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Smart Cities, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 21 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Solution of the Transit Network Design Problem
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 541-554; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020029 (registering DOI) - 01 Jun 2020
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Abstract
The research presented in this paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for solving the transit network design problem in large urban areas. The solving procedure is divided in two main phases: in the first step, a heuristic route generation algorithm provides [...] Read more.
The research presented in this paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for solving the transit network design problem in large urban areas. The solving procedure is divided in two main phases: in the first step, a heuristic route generation algorithm provides a preliminary set of feasible and comparable routes, according to three different design criteria; in the second step, the optimal network configuration is found by applying a PSO-based procedure. This study presents a comparison between the results of the PSO approach and the results of a procedure based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Both methods were tested on a real-size network in Rome, in order to compare their efficiency and effectiveness in optimal transit network calculation. The results show that the PSO approach promises more efficiency and effectiveness than GAs in producing optimal solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Transportation)
Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms for Innovative-Driven Solutions in European Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 527-540; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020028 (registering DOI) - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Innovative procurement is an important tool for smart cities to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public services, especially in sectors such as smart living (for example, health conditions), smart mobility, or smart environment (with emphasis on waste and water management). The European [...] Read more.
Innovative procurement is an important tool for smart cities to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public services, especially in sectors such as smart living (for example, health conditions), smart mobility, or smart environment (with emphasis on waste and water management). The European Union (EU) public procurement legislative framework encourages the deployment of innovation by several means (including, inter alia, the introduction of competitive procedures promoting innovation, use of award criteria based on factors other than price, and the life-cycle approach) and sets the scene for a more strategic procurement for EU smart cities. Despite the proven benefits of innovative procurement, public authorities, driven mainly by their preference to follow traditional tender procedures under solely budgetary considerations, have hesitated to introduce innovation. The case study of Greece is examined, and it is concluded that despite the adopted policy measures that are conducive for mainstreaming innovation procurement, innovation procurement in Greece is at an early development stage. One of the reasons that hinder the application of innovation-oriented procedures by public purchasers is their insufficient knowledge of the available legal framework. The broad objective of this article is to outline the main innovation-friendly tools, as set out in the applicable European public procurement legislative framework that smart cities should adopt in order to make strategic use of innovative procurement. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Smart and Sustainable? Positioning Adaptation to Climate Change in the European Smart City
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 511-526; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020027 (registering DOI) - 01 Jun 2020
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Abstract
This article reports on the elements of adaptation to climate change in European Smart City initiatives in order to understand to what extent Smart Cities can be the answer in the fight against climate change. On the grounds of innovative efforts implemented in [...] Read more.
This article reports on the elements of adaptation to climate change in European Smart City initiatives in order to understand to what extent Smart Cities can be the answer in the fight against climate change. On the grounds of innovative efforts implemented in Barcelona, Rotterdam, and Vienna, we examine the opportunities and obstacles to both Smart Environment (defined as an axis of the Smart City) and adaptation to climate change, linking them together. As it is difficult to estimate the benefits of climate action in the short term due to often costly solutions, Smart City proposals could provide the economic incentive to create adaptive, energy-efficient, and sustainable societies. As the need for adaptive and resilient cities in the global context of climate change rises, the concept of Smart City might need to evolve into that of a Smart Sustainable City, positioning the environment at the core of its development. Results from this analysis suggest that the interaction between technology and nature can be enhanced when a Smart City approach promotes the integration of climate strategies and encourages the participation of citizens, something that is crucial since early adaptation efforts can safeguard smart infrastructure from climate impacts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Sustainable Public Transportation and Mobility Recommendations for Montevideo and Parque Rodó Neighborhood
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 479-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020026 (registering DOI) - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
This article presents an analysis and characterization of recent sustainable initiatives developed for the public transportation of Montevideo, Uruguay. In addition, specific analysis and recommendations are proposed for the Parque Rodó neighborhood, based on a survey performed to people that commute to/from that [...] Read more.
