Special Issue "Feature Papers for Smart Cities"

A special issue of Smart Cities (ISSN 2624-6511).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Management & Innovation Systems, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
2. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2024, South Africa
Interests: power systems; control systems; power electronics; smart grids; energy management; power stability; power conversion; grid integration; microgrids optimization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will collect and highlight recent work in smart cities. We are inviting reviews, regular research papers (articles), and communications in all areas of research concerning smart cities. Topics include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Electrical engineering for smart cities: smart grids, smart buildings, smart homes, smart lighting, renewable energies, and power electronics for smart cities.
  • Computer engineering and information technology engineering for smart cities: ICT infrastructure and information management in smart cities, IoT architectures, protocols, and algorithms, IoT device technologies, IoT network technologies, cloud computing, autonomic computing, data management, intelligent data processing, and big data management for smart cities, real-time, and semantic web services, context-aware systems for smart cities.
  • Cyber-physical systems for smart cities.
  • Virtual reality for smart cities.
  • Smart hospitals and health informatics for smart cities: smart health, e-health, digital health, telehealth, telemedicine.
  • Transport and mobility: intelligent transportation systems and vehicular networks, smart mobility, smart parking, traffic congestion, city logistics, people mobility.
  • Electronics, telecommunication, and measurements engineering for smart cities: networks and communications, advances in smart grid sensing, sensor interface, and synchronization in smart grids, multisensor data fusion models for smart grids and smart cities, traceability and calibration of distributed sensing grids, distributed and networked sensors for smart cities, wireless sensor networks, embedded sensing and actuating, radio frequency identification (RFID), mobile internet, ubiquitous sensing.
  • Civil engineering for smart cities: smart city architecture and infrastructure, environmental engineering for smart cities, smart water management, sustainable districts and urban development, waste management for smart cities, smart agriculture, greenhouses.
  • Weather analysis, forecasting, reporting, and flood management for smart cities.
  • Mechanical sciences and automobile engineering for smart cities.
  • Applied science and humanities for smart cities.
  • Retail for smart cities: supply chain control, NFC Payment, intelligent shopping applications, smart product management, etc.
  • Security, privacy, and emergencies in smart cities, cryptography, identity management.
  • Smart living: pollution control, public safety, healthcare, welfare and social innovation, culture, public spaces.
  • Smart urban governance and e-government for smart cities
  • Business and social issues for smart cities: smart economy and business model innovation in smart cities, marketing strategies for firms offering new services in smart cities
  • Experimentation and deployments: real solutions, system design, modeling and evaluation for smart cities, pilot deployments, performance evaluation
  • Trends and challenges in smart cities
  • Intelligent transportation systems, multimodal traffic to improve mobility
  • Industry 4.0 challenges and opportunities in smart city/smart region development

Manuscripts for this important Special Issue of Smart Cities will be accepted by the editorial office, Editor-in-Chief, and editorial board members by invitation only. All the papers in this Special Issue will be published as free of charge.

Procedure

  1. All submissions will be rigorously reviewed according to the Smart Cities journal guidelines.
  2. Manuscripts that are not suitable for this Special Issue will be notified as soon as after consultation with the editorial board members. Authors of these manuscripts may still consider submitting to Smart Cities as a regular paper. Other manuscripts will be forwarded for review.
  3. Manuscripts that are not selected as feature papers will be notified after the first round of reviews. The selection will be based on the review. Authors of those manuscripts that are not selected for the Special Issue may decide to revise and submit as a regular paper. Please note that authors of these manuscripts need to shoulder the publication fees.
  4. Other manuscripts will be sent for a second round of reviews. However, this does not necessarily mean that a manuscript under the second round of reviews will be published as a feature paper. We will still seek comments and suggestions from reviewers.

Please contact Traey Wu ([email protected]), the managing editor, if you have any questions.

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Smart Cities is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Article
Data Co-Operatives through Data Sovereignty
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1158-1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4030062 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Against the widespread assumption that data are the oil of the 21st century, this article offers an alternative conceptual framework, interpretation, and pathway around data and smart city nexus to subvert surveillance capitalism in light of emerging and further promising practical cases. This [...] Read more.
Against the widespread assumption that data are the oil of the 21st century, this article offers an alternative conceptual framework, interpretation, and pathway around data and smart city nexus to subvert surveillance capitalism in light of emerging and further promising practical cases. This article illustrates an open debate in data governance and the data justice field related to current trends and challenges in smart cities, resulting in a new approach advocated for and recently coined by the UN-Habitat programme ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’. Particularly, this feature article sheds light on two intertwined notions that articulate the technopolitical dimension of the ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’ approach: data co-operatives and data sovereignty. Data co-operatives are emerging as a way to share and own data through peer-to-peer (p2p) repositories and data sovereignty is being claimed as a digital right for communities/citizens. Consequently, this feature article aims to open up new research avenues around ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’ approach: First, it elucidates how data co-operatives through data sovereignty could be articulated as long as co-developed with communities connected to the long history and analysis of the various forms of co-operatives (technopolitical dimension). Second, it prospectively anticipates the city–regional dimension encompassing data colonialism and data devolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Using IoT in Supply Chain Risk Management, to Enable Collaboration between Business, Community, and Government
by
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 995-1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4030052 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
The internet of things (IoT) and social media provide information related to disasters that could help businesses to strategically mitigate risks and optimize their supply chain during difficult times. This paper proposes a framework to show how business or supply chain enterprisers can [...] Read more.
The internet of things (IoT) and social media provide information related to disasters that could help businesses to strategically mitigate risks and optimize their supply chain during difficult times. This paper proposes a framework to show how business or supply chain enterprisers can collaborate with community and government in disaster supply chain risk management. Businesses must have an established risk mitigation plan, update it periodically and implement promptly. Community collaboration can build a resilient society, and government should play an important role in leading both financial and non-financial support during natural disasters and pandemic management. The IoT and social media are new mechanisms as a vocal point to enable government, ensuring trustworthiness of information, to provide the community with a means to express needs and feedback, and to assist business services to meet the changeable preferences under risk threats. Social media can be a collaborative effort between all the parties and helps make value added decisions efficiently in supply chain risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
A Smart City Economy Supported by Service Level Agreements: A Conceptual Study into the Waste Management Domain
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 952-970; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4030049 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The full potential of smart cities is not yet realized, and opportunities continue to exist in relation to the business models which govern service provision in cities. In saying this, we make reference to the waste services made available by councils across cities [...] Read more.
