pointed out future research directions and highlighted the importance of uniform whole genome amplification, deep sequence coverage, and dedicated software pipelines for genetic variant detection using single-cell sequencing data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Omics)
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Article
Service Sire Effects on Body Condition Score, Milk Production, and Rebreeding of Mixed-Aged Dairy Cows Bred to Angus and Hereford Bulls—A Case Study in New Zealand
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 637-648; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040049 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Beef-breed bulls are used in dairy herds to produce a calf of greater value for finishing than calves sired by dairy bulls. There is limited research about which beef-breed bulls are most appropriate, and whether any negative impact on cow performance in terms [...] Read more.
Beef-breed bulls are used in dairy herds to produce a calf of greater value for finishing than calves sired by dairy bulls. There is limited research about which beef-breed bulls are most appropriate, and whether any negative impact on cow performance in terms of milk production and rebreeding should be considered. The aim of this case study was to compare the body condition score, milk production, and rebreeding performance of mixed-aged dairy cows bred to a selection of Angus and Hereford beef-breed bulls. Body condition score, post-calving live weight, milk production, rebreeding performance, and survival of 952 mixed-aged dairy cows artificially bred to 65 Angus and Hereford bulls were compared. There was no effect of service sire on post-calving live weight, days in milk, milk production, or inter-calving intervals of mixed-aged cows. Service sire had an effect on the calving day due to differences in gestation length (p < 0.001), although this did not translate into an effect on days in milk. A longer gestation length negatively influenced pregnancy rates, and greater birth weight of the calf negatively influenced survival to rebreeding (p < 0.05), indicating the potential for an effect of service sire. Selection of beef-breed service sires for dairy cows should include emphasis on lighter calves and shorter gestation lengths. The general absence of the service sire effect on the parameters measured in this study indicated that any of the service sires used in this experiment would be appropriate for use over dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Physiology)
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Review
The Transition Period Updated: A Review of the New Insights into the Adaptation of Dairy Cows to the New Lactation
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 617-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040048 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Recent research on the transition period (TP) of dairy cows has highlighted the pivotal role of immune function in affecting the severity of metabolic challenges the animals face when approaching calving. This suggests that the immune system may play a role in the [...] Read more.
Recent research on the transition period (TP) of dairy cows has highlighted the pivotal role of immune function in affecting the severity of metabolic challenges the animals face when approaching calving. This suggests that the immune system may play a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases occurring in early lactation. Several studies have indicated that the roots of immune dysfunctions could sink way before the “classical” TP (e.g., 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after calving), extending the time frame deemed as “risky” for the development of early lactation disorders at the period around the dry-off. Several distressing events occurring during the TP (i.e., dietary changes, heat stress) can boost the severity of pre-existing immune dysfunctions and metabolic changes that physiologically affect this phase of the lactation cycle, further increasing the likelihood of developing diseases. Based on this background, several operational and nutritional strategies could be adopted to minimize the detrimental effects of immune dysfunctions on the adaptation of dairy cows to the new lactation. A suitable environment (i.e., optimal welfare) and a balanced diet (which guarantees optimal nutrient partitioning to improve immune functions in cow and calf) are key aspects to consider when aiming to minimize TP challenges at the herd level. Furthermore, several prognostic behavioral and physiological indicators could help in identifying subjects that are more likely to undergo a “bad transition”, allowing prompt intervention through specific modulatory treatments. Recent genomic advances in understanding the linkage between metabolic disorders and the genotype of dairy cows suggest that genetic breeding programs aimed at improving dairy cows’ adaptation to the new lactation challenges (i.e., through increasing immune system efficiency or resilience against metabolic disorders) could be expected in the future. Despite these encouraging steps forward in understanding the physiological mechanisms driving metabolic responses of dairy cows during their transition to calving, it is evident that these processes still require further investigation, and that the TP—likely extended from dry-off—continues to be “the final frontier” for research in dairy sciences. Full article
Article
Rehydration Properties of Whey Protein Isolate Powders Containing Nanoparticulated Proteins
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 602-616; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040047 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
The rehydration properties of original whey protein isolate (WPIC) powder and spray-dried WPI prepared from either unheated (WPIUH) or nanoparticulated WPI solutions were investigated. Nanoparticulation of whey proteins was achieved by subjecting reconstituted WPIC solutions (10% protein, w [...] Read more.