This article presents an analysis and characterization of recent sustainable initiatives developed for the public transportation of Montevideo, Uruguay. In addition, specific analysis and recommendations are proposed for the Parque Rodó neighborhood, based on a survey performed to people that commute to/from that area. The analysis considers the main concepts from related works, evaluating relevant quantitative (coverage, accessibility, affordability, etc.) and qualitative (public finance, integration, comfort and pleasure, etc.) indicators. Three sustainable public transportation initiatives are studied: electric bus, public bicycles, and electric scooters. Results of the analysis for each transportation mode suggest that the first initiatives focus on specific sectors of the population and should be improved in order to extend their accessibility and affordability. In turn, coverage must also be expanded. Regarding the analysis of the Parque Rodó neighborhood, results indicate that people are willing to perform the modal shift to more sustainable transportation modes, but several improvements are needed to improve the quality of service. All these aspects are considered in the proposed guidelines for a sustainable mobility plan in the area and also for suggestions and recommendations formulated to develop and improve sustainable mobility in Montevideo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobility and IoT for the Smart Cities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Using Smart City Tools to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Low Emissions Zone in Spain: Madrid Central
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 456-478; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020025 (registering DOI) - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Population concentration in cities brings new risks as an increase in pollution, which causes urban health problems. In order to address this problem, traffic reduction measures are being implemented as pedestrianization areas; they are the definition of Low Emissions Zones (LEZs). When the [...] Read more.
Population concentration in cities brings new risks as an increase in pollution, which causes urban health problems. In order to address this problem, traffic reduction measures are being implemented as pedestrianization areas; they are the definition of Low Emissions Zones (LEZs). When the effectiveness of these types of measures is in doubt, smart city tools provide data that can be used to scientifically asses their impact. This article analyzes the situation of Madrid Central (Spain), a LEZ subject to controversy. We apply statistical and regression analyses to evaluate the effectiveness of this measure to reduce air pollution and outdoor noise. According to the results, this LEZ was able to significantly reduce NO 2 , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 concentration locally, having the same positive impact in the rest of the city. In terms of noise, this measure was able to mitigate background noise levels generated by road traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobility and IoT for the Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
RSSI-Based for Device-Free Localization Using Deep Learning Technique
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 444-455; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020024 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Device-free localization (DFL) has become a hot topic in the paradigm of the Internet of Things. Traditional localization methods are focused on locating users with attached wearable devices. This involves privacy concerns and physical discomfort especially to users that need to wear and [...] Read more.
Device-free localization (DFL) has become a hot topic in the paradigm of the Internet of Things. Traditional localization methods are focused on locating users with attached wearable devices. This involves privacy concerns and physical discomfort especially to users that need to wear and activate those devices daily. DFL makes use of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) to characterize the user’s location based on their influence on wireless signals. Existing work utilizes statistical features extracted from wireless signals. However, some features may not perform well in different environments. They need to be manually designed for a specific application. Thus, data processing is an important step towards producing robust input data for the classification process. This paper presents experimental procedures using the deep learning approach to automatically learn discriminative features and classify the user’s location. Extensive experiments performed in an indoor laboratory environment demonstrate that the approach can achieve 84.2% accuracy compared to the other basic machine learning algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Data-driven Innovative Solutions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Smart Bus Stops as Interconnected Public Spaces for Increasing Social Inclusiveness and Quality of Life of Elder Users
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 430-443; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020023 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
As the Smart City concept evolves, it necessarily incorporates more sustainability and inclusiveness features. In this context, the mobility of people is still one of the major challenges for cities. Among the most vulnerable group of citizens are the elderly, as they demand [...] Read more.