The full potential of smart cities is not yet realized, and opportunities continue to exist in relation to the business models which govern service provision in cities. In saying this, we make reference to the waste services made available by councils across cities in the United Kingdom (UK). In the UK, smart waste management (SWM) continues to exist as a service trialed across designated cities, and schemes are not yet universally deployed. This therefore exists as a business model which might be improved so that wider roll-out and uptake may be encouraged. In this paper, we present a proposal of how to revise SWM services through integrating the Internet service provider (ISP) into the relationship alongside home and business customers and the city council. The goal of this model is to give customers the opportunity for a more dynamic and flexible service. Furthermore, it will introduce benefits for all parties, in the sense of more satisfied home and business owners, ISPs with a larger customer base and greater profits, and city councils with optimized expenses. We propose that this is achieved using personalized and flexible SLAs. A proof-of-concept model is presented in this paper, through which we demonstrate that the cost to customers can be optimized when they interact with the SWM scheme in the recommended ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
An IoT-Based Participatory Antitheft System for Public Safety Enhancement in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 919-937; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020047 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
The risk of theft of goods is certainly an important source of negative influence in human psychology. This article focuses on the development of a scheme that, despite its low cost, acts as a smart antitheft system that achieves small property detection. Specifically, [...] Read more.
The risk of theft of goods is certainly an important source of negative influence in human psychology. This article focuses on the development of a scheme that, despite its low cost, acts as a smart antitheft system that achieves small property detection. Specifically, an Internet of Things (IoT)-based participatory platform was developed in order to allow asset-tracking tasks to be crowd-sourced to a community. Stolen objects are traced by using a prototype Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)-based system, which sends signals, thus becoming a beacon. Once such an item (e.g., a bicycle) is stolen, the owner informs the authorities, which, in turn, broadcast an alert signal to activate the BLE sensor. To trace the asset with the antitheft tag, participants use their GPS-enabled smart phones to scan BLE tags through a specific smartphone client application and report the location of the asset to an operation center so that owners can locate their assets. A stolen item tracking simulator was created to support and optimize the aforementioned tracking process and to produce the best possible outcome, evaluating the impact of different parameters and strategies regarding the selection of how many and which users to activate when searching for a stolen item within a given area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Smart Accounts for Decentralized Governance on Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 881-893; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020045 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
This paper introduces state-of-the-art possibilities for using smart contracts capabilities for governance. Assisted by blockchain, the use of these tools can provide a transition that society currently needs due the huge amount of information that reaches citizens. The core mechanism of this study [...] Read more.
This paper introduces state-of-the-art possibilities for using smart contracts capabilities for governance. Assisted by blockchain, the use of these tools can provide a transition that society currently needs due the huge amount of information that reaches citizens. The core mechanism of this study lies within the scope of smart accounts and digital identities. These topics enclose smart cities trends that seek to increase citizens’ participation in the social decision making process, in a transparent way that is usually managed throughout decentralized systems. We define a set of available features that can automatically guide the flow of resources, after the conclusions of voting processes also conducted on trusted environments of distributed ledgers. By presenting innovative ideas and didactically describing the possibilities, we aim to promote awareness of blockchain capabilities among readers, students, decisions makers and, mainly, the younger generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Disaster Management in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 819-839; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020042 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
The smart city concept, in which data from different systems are available, contains a multitude of critical infrastructures. This data availability opens new research opportunities in the study of the interdependency between those critical infrastructures and cascading effects solutions and focuses on the [...] Read more.
The smart city concept, in which data from different systems are available, contains a multitude of critical infrastructures. This data availability opens new research opportunities in the study of the interdependency between those critical infrastructures and cascading effects solutions and focuses on the smart city as a network of critical infrastructures. This paper proposes an integrated resilience system linking interconnected critical infrastructures in a smart city to improve disaster resilience. A data-driven approach is considered, using artificial intelligence and methods to minimize cascading effects and the destruction of failing critical infrastructures and their components (at a city level). The proposed approach allows rapid recovery of infrastructures’ service performance levels after disasters while keeping the coverage of the assessment of risks, prevention, detection, response, and mitigation of consequences. The proposed approach has the originality and the practical implication of providing a decision support system that handles the infrastructures that will support the city disaster management system—make the city prepare, adapt, absorb, respond, and recover from disasters by taking advantage of the interconnections between its various critical infrastructures to increase the overall resilience capacity. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) is used as a case to show the practical application of the approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
An Internet of Thing Architecture Based on Message Queuing Telemetry Transport Protocol and Node-RED: A Case Study for Monitoring Radon Gas
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 803-818; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020041 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 863
Abstract
This work aims to monitor air quality in places where humans spend most of their time, such as workplaces and homes. Radon gas is a naturally occurring, colourless, odourless and tasteless gas that accumulates in enclosed spaces. It is a radioactive element produced [...] Read more.
This work aims to monitor air quality in places where humans spend most of their time, such as workplaces and homes. Radon gas is a naturally occurring, colourless, odourless and tasteless gas that accumulates in enclosed spaces. It is a radioactive element produced by the decay of its natural parent elements, uranium and thorium, which is harmful to our respiratory system when inhaled. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the key to the problems of contemporary life; we are witnessing an emerging connected world, and these architectures have the potential by using sensors to take data from the physical world, transfer it over the network and store it for further decision making or action. The proposal of this work is based on a radon sensor connected to an IoT device, the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT), the Node-RED for managing data flows and a database management system on a web server. The information collected by the sensor is sent by the IoT device to be processed by Node-RED. The obtained data is stored in a database to be represented on a web server. Therefore, this work includes a case study where the technologies involved in the indoor radon gas monitoring system are presented. It is a way to perform radon gas measurements automatically. The final application would allow: displaying radon concentrations on a map with placemarks and updating the information in real-time. The database could record data from other radon sensors that any user wants to associate with this website. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
AI Perspectives in Smart Cities and Communities to Enable Road Vehicle Automation and Smart Traffic Control
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 783-802; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020040 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Smart cities and communities (SCC) constitute a new paradigm in urban development. SCC ideate a data-centered society aimed at improving efficiency by automating and optimizing activities and utilities. Information and communication technology along with Internet of Things enables data collection and with the [...] Read more.
