The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context

A special issue of Smart Cities (ISSN 2624-6511). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 19057

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
BISITE Research Group, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: artificial intelligence; blockchain; deep learning; satellite systems; robot vision; cognitive robotics; sensor fusion; data fusion; mobile robotics; wireless networks; robotics; security; Internet of Things
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Business Studies, School of Economics and Business, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: accounting; econometry; sustainability; finance; business intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is slowly transforming different areas of human life, involving sectors such as transport, health, energy, and security. In recent years, several IoT deployments and test beds have been proposed to create new smart infrastructures. These infrastructures and applications enable cities not only to reduce costs and resource consumption but also to improve governance and the quality of life of resident citizens. The devices built into these smart infrastructures capture heterogeneous data of various types that differ in scale, volume, and semantics.

The construction of Smart Cities has become an important trend worldwide. In the past, telecommunication technologies were already crucial partners in terms of urban infrastructure. As IoT is becoming a basic means of communication in all cities, the role of telecommunication technologies in the development of Smart Cities cannot be emphasized enough. The technology of 5G mobile networks will gradually expand the implementation in Smart Cities and global business by 2020, in which IoT and Artificial Intelligence will also be integrated, contributing to a rapid development of Smart Cities. In response to such transformation, this Special Issue will be conducted—though not exclusively—under the following topics:

  • Novel architectures, protocols, and algorithms for end-to-end IoT and 5G systems to orchestrate Smart Cities;
  • 5G technology fusion, multimedia data fusion, and information fusion for Smart Cities;
  • Novel IoT and 5G communication platforms and access technologies;
  • Interoperability of IoT communication technologies through 5G;
  • Middleware technologies for IoT systems and applications and 5G;
  • Theoretical modeling and frameworks for IoT environments through 5G;
  • IoT and 5G applications and testbeds;
  • 5G virtualization for Smart Cities;
  • Dynamic network slicing based on IoT real-time data;
  • Sensing and aggregation of multimodal data in Smart Cities;
  • QoE/QoS in IoT multimedia services for Smarter Cities through 5G;
  • Case studies, real solutions, designs, and implementations of Smart Cities;
  • Security and privacy frameworks for IoT and 5G-based Smart Cities;
  • Innovative techniques for IoT communications security through 5G.

Dr. Javier Prieto
Dr. Javier Parra Domínguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Smart Cities is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IoT
  • Smart Cities
  • virtualization
  • communication security
  • interoperability

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
Blockchain-Based Business Process Management (BPM) for Finance: The Case of Credit and Claim Requests
by Bálint Molnár, Galena Pisoni, Meriem Kherbouche and Yossra Zghal
Smart Cities 2023, 6(3), 1254-1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6030061 - 03 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Because of the competitive economy, organizations today seek to rationalize, innovate, and adapt to changing environments and circumstances as part of business process improvement efforts. The strength of blockchain technology lies in its usage as an apt technology to enhance the efficiency and [...] Read more.
Because of the competitive economy, organizations today seek to rationalize, innovate, and adapt to changing environments and circumstances as part of business process improvement efforts. The strength of blockchain technology lies in its usage as an apt technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes; furthermore, it prevents the use of erroneous or obsolete data and allows sharing of confidential data securely. The use of superior technology in the execution and automation of business processes brings opportunities to rethink the specific process itself as well. Business processes modeling and verification are essential to control and assure organizational evolution, therefore, the aim of this paper is three-fold: firstly, to provide business process management patterns in finance, based on blockchain, specifically for the loan-application process in the banking industry and claim process in the insurance industry that could be used and customized by companies; secondly, to critically analyze challenges and opportunities from the introduction of such approach for companies, and thirdly, to outline how companies can implement the loan business process as a web service. Partner companies (a bank and an insurance company) formulated the potential requirements for M2P along with the application of blockchain technology. An experimental design framework was established that gave the necessary services to model the requirements, check the models, and operationalize the models. The applied research methodologies are as follows: design science research paradigm and software case study, model-to-programming (M2P) of business processes, and utilization of patterns of workflow and blockchain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context)
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19 pages, 3216 KiB  
Article
Smart Contracts for Managing the Chain-of-Custody of Digital Evidence: A Practical Case of Study
by Pablo Santamaría, Llanos Tobarra, Rafael Pastor-Vargas and Antonio Robles-Gómez
Smart Cities 2023, 6(2), 709-727; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6020034 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
The digital revolution is renewing many aspects of our lives, which is also a challenge in judicial processes, such as the Chain-of-Custody (CoC) process of any electronic evidence. A CoC management system must be designed to guarantee them to maintain its integrity in [...] Read more.
The digital revolution is renewing many aspects of our lives, which is also a challenge in judicial processes, such as the Chain-of-Custody (CoC) process of any electronic evidence. A CoC management system must be designed to guarantee them to maintain its integrity in court. This issue is essential for digital evidence’s admissibility and probative value. This work has built and validated a real prototype to manage the CoC process of any digital evidence. Our technological solution follows a process model that separates the evidence registry and any evidence itself for scalability purposes. It includes the development of an open-source smart contract under Quorum, a version of Ethereum oriented to private business environments. The significant findings of our analysis have been: (1) Blockchain networks can become a solution, where integrity, privacy and traceability must be guaranteed between untrustworthy parties; and (2) the necessity of promoting the standardization of CoC smart contracts with a secure, simple process logic. Consequently, these contracts should be deployed in consortium environments, where reliable, independent third parties validate the transactions without having to know their content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context)
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19 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
A Case Study Based Approach for Remote Fault Detection Using Multi-Level Machine Learning in A Smart Building
by Maitreyee Dey, Soumya Prakash Rana and Sandra Dudley
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 401-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020021 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4391
Abstract
Due to the increased awareness of issues ranging from green initiatives, sustainability, and occupant well-being, buildings are becoming smarter, but with smart requirements come increasing complexity and monitoring, ultimately carried out by humans. Building heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) units are one of [...] Read more.
Due to the increased awareness of issues ranging from green initiatives, sustainability, and occupant well-being, buildings are becoming smarter, but with smart requirements come increasing complexity and monitoring, ultimately carried out by humans. Building heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) units are one of the major units that consume large percentages of a building’s energy, for example through their involvement in space heating and cooling, the greatest energy consumption in buildings. By monitoring such components effectively, the entire energy demand in buildings can be substantially decreased. Due to the complex nature of building management systems (BMS), many simultaneous anomalous behaviour warnings are not manageable in a timely manner; thus, many energy related problems are left unmanaged, which causes unnecessary energy wastage and deteriorates equipment’s lifespan. This study proposes a machine learning based multi-level automatic fault detection system (MLe-AFD) focusing on remote HVAC fan coil unit (FCU) behaviour analysis. The proposed method employs sequential two-stage clustering to identify the abnormal behaviour of FCU. The model’s performance is validated by implementing well-known statistical measures and further cross-validated via expert building engineering knowledge. The method was experimented on a commercial building based in central London, U.K., as a case study and allows remotely identifying three types of FCU faults appropriately and informing building management staff proactively when they occur; this way, the energy expenditure can be further optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context)
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Review