As the Smart City concept evolves, it necessarily incorporates more sustainability and inclusiveness features. In this context, the mobility of people is still one of the major challenges for cities. Among the most vulnerable group of citizens are the elderly, as they demand special requirements in the design of smart mobility. At the same time, smart cities’ technologies could be used to maintain their quality of life. From an architectural and sociological point of view, smart cities change the meaning and the use of public spaces, from physical meeting places to relational public spaces, in which humans use interposed technological means and information flows. This leads to the concept of Interconnected Public Spaces: a mixture of physical and virtual environments, generating interconnections at a planetary scale, that can be used to attract elderly people for collectively sharing experiences outdoor in public spaces (parks, squares or bus stops, in any city on our planet), increasing their physical form and stimulating them mentally, socially and emotionally. This paper describes the development of an inclusive smart bus stop prototype and the use of its ICT infrastructure to build Interconnected Public Spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobility and IoT for the Smart Cities)
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Open AccessCommunication
Applying a Systems Perspective on the Notion of the Smart City
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 420-429; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020022 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
This paper focuses on the need for a widened definition of the notion of technology within the smart city discourse, with a particular focus on the “built environment”. The first part of the paper describes how current tendencies in urban design and architecture [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the need for a widened definition of the notion of technology within the smart city discourse, with a particular focus on the “built environment”. The first part of the paper describes how current tendencies in urban design and architecture are inclined to prioritize high tech-solutions at the expense of low-tech functionalities and omits that information and communication technology (ICT) contrasts the art of building cities as an adaptable and habitually smart technology in itself. It continues with an elaboration on the need for expanding the limits of system boundaries for a better understanding of the energy and material telecouplings that are linked to ICT solutions and account for some perils inherent in smart technologies, such as rebound effects and the difficulty of measuring the environmental impacts of ICT solutions on a city level. The second part of the paper highlights how low-tech technologies and nature-based solutions can make cities smarter, representing a new technology portfolio in national and international policies for safeguarding biodiversity and the delivery of a range of ecosystem services, promoting the necessary climate-change adaption that cities need to prioritize to confer resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities, Smart Homes and Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Case Study Based Approach for Remote Fault Detection Using Multi-Level Machine Learning in A Smart Building
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 401-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020021 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Due to the increased awareness of issues ranging from green initiatives, sustainability, and occupant well-being, buildings are becoming smarter, but with smart requirements come increasing complexity and monitoring, ultimately carried out by humans. Building heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) units are one of [...] Read more.
Due to the increased awareness of issues ranging from green initiatives, sustainability, and occupant well-being, buildings are becoming smarter, but with smart requirements come increasing complexity and monitoring, ultimately carried out by humans. Building heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) units are one of the major units that consume large percentages of a building’s energy, for example through their involvement in space heating and cooling, the greatest energy consumption in buildings. By monitoring such components effectively, the entire energy demand in buildings can be substantially decreased. Due to the complex nature of building management systems (BMS), many simultaneous anomalous behaviour warnings are not manageable in a timely manner; thus, many energy related problems are left unmanaged, which causes unnecessary energy wastage and deteriorates equipment’s lifespan. This study proposes a machine learning based multi-level automatic fault detection system (MLe-AFD) focusing on remote HVAC fan coil unit (FCU) behaviour analysis. The proposed method employs sequential two-stage clustering to identify the abnormal behaviour of FCU. The model’s performance is validated by implementing well-known statistical measures and further cross-validated via expert building engineering knowledge. The method was experimented on a commercial building based in central London, U.K., as a case study and allows remotely identifying three types of FCU faults appropriately and informing building management staff proactively when they occur; this way, the energy expenditure can be further optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Adoption of Ridehailing Result in More Frequent Sustainable Mobility Choices? An Investigation Based on the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 Data
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 385-400; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020020 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Among many changes potentially induced by the adoption of ridehailing, one key area of interest in transportation and urban planning research is how these services affect sustainable mobility choices, such as usage of public transit, walking, and biking modes and lower ownership of [...] Read more.
Among many changes potentially induced by the adoption of ridehailing, one key area of interest in transportation and urban planning research is how these services affect sustainable mobility choices, such as usage of public transit, walking, and biking modes and lower ownership of household vehicles. In this study, by using subsamples of the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 data, propensity score matching technique is applied to generate matched samples of ridehailing adopters and non-adopters from ten different core-based statistical areas in the U.S. Results from multivariable count data regression models built on the matched samples indicate that, on average, the count of public transit trips is greater for adopters compared against identical non-adopters in all ten areas. Regarding average counts of walking and biking trips, adopters tend to make more trips in most of the places, although a few exceptions are also found. However, the relationship between ridehailing adoption and count of household vehicles appears to be more complicated as adopters, on average, seem to have a lower or higher number of vehicles than identical non-adopters, depending on the area. One major limitation of this study is that, in the statistical analyses, effects of attitudinal and detailed geographic variables are not directly controlled for, which complicates causal interpretations of findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation on the Feasibility of Near-Zero and Positive Energy Communities in the Greek Context
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 362-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020019 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Near Zero Energy and Positive Energy communities are expected to play a significant part in EU’s strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Within this context, the work presented in this paper aims to investigate the feasibility of: (a) a new-built positive [...] Read more.