Smart cities and communities (SCC) constitute a new paradigm in urban development. SCC ideate a data-centered society aimed at improving efficiency by automating and optimizing activities and utilities. Information and communication technology along with Internet of Things enables data collection and with the help of artificial intelligence (AI) situation awareness can be obtained to feed the SCC actors with enriched knowledge. This paper describes AI perspectives in SCC and gives an overview of AI-based technologies used in traffic to enable road vehicle automation and smart traffic control. Perception, smart traffic control and driver modeling are described along with open research challenges and standardization to help introduce advanced driver assistance systems and automated vehicle functionality in traffic. To fully realize the potential of SCC, to create a holistic view on a city level, availability of data from different stakeholders is necessary. Further, though AI technologies provide accurate predictions and classifications, there is an ambiguity regarding the correctness of their outputs. This can make it difficult for the human operator to trust the system. Today there are no methods that can be used to match function requirements with the level of detail in data annotation in order to train an accurate model. Another challenge related to trust is explainability: models can have difficulty explaining how they came to certain conclusions, so it is difficult for humans to trust them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Working across Boundaries in Urban Land Use and Services Planning—Building Public Sector Capabilities for Digitalisation
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 767-782; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020039 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
This article addresses the challenges and capability gaps confronted by public administrations concerning digital transformation and the use of novel tools in the context of land use, facilities and urban services planning. The present state of planning and management processes in Finland is [...] Read more.
This article addresses the challenges and capability gaps confronted by public administrations concerning digital transformation and the use of novel tools in the context of land use, facilities and urban services planning. The present state of planning and management processes in Finland is introduced and reflected through experimental piloting conducted in two Finnish cities. Participatory action research and design research methodology was utilised to identify the main challenges as well as unravel the possibilities of digital transformation in the context of public services planning. The resulting analysis revealed the critical importance of facilitating integrative policies and coordination when working across knowledge boundaries between administrative domains. The paper contributes to a wider theoretical and conceptual understanding, as it discusses the advantages and feasibility of digital tools as boundary objects for cross-sectoral work in smart, people-centred urban governance. The authors see this direction of research as a fruitful ground for further investigations within the interdisciplinary urban planning research context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Towards a Digital Ecosystem for a Smart City District: Procedure, Results, and Lessons Learned
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 686-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020035 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
The digital transformation supports many cities on the way to becoming smarter cities, enabling them to enhance digital processes, care about climate-friendly goals, or improve the quality of life of their citizens. However, such changes usually take place step by step and not [...] Read more.
The digital transformation supports many cities on the way to becoming smarter cities, enabling them to enhance digital processes, care about climate-friendly goals, or improve the quality of life of their citizens. However, such changes usually take place step by step and not in a big-bang approach. In order for the direction of the digital transformation to be defined, it is necessary to know and understand the needs and requirements of all relevant stakeholders who will be affected or are intended to use the new digital solutions. As our environment, a smart city district, is currently under construction, we do not know most of the future stakeholders yet. Therefore, we had to find new ways of eliciting the needs and requirements for digital solutions without knowing, e.g., the citizens who will live in the future district. We show a framework of the procedures we followed, classified into (a) vision and concepts, (b) smart city district digital ecosystem, and (c) dissemination and events. We substantiate the processes with example results and provide a discussion on how we evaluate our solutions with respect to future applicability. Because evaluations are only very limited in our setting right now, we focus on four lead questions to argue why the procedures and results are adequate and share the lessons we learned on this path towards a digital smart city district. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Vehicular Crowdsourcing for Congestion Support in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 662-685; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020034 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
Under present-day practices, the vehicles on our roadways and city streets are mere spectators that witness traffic-related events without being able to participate in the mitigation of their effect. This paper lays the theoretical foundations of a framework for harnessing the on-board computational [...] Read more.
Under present-day practices, the vehicles on our roadways and city streets are mere spectators that witness traffic-related events without being able to participate in the mitigation of their effect. This paper lays the theoretical foundations of a framework for harnessing the on-board computational resources in vehicles stuck in urban congestion in order to assist transportation agencies with preventing or dissipating congestion through large-scale signal re-timing. Our framework is called VACCS: Vehicular Crowdsourcing for Congestion Support in Smart Cities. What makes this framework unique is that we suggest that in such situations the vehicles have the potential to cooperate with various transportation authorities to solve problems that otherwise would either take an inordinate amount of time to solve or cannot be solved for lack for adequate municipal resources. VACCS offers direct benefits to both the driving public and the Smart City. By developing timing plans that respond to current traffic conditions, overall traffic flow will improve, carbon emissions will be reduced, and economic impacts of congestion on citizens and businesses will be lessened. It is expected that drivers will be willing to donate under-utilized on-board computing resources in their vehicles to develop improved signal timing plans in return for the direct benefits of time savings and reduced fuel consumption costs. VACCS allows the Smart City to dynamically respond to traffic conditions while simultaneously reducing investments in the computational resources that would be required for traditional adaptive traffic signal control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Smart City Solution Engineering
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 643-661; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020033 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Many smart city applications have been proposed and demonstrated over the years; however, moving to large-scale deployment is still scarce. A contributing factor to this scarcity is the lack of well-established engineering methodologies for large-scale smart city applications. This paper addresses engineering methodologies [...] Read more.