The rehydration properties of original whey protein isolate (WPIC) powder and spray-dried WPI prepared from either unheated (WPIUH) or nanoparticulated WPI solutions were investigated. Nanoparticulation of whey proteins was achieved by subjecting reconstituted WPIC solutions (10% protein, w/w, pH 7.0) to heat treatment at 90 °C for 30 s with no added calcium (WPIH) or with 2.5 mM added calcium (WPIHCa). Powder surface nanostructure and elemental composition were investigated using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, followed by dynamic visualisation of wetting and dissolution characteristics using environmental scanning electron microscopy. The surface of powder particles for both WPIUH and WPIC samples generally appeared smooth, while WPIH and WPIHCa displayed micro-wrinkles with more significant deposition of nitrogen and calcium elements. WPIH and WPIHCa exhibited lower wettability and solubility performance than WPIUH and WPIC during microscopic observation. This study demonstrated that heat-induced aggregation of whey proteins, in the presence or absence of added calcium, before drying increases aggregate size, alters the powder surface properties, consequently impairing their wetting characteristics. This study also developed a fundamental understanding of WPI powder obtained from nanoparticulated whey proteins, which could be applied for the development of functional whey-based ingredients in food formulations, such as nanospacers to modulate protein–protein interactions in dairy concentrates. Full article
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Article
Effect of Storage and Heat Treatment of Milk Destined for Cheese Production on Its Oxidative Characteristics
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 585-601; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040046 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The oxidative stability of milk and dairy products is a very interesting topic for the dairy industry due to the growing demand for foods containing bioactive compounds with positive health effects. The aim was to evaluate the oxidative stability of milk intended for [...] Read more.
The oxidative stability of milk and dairy products is a very interesting topic for the dairy industry due to the growing demand for foods containing bioactive compounds with positive health effects. The aim was to evaluate the oxidative stability of milk intended for cheese production. The effect of storage time, heat pre-treatment, and milk pasteurization temperature on the characteristics of milk and cheese was investigated. The cheese samples were produced with pasteurized milk at both 72 and 77 °C for a time of 15 s using three types of milk: raw fresh milk processed within 48 h of milking, raw stored milk processed within 96 h, and thermized milk that was heat-treated upon arrival at the dairy and processed within 96 h of milking. In total, three repetitions were carried out for each type of milk and pasteurization. Samples of milk before and after pasteurization and cheese at 14 days of storage were analyzed. Antioxidant activity decreased from starting milk to milk after pasteurization to final cheese. The longer storage time of the milk had significant effects on the antioxidant stability of the cheese (64.95 vs. 59.05% of antioxidant activity). Thermization of the milk further reduced the stability of the cheese (54.05% of antioxidant activity). The greater antioxidant stability of fresh milk and cheeses produced with fresh milk is the first result that encourages the production of cheese from a milk that best preserves its original characteristics. Full article
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Article
Recovery Rates of Treated vs. Non-Treated Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 576-584; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040045 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
The term “spontaneous recovery” refers to a return to a previous condition without any external treatment. In cow mastitis, it refers to cases exhibiting visual symptoms (clinical) or an increase in somatic cell count (SCC) with no visual symptoms (subclinical), with or without [...] Read more.
The term “spontaneous recovery” refers to a return to a previous condition without any external treatment. In cow mastitis, it refers to cases exhibiting visual symptoms (clinical) or an increase in somatic cell count (SCC) with no visual symptoms (subclinical), with or without identification of a pathogen, from which the animal recovers. A large retrospective analysis of data compiled from the Israeli Dairy Herd Book was performed to evaluate the occurrence of: (i) actual “spontaneous recovery” from the inflammation; (ii) recovery from the inflammation due to antibiotic treatment. In 2018, 123,958 cows from 650 herds with first elevation of SCC at monthly test-day milk yield were clustered into five SCC-cutoff levels (CL) (×103 cells/mL): CL1 (200–299), CL2 (300–399), CL3 (400–499), CL4 (500–999), CL5 (≥1000). Each cutoff level was analyzed separately, and each cow appeared only once in the same lactation and cutoff level, thus resulting in five independent analyses. Recovery was defined as decreased SCC on all three monthly test days, or on the second and third test days, set to: R1 (<100 × 103 cells/mL); R2 (<250 × 103 cells/mL). No difference was found among cutoff levels when the recovery was set to R1, with only 10–12% of the cows presenting spontaneous recovery. When the recovery was set to R2, percent spontaneous recovery was 25–27% at the three higher cutoff levels (CL3–CL5) and 35–41% at the lowest levels (CL1, CL2). Antibiotic treatment was administered to only ~10% of the cows, and in only the higher cutoff-level groups—CL4 and CL5. No difference was found between spontaneous recovery and recovery after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, percentage culled cows treated with antibiotics was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of non-treated culled cows (18 and 10.2, respectively), suggesting that the more severe mastitis cases were treated. We concluded that (i) actual spontaneous recovery from inflammation is low and does not depend on the number of cells in the milk at time of infection, and (ii) recovery from inflammation following antibiotic treatment is not higher. Full article
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Review
Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 556-575; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040044 - 10 Oct 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine [...] Read more.
