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Clocks & Sleep, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 11 articles

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20 pages, 904 KiB  
Article
Light in the Senior Home: Effects of Dynamic and Individual Light Exposure on Sleep, Cognition, and Well-Being
by Myriam Juda, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Fabio Feldman, Cristian Suvagau and Ralph E. Mistlberger
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 557-576; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040040 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4875
Abstract
Disrupted sleep is common among nursing home patients and is associated with cognitive decline and reduced well-being. Sleep disruptions may in part be a result of insufficient daytime light exposure. This pilot study examined the effects of dynamic “circadian” lighting and individual light [...] Read more.
Disrupted sleep is common among nursing home patients and is associated with cognitive decline and reduced well-being. Sleep disruptions may in part be a result of insufficient daytime light exposure. This pilot study examined the effects of dynamic “circadian” lighting and individual light exposure on sleep, cognitive performance, and well-being in a sample of 14 senior home residents. The study was conducted as a within-subject study design over five weeks of circadian lighting and five weeks of conventional lighting, in a counterbalanced order. Participants wore wrist accelerometers to track rest–activity and light profiles and completed cognitive batteries (National Institute of Health (NIH) toolbox) and questionnaires (depression, fatigue, sleep quality, lighting appraisal) in each condition. We found no significant differences in outcome variables between the two lighting conditions. Individual differences in overall (indoors and outdoors) light exposure levels varied greatly between participants but did not differ between lighting conditions, except at night (22:00–6:00), with maximum light exposure being greater in the conventional lighting condition. Pooled data from both conditions showed that participants with higher overall morning light exposure (6:00–12:00) had less fragmented and more stable rest–activity rhythms with higher relative amplitude. Rest–activity rhythm fragmentation and long sleep duration both uniquely predicted lower cognitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pre-Sleep Artificial Light on Cognition and Sleep)
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21 pages, 7060 KiB  
Article
Power and Coherence in the EEG of the Rat: Impact of Behavioral States, Cortical Area, Lateralization and Light/Dark Phases
by Alejandra Mondino, Matías Cavelli, Joaquín González, Lucía Osorio, Santiago Castro-Zaballa, Alicia Costa, Giancarlo Vanini and Pablo Torterolo
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 536-556; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040039 - 9 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3540
Abstract
The sleep-wake cycle is constituted by three behavioral states: wakefulness (W), non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep. These states are associated with drastic changes in cognitive capacities, mostly determined by the function of the thalamo-cortical system, whose activity can be examined by means of [...] Read more.
The sleep-wake cycle is constituted by three behavioral states: wakefulness (W), non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep. These states are associated with drastic changes in cognitive capacities, mostly determined by the function of the thalamo-cortical system, whose activity can be examined by means of intra-cranial electroencephalogram (iEEG). With the purpose to study in depth the basal activity of the iEEG in adult rats, we analyzed the spectral power and coherence of the iEEG during W and sleep in the paleocortex (olfactory bulb), and in neocortical areas. We also analyzed the laterality of the signals, as well as the influence of the light and dark phases. We found that the iEEG power and coherence of the whole spectrum were largely affected by behavioral states and highly dependent on the cortical areas recorded. We also determined that there are night/day differences in power and coherence during sleep, but not in W. Finally, we observed that, during REM sleep, intra-hemispheric coherence differs between right and left hemispheres. We conclude that the iEEG dynamics are highly dependent on the cortical area and behavioral states. Moreover, there are light/dark phases disparities in the iEEG during sleep, and intra-hemispheric connectivity differs between both hemispheres during REM sleep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Basic Research)
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13 pages, 2478 KiB  
Article
Loss of Circadian Timing Disrupts Theta Episodes during Object Exploration
by Adrienne C. Loewke, Alex Garrett, Athreya Steiger, Nathan Fisher, H. Craig Heller, Damien Colas and Norman F. Ruby
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 523-535; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040038 - 1 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
This study examined whether theta oscillations were compromised by the type of circadian disruption that impairs hippocampal-dependent memory processes. In prior studies on Siberian hamsters, we developed a one-time light treatment that eliminated circadian timing in the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). [...] Read more.