Many smart city applications have been proposed and demonstrated over the years; however, moving to large-scale deployment is still scarce. A contributing factor to this scarcity is the lack of well-established engineering methodologies for large-scale smart city applications. This paper addresses engineering methodologies and tools for large-scale smart city application engineering, implementation, deployment, and evolution. A model-based engineering approach based on IoT, SOA, and SysML is proposed and applied to a smart streetlight application. Engineering considerations for streetlight area enlargement and updated technology generations with additional capabilities are discussed. The proposed model-based engineering approach provides considerable scaling simplifications and opportunities for considerable savings on engineering costs. The model-based engineering approach also provides good documentation that enables technology evolution specifications that support both maintenance and emerging behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Experimentation Platforms as Bridges to Urban Sustainability
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 569-587; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020030 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Despite immense efforts to realize diverse visions of the ‘smart city,’ municipalities still face manifold uncertainties of how governance and the tools of governance can best support public and regional value creation for achieving urban sustainability. To this end, Urban Living Labs have [...] Read more.
Despite immense efforts to realize diverse visions of the ‘smart city,’ municipalities still face manifold uncertainties of how governance and the tools of governance can best support public and regional value creation for achieving urban sustainability. To this end, Urban Living Labs have become a known enabling mechanism. In this paper, we extend the lab idea and formulate the concept of Urban Experimentation Platform that focuses on developing urban innovation ecosystems for urban sustainability. We use action design research and participant observation across multiple case studies enacting Urban Experimentation Platforms in order to investigate how the tie-in between governance and the local lab’s innovation process unfolds. Our analysis distills three facets that are instrumental in institutionalizing these platforms as resilient organizational models. With the help of the case studies, we illustrate the three facets, concerning issues of urban ecosystem governance, empowering co-creation, and qualifying local innovation. The facets reinforce the roles of digital instruments and digital capabilities for effective urban governance and platform management. We draw some conclusions for future research and formulate policy recommendations for implementing and operating Urban Experimentation Platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Homo Digitus: Its Dependable and Resilient Smart Ecosystem
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 514-531; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020027 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
This paper evaluates the status quo of modern society and identifies the neglect of humanism as the root cause of many of today’s global challenges. Note that “smart cities” are not excluded from this indictment. The “Ptolemaic Universe” offers a means to restore [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the status quo of modern society and identifies the neglect of humanism as the root cause of many of today’s global challenges. Note that “smart cities” are not excluded from this indictment. The “Ptolemaic Universe” offers a means to restore our symbiosis with the environment. The ReSeT model is proposed as a tool to analyze the Ptolemaic Universe. Using ReSeT: Homo Sapiens becomes dependent on AI resulting in Homo Digitalis, with further evolution in concert with AI resulting in Homo Digitus. All of these stages are then analyzed in the context of global trusted dependability (GTD). The wellness domain, provides the design specification framework for Homo Digitus’ human-centered and resilient “smart city” ecosystem. This ultimately leads to a better world of increased wellness for Homo Hominus, with better smart cities emphasizing education and science, promoting wisdom and common sense, and rejecting violence. In summary, humanity has generated diverse social structures with erratic outcomes. On the other hand, technology provides a successful foundation for modern society especially in the Pandemic Era. However, technology’s contributions are generally not publicly acknowledged. The paper concludes with several initiatives designed to establish a trusted and resilient society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
An Enhanced Inverse Filtering Methodology for Drive-By Frequency Identification of Bridges Using Smartphones in Real-Life Conditions
Smart Cities 2021, 4(2), 499-513; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4020026 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
This paper develops an enhanced inverse filtering-based methodology for drive-by frequency identification of bridges using smartphones for real-life applications. As the vibration recorded on a vehicle is dominated by vehicle features including suspension system and speed as well as road roughness, inverse filtering [...] Read more.
This paper develops an enhanced inverse filtering-based methodology for drive-by frequency identification of bridges using smartphones for real-life applications. As the vibration recorded on a vehicle is dominated by vehicle features including suspension system and speed as well as road roughness, inverse filtering aims at suppressing these effects through filtering out vehicle- and road-related features, thus mitigating a few of the significant challenges for the indirect identification of the bridge frequency. In the context of inverse filtering, a novel approach of constructing a database of vehicle vibrations for different speeds is presented to account for the vehicle speed effect on the performance of the method. In addition, an energy-based surface roughness criterion is proposed to consider surface roughness influence on the identification process. The successful performance of the methodology is investigated for different vehicle speeds and surface roughness levels. While most indirect bridge monitoring studies are investigated in numerical and laboratory conditions, this study proves the capability of the proposed methodology for two bridges in a real-life scale. Promising results collected using only a smartphone as the data acquisition device corroborate the fact that the proposed inverse filtering methodology could be employed in a crowdsourced framework for monitoring bridges at a global level in smart cities through a more cost-effective and efficient process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Advanced Adaptive Street Lighting Systems for Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1495-1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040071 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
This paper reports the results of a recently concluded R&D project, SCALS (Smart Cities Adaptive Lighting System), which aimed at the development of all hardware/software components of an adaptive urban smart lighting architecture allowing municipalities to manage and control public street lighting lamps. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the results of a recently concluded R&D project, SCALS (Smart Cities Adaptive Lighting System), which aimed at the development of all hardware/software components of an adaptive urban smart lighting architecture allowing municipalities to manage and control public street lighting lamps. The system is capable to autonomously adjust street lamps’ brightness on the basis of the presence of vehicles (busses/trucks, cars, motorcycles and bikes) and/or pedestrians in specific areas or segments of the streets/roads of interest to reduce the energy consumption. The main contribution of this work is to design a low cost smart lighting system and, at same time, to define an IoT infrastructure where each lighting pole is an element of a network that can increase their amplitude. More generally, the proposed smart infrastructure can be viewed as the basis of a wider technological architecture aimed at offering value-added services for sustainable cities. The smart architecture combines various sub-systems (local controllers, motion sensors, video-cameras, weather sensors) and electronic devices, each of them in charge of performing specific operations: remote street segments lamp management, single street lamp brightness control, video processing for vehicles motion detection and classification, wireless and wired data exchanges, power consumptions analysis and traffic evaluation. Two pilot sites have been built up in the project where the smart architecture has been tested and validated in real scenarios. Experimental results show that energy savings of up to 80% are possible compared to a traditional street lamp system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Data Evidence-Based Transformative Actions in Historic Urban Context—The Bologna University Area Case Study
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1448-1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040069 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 961
Abstract
The rapidly growing use of digital technologies in urban contexts is generating a huge and increasing amount of data, providing real-time information about the urban environment and its inhabitants. The unprecedented availability of data allows us to not only improve advanced knowledge and [...] Read more.