Near Zero Energy and Positive Energy communities are expected to play a significant part in EU’s strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Within this context, the work presented in this paper aims to investigate the feasibility of: (a) a new-built positive energy neighborhood; and (b) the retrofit of an existing neighborhood to near zero energy performance in the city of Alexandroupolis, Greece. Proposed measures involve the rollout at the community scale of renewable energy technologies (PV, geothermal heat pump), energy efficiency (fabric insulation, district heating and cooling networks) and storage systems (batteries). A parametric analysis is conducted to identify the optimum combination of technologies through suitable technical and financial criteria. Results indicate that zero and near zero emissions targets are met with various combinations that impose insulation levels, according to building regulations or slightly higher, and consider renewable energy production with an autonomy of half or, more commonly, one day. In addition, the advantages of performing nearly zero energy retrofit at the district, rather than the building level, are highlighted, in an attempt to stimulate interest in community energy schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Leveraging Intelligent Transportation Systems and Smart Vehicles Using Crowdsourcing: An Overview
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 341-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020018 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 262
Abstract
The current and expected future proliferation of mobile and embedded technology provides unique opportunities for crowdsourcing platforms to gather more user data for making data-driven decisions at the system level. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Vehicular Social Networks (VSN) can be leveraged by [...] Read more.
The current and expected future proliferation of mobile and embedded technology provides unique opportunities for crowdsourcing platforms to gather more user data for making data-driven decisions at the system level. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Vehicular Social Networks (VSN) can be leveraged by mobile, spatial, and passive sensing crowdsourcing techniques due to improved connectivity, higher throughput, smart vehicles containing many embedded systems and sensors, and novel distributed processing techniques. These crowdsourcing systems have the capability of profoundly transforming transportation systems for the better by providing more data regarding (but not limited to) infrastructure health, navigation pathways, and congestion management. In this paper, we review and discuss the architecture and types of ITS crowdsourcing. Then, we delve into the techniques and technologies that serve as the foundation for these systems to function while providing some simulation results to show benefits from the implementation of these techniques and technologies on specific crowdsourcing-based ITS systems. Afterward, we provide an overview of cutting edge work associated with ITS crowdsourcing challenges. Finally, we propose various use-cases and applications for ITS crowdsourcing, and suggest some open research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Zenneck Waves in Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification and Application in EM-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 308-340; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020017 - 06 May 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms [...] Read more.
In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power transfer application using Zenneck surface waves in electromagnetic (EM) based wireless underground communications is developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things in Digital Agriculture)
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Open AccessReview
Striving for a Safer and More Ergonomic Workplace: Acceptability and Human Factors Related to the Adoption of AR/VR Glasses in Industry 4.0
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 289-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020016 - 02 May 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The word smart is very popular these days, as a result of nearly everything being digital today. Background information: In this digital world, everything is interconnected by smart devices. The driving force behind this is today’s Industry 4.0 environment, which is affected by [...] Read more.
The word smart is very popular these days, as a result of nearly everything being digital today. Background information: In this digital world, everything is interconnected by smart devices. The driving force behind this is today’s Industry 4.0 environment, which is affected by many factors, including the ergonomic and safe design of new technology, ensuring the safety of factory operators, whilst increasing productivity and profits. The authors answer the following research questions: Are AR/VR systems or devices proposed for industrial use capable of meeting the needs of the industry (including sustainability)? Are these AR/VR devices designed to ensure easy use and efficient training of factory operators? Do the proposals of the reviewed research papers place sufficient emphasis on creating ergonomic workplaces? These publications were categorized into three subcategories based on the used key technology, research or application area, and their main purposes. Conclusion: Virtual reality, augmented reality, and IoT are becoming increasingly more suitable for industrial use, despite facing scrutiny and criticism. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Review of Energy in the Built Environment
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 248-288; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020015 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Urban environments can be key to sustainable energy in terms of driving innovation and action. Urban areas are responsible for a significant part of energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The share of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to increase as global [...] Read more.