This study examined whether theta oscillations were compromised by the type of circadian disruption that impairs hippocampal-dependent memory processes. In prior studies on Siberian hamsters, we developed a one-time light treatment that eliminated circadian timing in the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These arrhythmic animals had impaired hippocampal-dependent memory whereas animals made arrhythmic with SCN lesions did not. The current study examined whether theta oscillations are compromised by the same light treatment that produced memory impairments in these animals. We found that both methods of inducing circadian-arrhythmia shortened theta episodes in the EEG by nearly 50%. SCN-lesioned animals, however, exhibited a 3-fold increase in the number of theta episodes and more than doubled the total time that theta dominated the EEG compared to SCN-intact circadian-arrhythmic animals. Video tracking showed that changes in theta were paralleled by similar changes in exploration behavior. These results suggest that the circadian-arrhythmic SCN interferes with hippocampal memory encoding by fragmenting theta oscillations. SCN-lesioned animals can, however, compensate for the shortened theta episodes by increasing their frequency. Implications for rhythm coherence and theta sequence models of memory formation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Basic Research)
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21 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
Alerting and Circadian Effects of Short-Wavelength vs. Long-Wavelength Narrow-Bandwidth Light during a Simulated Night Shift
by Erlend Sunde, Torhild Pedersen, Jelena Mrdalj, Eirunn Thun, Janne Grønli, Anette Harris, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Siri Waage, Debra J. Skene and Ståle Pallesen
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 502-522; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040037 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3593
Abstract
Light can be used to facilitate alertness, task performance and circadian adaptation during night work. Novel strategies for illumination of workplaces, using ceiling mounted LED-luminaires, allow the use of a range of different light conditions, altering intensity and spectral composition. This study (ClinicalTrials.gov [...] Read more.
Light can be used to facilitate alertness, task performance and circadian adaptation during night work. Novel strategies for illumination of workplaces, using ceiling mounted LED-luminaires, allow the use of a range of different light conditions, altering intensity and spectral composition. This study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03203538) investigated the effects of short-wavelength narrow-bandwidth light (λmax = 455 nm) compared to long-wavelength narrow-bandwidth light (λmax = 625 nm), with similar photon density (~2.8 × 1014 photons/cm2/s) across light conditions, during a simulated night shift (23:00–06:45 h) when conducting cognitive performance tasks. Light conditions were administered by ceiling mounted LED-luminaires. Using a within-subjects repeated measurements study design, a total of 34 healthy young adults (27 females and 7 males; mean age = 21.6 years, SD = 2.0 years) participated. The results revealed significantly reduced sleepiness and improved task performance during the night shift with short-wavelength light compared to long-wavelength light. There was also a larger shift of the melatonin rhythm (phase delay) after working a night shift in short-wavelength light compared to long-wavelength light. Participants’ visual comfort was rated as better in the short-wavelength light than the long-wavelength light. Ceiling mounted LED-luminaires may be feasible to use in real workplaces, as these have the potential to provide light conditions that are favorable for alertness and performance among night workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light, Sleep and Human Health)
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15 pages, 942 KiB  
Article
Short Nighttime Sleep Duration and High Number of Nighttime Awakenings Explain Increases in Gestational Weight Gain and Decreases in Physical Activity but Not Energy Intake among Pregnant Women with Overweight/Obesity
by Abigail M. Pauley, Emily E. Hohman, Krista S. Leonard, Penghong Guo, Katherine M. McNitt, Daniel E. Rivera, Jennifer S. Savage and Danielle Symons Downs
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 487-501; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040036 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
Pregnant women are at a high risk for experiencing sleep disturbances, excess energy intake, low physical activity, and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Scant research has examined how sleep behaviors influence energy intake, physical activity, and GWG over the course of pregnancy. This [...] Read more.
Pregnant women are at a high risk for experiencing sleep disturbances, excess energy intake, low physical activity, and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Scant research has examined how sleep behaviors influence energy intake, physical activity, and GWG over the course of pregnancy. This study conducted secondary analyses from the Healthy Mom Zone Study to examine between- and within-person effects of weekly sleep behaviors on energy intake, physical activity, and GWG in pregnant women with overweight/obesity (PW-OW/OB) participating in an adaptive intervention to manage GWG. The overall sample of N = 24 (M age = 30.6 years, SD = 3.2) had an average nighttime sleep duration of 7.2 h/night. In the total sample, there was a significant between-person effect of nighttime awakenings on physical activity; women with >1 weekly nighttime awakening expended 167.56 less physical activity kcals than women with <1 nighttime awakening. A significant within-person effect was also found for GWG such that for every increase in one weekly nighttime awakening there was a 0.76 pound increase in GWG. There was also a significant within-person effect for study group assignment; study group appeared to moderate the effect of nighttime awakenings on GWG such that for every one increase in weekly nighttime awakening, the control group gained 0.20 pounds more than the intervention group. There were no significant between- or within-person effects of sleep behaviors on energy intake. These findings illustrate an important need to consider the influence of sleep behaviors on prenatal physical activity and GWG in PW-OW/OB. Future studies may consider intervention strategies to reduce prenatal nighttime awakenings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light, Sleep and Human Health)
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14 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Are Individuals with Low Trait Anxiety Better Suited to On-Call Work?