The rapidly growing use of digital technologies in urban contexts is generating a huge and increasing amount of data, providing real-time information about the urban environment and its inhabitants. The unprecedented availability of data allows us to not only improve advanced knowledge and gain a deeper understanding of urban dynamics, but also enact data evidence-based transformative processes and actions in the direction of smarter, more sustainable, resilient, and socially equitable cities. In this context, the literature on smart cities has recently expressed the need to more deeply involve urban visions and communities in the process of regeneration. This paper aims to analyze how big data can be useful in understanding the effectiveness of small pilot actions of regeneration and reactivation in valuable cultural heritage (CH) urban environments. Pilot actions were developed in the context of the European Union funded project “ROCK—Regeneration and Optimization of cultural heritage in Creative and Knowledge cities” (GA730280). The paper analyses data collected by the ROCK City People Flow tool, in different use and time conditions, in two central squares of Bologna (Italy), in order to rate event successes, spatial transformation effects, and regeneration tactics responses. Data confirm the complexity of interpreting phenomena in such contexts but also provide useful indications for future planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Developing Smart Cities Solutions
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1353-1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040065 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies used in developing smart cities solutions, Machine Learning (ML) and recently Deep Learning (DL), rely more on utilising best representative training datasets and features engineering and less on the available domain expertise. We argue that such an approach [...] Read more.
Traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies used in developing smart cities solutions, Machine Learning (ML) and recently Deep Learning (DL), rely more on utilising best representative training datasets and features engineering and less on the available domain expertise. We argue that such an approach to solution development makes the outcome of solutions less explainable, i.e., it is often not possible to explain the results of the model. There is a growing concern among policymakers in cities with this lack of explainability of AI solutions, and this is considered a major hindrance in the wider acceptability and trust in such AI-based solutions. In this work, we survey the concept of ‘explainable deep learning’ as a subset of the ‘explainable AI’ problem and propose a new solution using Semantic Web technologies, demonstrated with a smart cities flood monitoring application in the context of a European Commission-funded project. Monitoring of gullies and drainage in crucial geographical areas susceptible to flooding issues is an important aspect of any flood monitoring solution. Typical solutions for this problem involve the use of cameras to capture images showing the affected areas in real-time with different objects such as leaves, plastic bottles etc., and building a DL-based classifier to detect such objects and classify blockages based on the presence and coverage of these objects in the images. In this work, we uniquely propose an Explainable AI solution using DL and Semantic Web technologies to build a hybrid classifier. In this hybrid classifier, the DL component detects object presence and coverage level and semantic rules designed with close consultation with experts carry out the classification. By using the expert knowledge in the flooding context, our hybrid classifier provides the flexibility on categorising the image using objects and their coverage relationships. The experimental results demonstrated with a real-world use case showed that this hybrid approach of image classification has on average 11% improvement (F-Measure) in image classification performance compared to DL-only classifier. It also has the distinct advantage of integrating experts’ knowledge on defining the decision-making rules to represent the complex circumstances and using such knowledge to explain the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Use of Social Media to Seek and Provide Help in Hurricanes Florence and Michael
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1187-1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040059 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
During hazardous events, communities can use existing social media networks to share information in real time and initiate a local disaster response. This research conducted a web-based survey to explore two behaviors around the use of social media during hurricanes: seeking help and [...] Read more.
During hazardous events, communities can use existing social media networks to share information in real time and initiate a local disaster response. This research conducted a web-based survey to explore two behaviors around the use of social media during hurricanes: seeking help and responding to help requests. Through the survey, we sampled 434 individuals across several counties affected by 2018 hurricanes Florence and Michael, which were both designated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as billion-dollar weather disasters. The survey questions collected data about demographics, social media use habits, perceptions towards social media, hurricane damages, and actions taken during a hurricane to seek and provide help. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to conceptualize and frame parameters that affect intentions and behaviors regarding the use of social media during hurricanes to seek and provide help. Survey responses are analyzed using statistical regression to evaluate hypotheses about the influence of factors on seeking help and responding to help requests. Regression analyses indicate that attitude and perceived behavioral control predict intention to access social media during a hurricane, partially supporting the TPB. Intention and experiencing urgent damages predict help-seeking behaviors using social media. Posting frequency to social media under normal conditions and the number of help requests seen during the event predict help-responding behaviors. Linear regression equations governing intention and behavior were parameterized using survey results. The factors underlying social media behavior during hurricanes as identified in this research provide insight for understanding how smart information technologies, such as personal devices and social media networks, support community self-sufficiency and hazard resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Perceptions on Smart Gas Meters in Smart Cities for Reducing the Carbon Footprint
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1173-1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040058 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Carbon emission is a prominent issue, and smart urban solutions have the technological capabilities to implement change. The technologies for creating smart energy systems already exist, some of which are currently under wide deployment globally. By investing in energy efficiency solutions (such as [...] Read more.
Carbon emission is a prominent issue, and smart urban solutions have the technological capabilities to implement change. The technologies for creating smart energy systems already exist, some of which are currently under wide deployment globally. By investing in energy efficiency solutions (such as the smart meter), research shows that the end-user is able to not only save money, but also reduce their household’s carbon footprint. Therefore, in this paper, the focus is on the end-user, and adopting a quantitative analysis of the perception of 1365 homes concerning the smart gas meter installation. The focus is on linking end-user attributes (age, education, social class and employment status) with their opinion on reducing energy, saving money, changing home behaviour and lowering carbon emissions. The results show that there is a statistical significance between certain attributes of end-users and their consideration of smart meters for making beneficial changes. In particular, the investigation demonstrates that the employment status, age and social class of the homeowner have statistical significance on the end-users’ variance; particularly when interested in reducing their bill and changing their behaviour around the home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Smart City Strategies and Planned Smart Development
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1133-1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040056 - 03 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Smart city strategies developed by cities around the world provide a useful resource for insights into the future of smart development. This study examines such strategies to identify plans for the explicit deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. A total of 12 [...] Read more.
