Does Adoption of Ridehailing Result in More Frequent Sustainable Mobility Choices? An Investigation Based on the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 Data
2. Literature Review
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 Data
3.2. Need for a Matched Sample
3.3. Getting Matched Samples using Propensity Score Matching
3.4. Summary Statistics
3.5. Multivariable Regression Models
3.6. Implementation of Regression Models
- Model NB-TRANSIT:
- Model NB-WALK:
- Model NB-BIKE:
- Model QP-VEHICLE:
3.7. Software and Packages Used for Analyses
4.1. Interpretation of Regression Model Output
4.2. Multicollinearity and Goodness of Fit
4.3. Discussion on the Association between Ridehailing Adoption and Sustainable Mobility Choices after Controlling for the Confounders
5. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Would Have Chosen If Ridehailing Services were Unavailable *||Article|
|Rayle et al.|
|Clewlow and Mishra|
|Alemi ||Henao and Marshall|
|Feigon and Murphy|
|Would not have made/Fewer Trips|
Walk or Bike
Drive private vehicle
|Variable Name||Variable Description||Levels/Values|
|HBHUR||Urbanicity of Household Location|
(as defined by Claritas )
|INCOME *||Annual Household Income||Less than $50,000|
$50,000 to $100,000
$100,000 or more
|EDUCATION *||Educational Attainment||Below Bachelor’s|
Bachelor’s or above
Black or African American
Others (American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, Multiple responses selected, Some other race)
|HHSIZE||Count of Household Members||1–13|
(as defined by the Pew Research Center )
|Post-Millennial (Aged between 18 and 20|
)Millennial (Aged between 21 and 36)
Generation X (Aged between 37 and 52)
Baby Boomer (Aged between 53 and 71)
Silent and Greatest (Aged 72 or above)
|WRKCOUNT||Number of workers in household||0–7|
|LIF_CYC||Life Cycle classification for the household, derived by attributes pertaining to age, relationship, and work status||One adult, no children|
2+ adults, no children
One adult, youngest child 0–5
2+ adults, youngest child 0–5
One adult, youngest child 6–15
2+ adults, youngest child 6–15
One adult, youngest child 16–21
2+ adults, youngest child 16–21One adult, retired, no children
2+ adults, retired, no children
|Variable Name||Question in the NHTS 2017 ||Values/Levels||Data Type|
|PTUSED||In the past 30 days, about how many days have you used public transportation such as buses, subways, streetcars, or commuter trains?||0–240||Count|
|NWALKTRIP||In the past 7 days, how many times did you take a walk outside including walks to exercise, go somewhere, or to walk the dog (e.g., walk to a friend’s house, walk around the neighborhood, walk to the store, etc.)?||0–200||Count|
|NBIKETRIP||In the past 7 days, how many times did you ride a bicycle outside including bicycling to exercise, or to go somewhere (e.g., bike to a friend’s house, bike around the neighborhood, bike to the store, etc.)?||0–99||Count|
|HHVEHCNT||How many vehicles are owned, leased, or available for regular use by the people who currently live in your household? Include motorcycles, mopeds, and RVs.||0–12||Count|
|CARSHARE||In the past 30 days, how many times did you use a car-sharing service where a car can be rented by the hour (e.g., Zipcar orCar2Go)?||0 = Non-adopter|
1 = Adopter
|RIDEHAIL *||In the past 30 days, how many times have you purchased a ride with a smartphone rideshare app (e.g., Uber, Lyft, Sidecar)?||0 = Non-adopter|
1 = Adopter
|Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of the Respondent’s Home Address||Public Transit Trips||Walking Trips||Biking Trips||Household Vehicle|
New York–Newark–Jersey City,|
NY–NJ–PA ( )
|12.57 *||6.86 *||12.25 *||8.68 *||0.80 *||0.29 *||1.48 *||1.85 *|
Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA|
|2.54 *||0.72 *||6.09||5.67||0.29 *||0.17 *||1.90 *||2.14 *|
|9.19 *||5.39 *||11.60||9.50||0.62||0.68||1.26 *||1.68 *|
|7.45 *||4.19 *||8.79 *||6.71 *||0.56||0.48||1.85||2.00|
Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA|
|2.14 *||1.30 *||7.11 *||5.24 *||0.51 *||0.29 *||2.02 *||2.15 *|
|Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL ( )||2.02 *||0.49 *||7.26 *||4.57 *||0.62||0.31||2.24||2.00|
|Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD ( )||7.28 *||2.13 *||10.46 *||7.31 *||0.62 *||0.13 *||1.85||2.10|
San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA|
|8.01 *||3.91 *||9.46 *||6.16 *||0.92 *||0.45 *||1.69 *||2.16 *|
|6.52 *||2.78 *||7.93||6.66||0.93 *||0.08 *||1.71 *||2.10 *|
|Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV ( )||9.54 *||4.70 *||11.86 *||7.41 *||0.84 *||0.35 *||1.36 *||1.70 *|
|Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of the Respondent’s Home Address||Public Transit Trips||Walking Trips||Biking Trips||Household Vehicle|
New York–Newark–Jersey City,|
|Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA||1.63||26.66||5.88||65.12||0.23||1.28||2.02||0.98|
|Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA||1.72||32.86||6.17||64.48||0.40||3.00||2.09||1.32|
|Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL||1.26||24.37||0.46||2.89||0.46||2.89||2.12||1.01|
|San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA||5.96||91.43||7.81||73.32||0.69||5.06||1.92||1.39|
|Area Relevant to the Model||Model|
|New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA||1.570 *||1.154 *||1.872 *||0.954|
|Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA||3.312 *||0.952||1.096||0.930 *|
|Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH||2.434 *||1.120||0.765||0.935|
|Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI||1.651 *||1.183||1.394||1.104|
|Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA||1.552 *||1.274 *||1.508 *||0.976|
|Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL||2.740||1.511 *||1.260||1.153 *|
|Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD||3.524 *||1.099||6.101 *||1.002|
|San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA||1.528 *||1.226 *||1.063||0.911 *|
|Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA||2.047 *||0.942||7.975 *||0.899|
|Washington–-Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV||1.639 *||1.221 *||2.222 *||1.007|
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Das, V. Does Adoption of Ridehailing Result in More Frequent Sustainable Mobility Choices? An Investigation Based on the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 Data. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 385-400. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020020
Das V. Does Adoption of Ridehailing Result in More Frequent Sustainable Mobility Choices? An Investigation Based on the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 Data. Smart Cities. 2020; 3(2):385-400. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020020Chicago/Turabian Style
Das, Vivekananda. 2020. "Does Adoption of Ridehailing Result in More Frequent Sustainable Mobility Choices? An Investigation Based on the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2017 Data" Smart Cities 3, no. 2: 385-400. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3020020