Urban environments can be key to sustainable energy in terms of driving innovation and action. Urban areas are responsible for a significant part of energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The share of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to increase as global urban populations increase. As over half of the human population will live in cities in the near future, the management of energy supply and demand in urban environments will become essential. Developments such as the transformation of the electricity grid from a centralised to a decentralised system as well as the electrification of the transportation and heating systems in buildings will transform the urban energy landscape. Efficient heating systems, sustainable energy technologies, and electric vehicles will be critical to decarbonise cities. An overview of emerging technologies and concepts in the built environment is provided in this literature review on the basis of four main areas, namely, energy demand, supply, storage, and integration aspects. The Netherlands is used as a case study for demonstrating evidence-based results and feasibility of innovative urban energy solutions, as well as supportive policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Urban Energy Systems: Focus on Real World Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the What, Why, and How of Becoming a Smart City: Experiences from Kakinada and Kanpur
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 232-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020014 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Rapid urbanization can result in challenges, such as overcrowding, congestion, and a lack of urban services. To address these challenges, an increasing number of communities are exploring the concept of a smart city (SC). Although rapid urbanization is a problem for cities around [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization can result in challenges, such as overcrowding, congestion, and a lack of urban services. To address these challenges, an increasing number of communities are exploring the concept of a smart city (SC). Although rapid urbanization is a problem for cities around the world, its consequences can be severe for those located in developing nations. While previous studies have focused on SCs that were built from the ground up, there is a critical need for studies that focus on how to advance SC initiatives in developing regions faced with limited land and resources. This study identified two proposed SCs in India—Kakinada and Kanpur—which are currently implementing SC projects to explore their SC transformation. This case study aims to explore how “smartness” is understood in these cities and examines the local conditions shaping SC objectives by studying the existing issues in the cities, the proposed projects, and the perception of SC experts on a) what they understand by “smartness”; b) why cities want to become smart; and c) how they will become smart. The study findings indicate that although the high-level goals of the proposed SCs in India are similar to those of existing SCs in developed nations, the underlying objectives and strategies vary and are shaped by the urbanization challenges facing the Indian cities. This research also highlights the key questions a SC planning effort should address, especially in a developing nation context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Management and Governance in Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
On-site Trip Planning Support System Based on Dynamic Information on Tourism Spots
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 212-231; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020013 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Recently, due to the drastic increase in foreign tourists coming to Japan, there has been a demand to provide smart tourism services that enable inbound tourists to comfortably enjoy sightseeing. To provide satisfactory experiences for tourists, it is desirable to provide tourist information [...] Read more.
Recently, due to the drastic increase in foreign tourists coming to Japan, there has been a demand to provide smart tourism services that enable inbound tourists to comfortably enjoy sightseeing. To provide satisfactory experiences for tourists, it is desirable to provide tourist information in a timely manner by considering dynamic information, which is information that changes over time, such as current congestion information in destination spots and travel route information, in addition to static information, such as the preferences and profiles of tourists. However, in many existing systems, serious problems occur, such as (1) a lack of support for on-site use, (2) a lack of consideration of dynamic information, and (3) heavy burden on tourists. In this paper, we propose a novel system that can provide tourism plans for tourism spots in a timely manner. The proposed system consists of the following two key mechanisms: (A) A mechanism for acquiring preference information from tourists (including preference on dynamic information); (B) a curation mechanism for realizing on-site tourism. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, we carried out evaluation experiments utilizing real tourism spots and simulations. As a result, we obtained the following primary findings: (1) On-site tourism spot recommendation is effective for tourists who do not make detailed tourism plans before sightseeing; (2) preference information for participants can be reflected in the tourism spot recommendation while massively reducing the burden on participants; (3) it is possible to obtain a higher satisfaction level than is achieved with model courses, which are often used for sightseeing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Big Data for Natural Disasters in an Urban Railroad Neighborhood: A Systematic Review
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 202-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020012 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Landslides and floods are among the most common disasters in Brazil and are responsible for losses on social, environmental, and economic scales, even resulting in deaths. Floods can negatively affect the structure and operations of a railway network, causing travel delays, train service [...] Read more.