Smart city strategies developed by cities around the world provide a useful resource for insights into the future of smart development. This study examines such strategies to identify plans for the explicit deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. A total of 12 case studies emerged from an online keyword search representing cities of various sizes globally. The search was based on the keywords of “artificial intelligence” (or “AI”), and “robot,” representing robotics and associated terminology. Based on the findings, it is evident that the more concentrated deployment of AI and robotics in smart city development is currently in the Global North, although countries in the Global South are also increasingly represented. Multiple cities in Australia and Canada actively seek to develop AI and robotics, and Moscow has one of the most in-depth elaborations for this deployment. The ramifications of these plans are discussed as part of cyber–physical systems alongside consideration given to the social and ethical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
IoT-Enabled Smart Sustainable Cities: Challenges and Approaches
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 1039-1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030052 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
The ongoing diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is opening new possibilities, and one of the most remarkable applications is associated with the smart city paradigm, which is continuously evolving. In general, it can be defined as the integration of IoT and [...] Read more.
The ongoing diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is opening new possibilities, and one of the most remarkable applications is associated with the smart city paradigm, which is continuously evolving. In general, it can be defined as the integration of IoT and Information Communication Technologies (ICT) into city management, with the aim of addressing the exponential growth of urbanization and population, thus significantly increasing people’s quality of life. The smart city paradigm is also strictly connected to sustainability aspects, taking into account, for example, the reduction of environmental impact of urban activities, the optimized management of energy resources, and the design of innovative services and solution for citizens. Abiding by this new paradigm, several cities started a process of strong innovation in different fields (such as mobility and transportation, industry, health, tourism, and education), thanks to significant investments provided by stakeholders and the European Commission (EC). In this paper, we analyze key aspects of an IoT infrastructure for smart cities, outlining the innovations implemented in the city of Parma (Emilia Romagna region, Italy) as a successful example. Special attention is dedicated to the theme of smart urban mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
A New SDN-Based Routing Protocol for Improving Delay in Smart City Environments
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 1004-1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030050 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
The smart city is an ecosystem that interconnects various devices like sensors, actuators, mobiles, and vehicles. The intelligent and connected transportation system (ICTS) is an essential part of this ecosystem that provides new real-time applications. The emerging applications are based on Internet-of-Things (IoT) [...] Read more.
The smart city is an ecosystem that interconnects various devices like sensors, actuators, mobiles, and vehicles. The intelligent and connected transportation system (ICTS) is an essential part of this ecosystem that provides new real-time applications. The emerging applications are based on Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies, which bring out new challenges, such as heterogeneity and scalability, and they require innovative communication solutions. The existing routing protocols cannot achieve these requirements due to the surrounding knowledge supported by individual nodes and their neighbors, displaying partial visibility of the network. However, the issue grew ever more arduous to conceive routing protocols to satisfy the ever-changing network requirements due to its dynamic topology and its heterogeneity. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) offers the latest view of the entire network and the control of the network based on the application’s specifications. Nonetheless, one of the main problems that arise when using SDN is minimizing the transmission delay between ubiquitous nodes. In order to meet this constraint, a well-attended and realistic alternative is to adopt the Machine Learning (ML) algorithms as prediction solutions. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol based on SDN and Naive Bayes solution to improve the delay. Simulation results show that our routing scheme outperforms the comparative ones in terms of end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Predicting Venue Popularity Using Crowd-Sourced and Passive Sensor Data
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 818-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030042 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Efficient and reliable mobility pattern identification is essential for transport planning research. In order to infer mobility patterns, however, a large amount of spatiotemporal data is needed, which is not always available. Hence, location-based social networks (LBSNs) have received considerable attention as a [...] Read more.
Efficient and reliable mobility pattern identification is essential for transport planning research. In order to infer mobility patterns, however, a large amount of spatiotemporal data is needed, which is not always available. Hence, location-based social networks (LBSNs) have received considerable attention as a potential data provider. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using several different auxiliary information sources for venue popularity modeling and provide an alternative venue popularity measuring approach. Initially, data from widely used services, such as Google Maps, Yelp and OpenStreetMap (OSM), are used to model venue popularity. To estimate hourly venue occupancy, two different classes of model are used, including linear regression with lasso regularization and gradient boosted regression (GBR). The predictions are made based on venue-related parameters (e.g., rating, comments) and locational properties (e.g., stores, hotels, attractions). Results show that the prediction can be improved using GBR with a logarithmic transformation of the dependent variables. To investigate the quality of social media-based models by obtaining WiFi-based ground truth data, a microcontroller setup is developed to measure the actual number of people attending venues using WiFi presence detection, demonstrating that the similarity between the results of WiFi data collection and Google “Popular Times” is relatively promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
From a Comprehensive Pool to a Project-Specific List of Key Performance Indicators for Monitoring the Positive Energy Transition of Smart Cities—An Experience-Based Approach
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 705-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030036 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
As cities grow rapidly and energy needs increase, shaping an effective energy transition is a top priority towards urban sustainability and smart development. This study attempts to answer three key research questions that can help city authorities, planners and interested agents simplify and [...] Read more.