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which has become more challenging with the emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques is required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are as follows: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements; the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using an appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum; the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods; and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
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Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of a Compound Based on Plants, Yeast and Trace Elements on the Ruminal Function of Dairy Cows
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 542-555; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040043 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The high production levels reached by the dairy sector need adjustment in nutritional inputs and efficient feed conversion. In this context, we evaluated a compound (QY—Qualix Yellow) combining optimized inputs in trace elements and 20% MIX 3.0. In a first step, the effects [...] Read more.
The high production levels reached by the dairy sector need adjustment in nutritional inputs and efficient feed conversion. In this context, we evaluated a compound (QY—Qualix Yellow) combining optimized inputs in trace elements and 20% MIX 3.0. In a first step, the effects of MIX 3.0 on ruminal function were assessed in vitro by incubating ruminal fluid with the mixture at a ratio of 20:1. The results obtained encouraged us to test QY in vivo, on a herd of dairy cows. The herd was divided into one group of 19 dairy cows receiving the compound and a control group of 20 animals conducted in the same conditions, but which did not received the compound; the production performance and feed efficiency of the two groups were compared. In vitro experiments showed improved digestion of acid and neutral detergent fibres by 10%. The propionate production was enhanced by 14.5% after 6 h incubation with MIX 3.0. The plant mixture decreased the production of methane and ammonia by 37% and 52%, respectively, and reduced the number of protozoa by 50%. An increase in milk yield by 2.4 kg/cow/d (p < 0.1), combined with a decrease in concentrate consumption of 0.27 kg DM/cow/d (p < 0.001), was observed in vivo after consumption of the compound. Sixty-six days after the beginning of the trial, methane emissions per kg of milk were significantly lower in the group receiving QY. In conclusion, MIX 3.0 induced change in ruminal function in vitro and, when it entered into the composition of the QY, it appeared to improve feed efficiency and production performance in vivo. Full article
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Article
FT-MIR Analysis of Water-Soluble Extracts during the Ripening of Sheep Milk Cheese with Different Phospholipid Content
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 530-541; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040042 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to study the suitability of the water-soluble extracts (WSE) of semi-hard sheep milk cheese for analysis by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) and the development of classification models using discriminant analysis and based on cheese [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to study the suitability of the water-soluble extracts (WSE) of semi-hard sheep milk cheese for analysis by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) and the development of classification models using discriminant analysis and based on cheese age or phospholipid content. WSE was extracted from three types of sheep milk cheeses (full-fat, reduced-fat and reduced-fat fortified with lyophilized sweet sheep buttermilk) at various stages of ripening from six to 168 days and lyophilized. The first model used 1854–1381 and 1192–760 cm−1 regions of the first-derivative spectra and successfully differentiated samples of different age, based on changes in the water-soluble products of ripening biochemical events. The second model used the phospholipid absorbance spectral regions (3012–2851, 1854–1611 and 1192–909 cm−1) to successfully discriminate cheeses of markedly different phospholipid content. Cheese WSE was found suitable for FT-MIR analysis. According to the results, a fast and simple method to monitor cheese ripening based on water-soluble substances has been developed. Additionally, the results indicated that a considerable amount of phospholipids migrates to the cheese WSE and that FT-MIR can be a useful tool for their assessment. Full article
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Article
The Use of Membrane Filtration to Increase Native Whey Proteins in Infant Formula
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 515-529; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040041 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
The introduction of membrane filtration during infant milk formula (IMF) processing represents an innovative approach to increasing native protein content compared to standard IMF. The objective of this study was to compare IMF powder produced using a standard process and IMF produced from [...] Read more.
The introduction of membrane filtration during infant milk formula (IMF) processing represents an innovative approach to increasing native protein content compared to standard IMF. The objective of this study was to compare IMF powder produced using a standard process and IMF produced from raw bovine skim milk with added whey protein isolate using a split-stream process incorporating a ceramic 1.4 μm filter followed by a polyvinylidene difluoride polymeric 0.2 μm filter. Retentates from 0.2 μm microfiltration (MF) were blended with fat, lactose, and minerals and subsequently high-temperature treated (125 °C × 5 s). The heat-treated retentate was merged with the permeate from the 0.2 μm MF, homogenised, and spray-dried (referred to as membrane-filtered IMF or MEM-IMF). A control IMF was also produced using standard treatment (referred to as high-temperature IMF or HT-IMF) without membrane filtration. Both IMF products were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size, and enzyme activity assays. MEM-IMF powder had significantly higher amounts of native (1.1 g per 100 g powder) and monomeric (1.48 g per 100 g powder) whey proteins when compared to 0.18 and 0.46 g per 100 g powder in HT-IMF, respectively. MEM-IMF also exhibited a lower degree of protein aggregation compared to HT-IMF. Comparison of microbial and Maillard by-products markers demonstrated that a safe IMF product could be produced at scale, although levels of the Maillard by-product marker, carboxymethyl-lysine, were not significantly reduced in MEM-IMF. This study demonstrates how membrane filtration can be used to retain native proteins during IMF manufacture. Full article
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