by Madeline Sprajcer, Sarah M Jay, Grace E Vincent, Xuan Zhou, Andrew Vakulin, Leon Lack and Sally A Ferguson
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 473-486; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040035 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
Research has indicated that individuals with certain traits may be better suited to shiftwork and non-standard working arrangements. However, no research has investigated how individual differences impact on-call outcomes. As such, this study investigated the impact of trait anxiety on sleep and performance [...] Read more.
Research has indicated that individuals with certain traits may be better suited to shiftwork and non-standard working arrangements. However, no research has investigated how individual differences impact on-call outcomes. As such, this study investigated the impact of trait anxiety on sleep and performance outcomes on-call. Seventy male participants (20–35 years) completed an adaptation night, a control night, and two on-call nights in a laboratory. Trait anxiety was determined using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) X-2, and participants completed the STAI X-1 prior to bed each night to assess state anxiety. Sleep was measured using polysomnography and quantitative electroencephalographic analysis. Performance was assessed using a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performed each day at 0930, 1200, 1430 and 1700 h. Data pooled from three separate but inter-related studies was used for these analyses. Results indicated that the effects of trait anxiety on state anxiety, sleep and performance outcomes on-call were generally limited. These findings suggest that on-call outcomes are not negatively affected by higher levels of trait anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Rhythms, and Mental Health)
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7 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
A Temporal Threshold for Distinguishing Off-Wrist from Inactivity Periods: A Retrospective Actigraphy Analysis
by Renske Lok and Jamie M. Zeitzer
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 466-472; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040034 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
(1) Background. To facilitate accurate actigraphy data analysis, inactive periods have to be distinguished from periods during which the device is not being worn. The current analysis investigates the degree to which off-wrist and inactive periods can be automatically identified. (2) Methods. In [...] Read more.
(1) Background. To facilitate accurate actigraphy data analysis, inactive periods have to be distinguished from periods during which the device is not being worn. The current analysis investigates the degree to which off-wrist and inactive periods can be automatically identified. (2) Methods. In total, 125 actigraphy records were manually scored for ‘off-wrist’ and ‘inactivity’ (99 collected with the Motionlogger AMI, 26 (sampling frequency of 60 (n = 20) and 120 (n = 6) s) with the Philips Actiwatch 2.) Data were plotted with cumulative frequency percentage and analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. To confirm findings, the thresholds determined in a subset of the Motionlogger dataset (n = 74) were tested in the remaining dataset (n = 25). (3) Results. Inactivity data lasted shorter than off-wrist periods, with 95% of inactive events being shorter than 11 min (Motionlogger), 20 min (Actiwatch 2; 60 s epochs) or 30 min (Actiwatch 2; 120 s epochs), correctly identifying 35, 92 or 66% of the off-wrist periods. The optimal accurate detection of both inactive and off-wrist periods for the Motionlogger was 3 min (Youden’s Index (J) = 0.37), while it was 18 (J = 0.89) and 16 min (J = 0.81) for the Actiwatch 2 (60 and 120 s epochs, respectively). The thresholds as determined in the subset of the Motionlogger dataset showed similar results in the remaining dataset. (4) Conclusion. Off-wrist periods can be automatically identified from inactivity data based on a temporal threshold. Depending on the goal of the analysis, a threshold can be chosen to favor inactivity data’s inclusion or accurate off-wrist detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Models)
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24 pages, 3516 KiB  
Article
Differential Gene Expression in Brain and Liver Tissue of Wistar Rats after Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation
by Atul Pandey, Ryan Oliver and Santosh K Kar
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 442-465; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040033 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3706
Abstract
Sleep is essential for the survival of most living beings. Numerous researchers have identified a series of genes that are thought to regulate “sleep-state” or the “deprived state”. As sleep has a significant effect on physiology, we believe that lack of total sleep, [...] Read more.