As cities grow rapidly and energy needs increase, shaping an effective energy transition is a top priority towards urban sustainability and smart development. This study attempts to answer three key research questions that can help city authorities, planners and interested agents simplify and increase the transparency of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) selection for smart city and communities (SCC) projects focusing on energy transition and creation of Positive Energy Districts (PEDs): Question 1: “What resources are available for extracting such KPIs?”; Question 2: “Which of those KPIs are the most suitable for assessing the energy transition of smart city projects and PED-related developments?” and Question 3: “How can a project-specific shortlist of KPIs be developed?”. Answering these questions can also serve as a major first step towards a “universal” KPI selection procedure. In line with this purpose, an experiential approach is presented, capitalizing on knowledge and lessons learned from an ongoing smart city project in Europe (POCITYF) that focuses on PED deployment. Under this framework, a) a review of smart city KPI frameworks has been conducted, resulting in a pool of 258 indicators that can potentially be adopted by smart city projects; b) eight key dimensions of evaluations were extracted, setting a holistic performance framework relevant to SCCs; c) a detailed evaluation process including pre-determined criteria and city-needs feedback was applied to shortlist the KPI pool, leading to a ready-to-be-used, project-specific list of 63 KPIs and d) KPIs were sorted and analyzed in different granularity levels to further facilitate the monitoring procedure. The experiential procedure presented in this study can be easily adapted to the needs of every smart city project, serving as a recommendation guide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
The Nexus between Market Needs and Value Attributes of Smart City Solutions towards Energy Transition. An Empirical Evidence of Two European Union (EU) Smart Cities, Evora and Alkmaar
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 604-641; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030032 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
This study presents an experiential process and a market-oriented approach for realizing cities’ energy transition through smart solutions. The aim of this study is twofold: (a) present a process for defining a repository of innovative solutions that can be applied at building, district, [...] Read more.
This study presents an experiential process and a market-oriented approach for realizing cities’ energy transition through smart solutions. The aim of this study is twofold: (a) present a process for defining a repository of innovative solutions that can be applied at building, district, or city level, for two European Union cities, Evora and Alkmaar, and support the deployment of positive energy districts enabling a sustainable energy transition, and (b) understand in a systematic way the attributes of value offered by energy-related smart city solutions, in order to facilitate the development of sustainable value propositions that can successfully address city needs. The repository is assessed against four elements of value, which include social impact, life-changing, emotional, and functional attributes, according to the value pyramid of Maslow. Results show that the value attributes of quality, motivation, integration, cost reduction, information, and organization are highly relevant to the proposed smart solutions. The results presented in this study are useful for city planners, decision-makers, public bodies, citizens, and businesses interested in designing their energy transition strategy and defining novel technologies that promote urban energy sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
An Investigation on the Feasibility of Near-Zero and Positive Energy Communities in the Greek Context
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 362-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020019 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Near Zero Energy and Positive Energy communities are expected to play a significant part in EU’s strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Within this context, the work presented in this paper aims to investigate the feasibility of: (a) a new-built positive [...] Read more.
Near Zero Energy and Positive Energy communities are expected to play a significant part in EU’s strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Within this context, the work presented in this paper aims to investigate the feasibility of: (a) a new-built positive energy neighborhood; and (b) the retrofit of an existing neighborhood to near zero energy performance in the city of Alexandroupolis, Greece. Proposed measures involve the rollout at the community scale of renewable energy technologies (PV, geothermal heat pump), energy efficiency (fabric insulation, district heating and cooling networks) and storage systems (batteries). A parametric analysis is conducted to identify the optimum combination of technologies through suitable technical and financial criteria. Results indicate that zero and near zero emissions targets are met with various combinations that impose insulation levels, according to building regulations or slightly higher, and consider renewable energy production with an autonomy of half or, more commonly, one day. In addition, the advantages of performing nearly zero energy retrofit at the district, rather than the building level, are highlighted, in an attempt to stimulate interest in community energy schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Leveraging Intelligent Transportation Systems and Smart Vehicles Using Crowdsourcing: An Overview
Smart Cities 2020, 3(2), 341-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020018 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
The current and expected future proliferation of mobile and embedded technology provides unique opportunities for crowdsourcing platforms to gather more user data for making data-driven decisions at the system level. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Vehicular Social Networks (VSN) can be leveraged by [...] Read more.
The current and expected future proliferation of mobile and embedded technology provides unique opportunities for crowdsourcing platforms to gather more user data for making data-driven decisions at the system level. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Vehicular Social Networks (VSN) can be leveraged by mobile, spatial, and passive sensing crowdsourcing techniques due to improved connectivity, higher throughput, smart vehicles containing many embedded systems and sensors, and novel distributed processing techniques. These crowdsourcing systems have the capability of profoundly transforming transportation systems for the better by providing more data regarding (but not limited to) infrastructure health, navigation pathways, and congestion management. In this paper, we review and discuss the architecture and types of ITS crowdsourcing. Then, we delve into the techniques and technologies that serve as the foundation for these systems to function while providing some simulation results to show benefits from the implementation of these techniques and technologies on specific crowdsourcing-based ITS systems. Afterward, we provide an overview of cutting edge work associated with ITS crowdsourcing challenges. Finally, we propose various use-cases and applications for ITS crowdsourcing, and suggest some open research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Electric Vehicles: Technologies and Challenges
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 372-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010022 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness. This paper reviews the advances of EVs regarding battery technology trends, charging methods, as well as new research challenges and open [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness. This paper reviews the advances of EVs regarding battery technology trends, charging methods, as well as new research challenges and open opportunities. More specifically, an analysis of the worldwide market situation of EVs and their future prospects is carried out. Given that one of the fundamental aspects in EVs is the battery, the paper presents a thorough review of the battery technologies—from the Lead-acid batteries to the Lithium-ion. Moreover, we review the different standards that are available for EVs charging process, as well as the power control and battery energy management proposals. Finally, we conclude our work by presenting our vision about what is expected in the near future within this field, as well as the research aspects that are still open for both industry and academic communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Review
A Review of Car-Following Models and Modeling Tools for Human and Autonomous-Ready Driving Behaviors in Micro-Simulation
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 314-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010019 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
The platform of a microscopic traffic simulation provides an opportunity to study the driving behavior of vehicles on a roadway system. Compared to traditional conventional cars with human drivers, the car-following behaviors of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) would be [...] Read more.
The platform of a microscopic traffic simulation provides an opportunity to study the driving behavior of vehicles on a roadway system. Compared to traditional conventional cars with human drivers, the car-following behaviors of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) would be quite different and hence require additional modeling efforts. This paper presents a thorough review of the literature on the car-following models used in prevalent micro-simulation tools for vehicles with both human and robot drivers. Specifically, the car-following logics such as the Wiedemann model and adaptive cruise control technology were reviewed based on the vehicle’s dynamic behavior and driving environments. In addition, some of the more recent “AV-ready (autonomous vehicles ready) tools” in micro-simulation platforms are also discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Review
Review of Smart City Assessment Tools
Smart Cities 2020, 3(4), 1117-1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3040055 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Today’s cities are estimated to generate 80% of global GDP, covering only about 3% of the land, but contributing to about 72% of all global greenhouse gas emissions. Cities face significant challenges, such as population growth, pollution, congestion, lack of physical and social [...] Read more.