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27 pages, 4316 KiB  
Review
Blockchain in the Construction Industry between 2016 and 2022: A Review, Bibliometric, and Network Analysis
by Milad Baghalzadeh Shishehgarkhaneh, Robert C. Moehler and Sina Fard Moradinia
Smart Cities 2023, 6(2), 819-845; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6020040 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3315
Abstract
In recent years, applications of Blockchain technology (BCT) have been progressing at a galloping rate in miscellaneous fields, such as finance, education, travel, healthcare, and insurance. However, BCT has gained much popularity in the construction industry, especially in developed nations worldwide, as it [...] Read more.
In recent years, applications of Blockchain technology (BCT) have been progressing at a galloping rate in miscellaneous fields, such as finance, education, travel, healthcare, and insurance. However, BCT has gained much popularity in the construction industry, especially in developed nations worldwide, as it can solve real-world problems, including poor payments, inadequate cooperation and collaboration, inappropriate data sharing among stakeholders, and poor efficiency. The current research employs a bibliometric and systematic literature review (SLR) on utilizing BCT in the construction industry. Using co-occurrence and co-citation studies, network visualization and other methodologies concerning the Web of Science (WOS) database and the research contacts’ patterns were investigated in 482 academic papers. Notable publications, conferences, significant writers, nations, organizations, and funding organizations have been acknowledged. Our research reveals that the primary study topics are BCT in the construction industry, supply chain management, smart contracts, sustainability, building information modeling (BIM), the Internet of Things (IoT) and energy efficiency. Several possible fields for further research are mentioned, including the use of BCT in: (i) circular economy, (ii) risk management, (iii) smart villages, and (iv) infrastructure construction projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context)
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32 pages, 11753 KiB  
Review
A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on the Convergence of Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain in Smart Cities
by Morteza Alaeddini, Maryam Hajizadeh and Paul Reaidy
Smart Cities 2023, 6(2), 764-795; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities6020037 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
Smart cities aim to enhance the quality of life for citizens by integrating information technology in various aspects of daily life. This paper focuses on recent innovations in the integration of two prominent technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain, to manage complex interactions [...] Read more.
Smart cities aim to enhance the quality of life for citizens by integrating information technology in various aspects of daily life. This paper focuses on recent innovations in the integration of two prominent technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain, to manage complex interactions between smart connected devices, individuals, government agencies, and the private sector. By conducting a systematic scientometric analysis and visualization of 505 articles published between 2017 and 2023, we uncover the social, conceptual, and intellectual structures of the literature in this field through co-authorship, co-word, and co-citation networks. Our analysis identifies key insights, research hotspots, specialties, and emerging trends by examining important nodes in the bibliometric networks. The findings of this study can be of interest to both academics and practitioners working in the fields of AI, blockchain, and smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Convergence of 5G and IoT in a Smart City Context)
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