Landslides and floods are among the most common disasters in Brazil and are responsible for losses on social, environmental, and economic scales, even resulting in deaths. Floods can negatively affect the structure and operations of a railway network, causing travel delays, train service cancellations, and major fines for the railway. The objective of this article is to conduct a bibliographic review of what is available in publications on natural disasters, particularly landslides and floods, big data techniques, and railroads, at international and national levels. A bibliometric analysis was carried out according to the “PRISMA Flow Diagram” guidelines. The analysis in this study was conducted through searches of the following reference databases: Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo, and Google Scholar. After the keyword search was completed, the absence of available data and references relating to Brazil was verified. This justified the development of this and other related papers, and the efforts necessary to turn these data into useful information for the managers of cities and environmental institutions. The aim of this study is to fill the gap in the research, focusing on Brazil, related to big data, smart cities, and natural disasters (particularly, landslides and floods), and to propose other papers that can be developed in this subject area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Knowledge Discovery and Big Data Analytics in Smart Cities)
Open AccessPerspective
Regarding Smart Cities in China, the North and Emerging Economies—One Size Does Not Fit All
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 186-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020011 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 561
Abstract
This article explores the significance of the “Smart city” concept by reviewing its key components, namely: Internet of Things (IoT), big (urban) data, and urban informatics/analytics, which are discussed against the background of two ongoing trends impacting everyone in the world—the Fourth Paradigm [...] Read more.
This article explores the significance of the “Smart city” concept by reviewing its key components, namely: Internet of Things (IoT), big (urban) data, and urban informatics/analytics, which are discussed against the background of two ongoing trends impacting everyone in the world—the Fourth Paradigm (the digital revolution) and rapid urbanization. China is seen as a great success story in the sense of how urbanization has driven a significant improvement in the economic wellbeing and prosperity of many of its citizens. Chinese expansion has come at a cost, and the question remains concerning the sustainability of the Chinese model. Along with this, the article suggests some of the short comings of the components of the Smart city concept and reflects on the human resource skills that will be required to implement Smart cities in the north. This is contrasted with the piecemeal way in which elements of the Smart city are being implemented in emerging economies. A process that very much seems to reflect fundamental technical and capacity issues that may hinder any blanket application of the Smart city in the emerging economies for a long time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges for the Development of Sustainable Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
“Unparking”: How can Smart Mobility Reduce Parking Demand in Our Cities to the Minimum? (Beirut Case Study)
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 172-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020010 - 29 Mar 2020
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Beirut is a car-dependent city, with 80% of Beirut citizens using their private cars to move across the city (the rate of car ownership is higher than regional and global benchmarks: 627 cars/1000 in Beirut, 550/1000 in Dubai and 170/1000 in Singapore). This [...] Read more.
Beirut is a car-dependent city, with 80% of Beirut citizens using their private cars to move across the city (the rate of car ownership is higher than regional and global benchmarks: 627 cars/1000 in Beirut, 550/1000 in Dubai and 170/1000 in Singapore). This reality causes two related impacts: an increased parking demand and decreased public transportation usage. Furthermore, in order to discuss these aspects, our study addresses the following question: How can the municipality’s interventions and mobility system reforms, such as smart public transportation systems and shareable mobility, reduce parking demand? As our methodology, it consists of three sections: (1) determine Beirut's parking problems by estimating parking demand and supply; (2) assess the potential effects of Beirut municipality policies in comparison to international experiences; and (3) evaluate the potential impacts of the smart public transportation system and shareable mobility in reducing parking demand. This paper studies parking growth in developing countries, such as Lebanon, and can help planners, decision-makers, and the Beirut municipality to make more informed decisions about parking policies, and to meet growing parking demand by introducing smart interventions that have high local potentials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Demand Response in District Heating Market—Results of the Field Tests in Student Apartment Buildings
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 157-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020009 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 629
Abstract
This article presents the field test of the developed demand response system installed in the central heating systems of existing apartment buildings. The buildings are occupied by students and located in Tampere, Finland, which is within the northern climate zone. The studied buildings [...] Read more.
This article presents the field test of the developed demand response system installed in the central heating systems of existing apartment buildings. The buildings are occupied by students and located in Tampere, Finland, which is within the northern climate zone. The studied buildings are connected to the local district heating network. The presented demand response system takes into account weather forecasts, indoor temperatures and decreases in space heating temperatures when demand for domestic hot water is the highest. The owner of the buildings benefits from peak demand control and can save in fixed fees. If enough buildings would have this kind of demand response control system, there would be a decreased need for utility companies to use peak power plants that typically use fossil fuels for heat production. In this field test, the peak load decrease was 14%–15% on average. During the test, the heating period of February and March, the normalized energy consumption of eight buildings was reduced by 11%, which represents a 9% annual cut in energy, costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Demand Response (DR) heating aims to help in reaching the objectives of the National Energy and Climate Strategy for 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Buildings)
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