Today’s cities are estimated to generate 80% of global GDP, covering only about 3% of the land, but contributing to about 72% of all global greenhouse gas emissions. Cities face significant challenges, such as population growth, pollution, congestion, lack of physical and social infrastructures, while trying to simultaneously meet sustainable energy and environmental requirements. The Smart City concept intends to address these challenges by identifying new and intelligent ways to manage the complexity of urban living and implement solutions for multidisciplinary problems in cities. With the increasing number of Smart City projects being implemented around the world, it is important to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses for their future improvement and evolution track record. It is, therefore, crucial to characterize and improve the proper tools to adequately evaluate these implementations. Following the Smart City implementation growth, several Smart City Assessment tools with different indicator sets have been developed. This work presents a literature review on Smart City Assessment tools, discussing their main gaps in order to improve future methodologies and tools. Smart City Assessment can deliver important performance indicators monitoring for the evaluation of multiple benefits for different actors and stakeholders, such as city authorities, investors and funding agencies, researchers, and citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Review
Cyber Resilience and Incident Response in Smart Cities: A Systematic Literature Review
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 894-927; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030046 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
The world is experiencing a rapid growth of smart cities accelerated by Industry 4.0, including the Internet of Things (IoT), and enhanced by the application of emerging innovative technologies which in turn create highly fragile and complex cyber–physical–natural ecosystems. This paper systematically identifies [...] Read more.
The world is experiencing a rapid growth of smart cities accelerated by Industry 4.0, including the Internet of Things (IoT), and enhanced by the application of emerging innovative technologies which in turn create highly fragile and complex cyber–physical–natural ecosystems. This paper systematically identifies peer-reviewed literature and explicitly investigates empirical primary studies that address cyber resilience and digital forensic incident response (DFIR) aspects of cyber–physical systems (CPSs) in smart cities. Our findings show that CPSs addressing cyber resilience and support for modern DFIR are a recent paradigm. Most of the primary studies are focused on a subset of the incident response process, the “detection and analysis” phase whilst attempts to address other parts of the DFIR process remain limited. Further analysis shows that research focused on smart healthcare and smart citizen were addressed only by a small number of primary studies. Additionally, our findings identify a lack of available real CPS-generated datasets limiting the experiments to mostly testbed type environments or in some cases authors relied on simulation software. Therefore, contributing this systematic literature review (SLR), we used a search protocol providing an evidence-based summary of the key themes and main focus domains investigating cyber resilience and DFIR addressed by CPS frameworks and systems. This SLR also provides scientific evidence of the gaps in the literature for possible future directions for research within the CPS cybersecurity realm. In total, 600 papers were surveyed from which 52 primary studies were included and analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Review
Worldwide Coverage Mobile Systems for Supra-Smart Cities Communications: Featured Antennas and Design
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 556-584; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030030 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Current terrestrial mobile communications networks can’t provide worldwide coverage. Satellite communications are expensive, and terminals are large and heavy. Worldwide mobile coverage requires the use of satellites providing an appropriate QoS, including polar regions. The analysis of the potential satellite constellations demonstrates that [...] Read more.
Current terrestrial mobile communications networks can’t provide worldwide coverage. Satellite communications are expensive, and terminals are large and heavy. Worldwide mobile coverage requires the use of satellites providing an appropriate QoS, including polar regions. The analysis of the potential satellite constellations demonstrates that LEO one is the best solution. A new generation of low cost, small size, lightweight and global mobile coverage LEO satellites is emerging. The main limitation of the terminals is the antenna size factor, and innovative antennas must be developed to meet this goal. This paper investigates the technologies and techniques for designing and developing antennas aimed at LEO satellite communications in Smart Cities and beyond, which are especially beneficial for mobile communications in areas without 4G/5G coverage. The paper focuses on the terrestrial segment and future mobile devices, remarking the design constraints. In this scenario, the paper reviews the most relevant technologies and techniques used to design suitable antennas. The investigation analyses the state-of-the-art and most recent advances in the design of antennas operating in the Ku-band. The main contribution of the authors is a novel antenna design approach based on SIW technology. The antenna features are compared with other approaches, highlighting the benefits, advantages and drawbacks. As a conclusion, the proposed antenna demonstrates to be a good solution to meet the design constraints for such an application: light, low cost, small size factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Other

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Letter
Deep Learning with Loss Ensembles for Solar Power Prediction in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 842-852; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030043 - 07 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
The demand for renewable energy generation, especially photovoltaic (PV) power generation, has been growing over the past few years. However, the amount of generated energy by PV systems is highly dependent on weather conditions. Therefore, accurate forecasting of generated PV power is of [...] Read more.
The demand for renewable energy generation, especially photovoltaic (PV) power generation, has been growing over the past few years. However, the amount of generated energy by PV systems is highly dependent on weather conditions. Therefore, accurate forecasting of generated PV power is of importance for large-scale deployment of PV systems. Recently, machine learning (ML) methods have been widely used for PV power generation forecasting. A variety of these techniques, including artificial neural networks (ANNs), ridge regression, K-nearest neighbour (kNN) regression, decision trees, support vector regressions (SVRs) have been applied for this purpose and achieved good performance. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent ML techniques for PV energy generation forecasting and propose a new regression technique to automatically predict a PV system’s output based on historical input parameters. More specifically, the proposed loss function is a combination of three well-known loss functions: Correntropy, Absolute and Square Loss which encourages robustness and generalization jointly. We then integrate the proposed objective function into a Deep Learning model to predict a PV system’s output. By doing so, both the coefficients of loss functions and weight parameters of the ANN are learned jointly via back propagation. We investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method through comprehensive experiments on real data recorded by a real PV system. The experimental results confirm that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art ML methods for PV energy generation forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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