Sleep is essential for the survival of most living beings. Numerous researchers have identified a series of genes that are thought to regulate “sleep-state” or the “deprived state”. As sleep has a significant effect on physiology, we believe that lack of total sleep, or particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, for a prolonged period would have a profound impact on various body tissues. Therefore, using the microarray method, we sought to determine which genes and processes are affected in the brain and liver of rats following nine days of REM sleep deprivation. Our findings showed that REM sleep deprivation affected a total of 652 genes in the brain and 426 genes in the liver. Only 23 genes were affected commonly, 10 oppositely, and 13 similarly across brain and liver tissue. Our results suggest that nine-day REM sleep deprivation differentially affects genes and processes in the brain and liver of rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Basic Research)
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8 pages, 647 KiB  
Article
The Effect of General Anaesthesia on Circadian Rhythms in Behaviour and Clock Gene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster
by Nina Li, Ralf Stanewsky, Tessa Popay, Guy Warman and James Cheeseman
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 434-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040032 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
General anaesthesia (GA) is implicated as a cause of postoperative sleep disruption and fatigue with part of the disturbance being attributed to a shift of the circadian clock. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model to determine how Isoflurane affects [...] Read more.
General anaesthesia (GA) is implicated as a cause of postoperative sleep disruption and fatigue with part of the disturbance being attributed to a shift of the circadian clock. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model to determine how Isoflurane affects the circadian clock at the behavioural and molecular levels. We measured the response of the clock at both of these levels caused by different durations and different concentrations of Isoflurane at circadian time 4 (CT4). Once characterized, we held the duration and concentration constants (at 2% in air for 6 h) and calculated the phase responses over the entire circadian cycle in both activity and period expression. Phase advances in behaviour were observed during the subjective day, whereas phase delays were associated with subjective night time GA interventions. The corresponding pattern of gene expression preceded the behavioural pattern by approximately four hours. We discuss the implications of this effect for clinical and research practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Basic Research)
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18 pages, 663 KiB  
Review
Alarm Tones, Voice Warnings, and Musical Treatments: A Systematic Review of Auditory Countermeasures for Sleep Inertia in Abrupt and Casual Awakenings
by Stuart J. McFarlane, Jair E. Garcia, Darrin S. Verhagen and Adrian G. Dyer
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 416-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040031 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8805
Abstract
Sleep inertia is a measurable decline in cognition some people experience upon and following awakening. However, a systematic review of the current up to date evidence of audio as a countermeasure has yet to be reported. Thus, to amend this gap in knowledge, [...] Read more.
Sleep inertia is a measurable decline in cognition some people experience upon and following awakening. However, a systematic review of the current up to date evidence of audio as a countermeasure has yet to be reported. Thus, to amend this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted this systematic review beginning with searches in three primary databases for studies published between the inception date of each journal and the year 2020. Search terms contained “Sleep Inertia” paired with: “Sound”; “Noise”; “Music”; “Alarm”; “Alarm Tone”; “Alarm Sound”; “Alarm Noise”; “Alarm Music”; “Alarm Clock”; “Fire Alarm”, and “Smoke Alarm”. From 341 study results, twelve were identified for inclusion against a priori conditions. A structured narrative synthesis approach generated three key auditory stimulus themes-(i) Noise, (ii) Emergency tone sequences; Voice Alarms and Hybrids, and (iii) Music. Across themes, participants have been assessed in two situational categories: emergency, and non-emergency awakenings. The results indicate that for children awakening in emergency conditions, a low pitch alarm or voice warnings appear to be more effective in counteracting the effects of sleep inertia than alarms with higher frequencies. For adults abruptly awakened, there is insufficient evidence to support firm conclusions regarding alarm types and voice signals. Positive results have been found in non-emergency awakenings for musical treatments in adults who preferred popular music, and alarms with melodic qualities. The results observed reflect the potential for sound, voice, and musical treatments to counteract sleep inertia post-awakening, and emphasize the requirements for further research in this domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Basic Research & Neuroimaging)
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17 pages, 280 KiB  
Review
Sleep Disturbances in Patients with Persistent Delusions: Prevalence, Clinical Associations, and Therapeutic Strategies
by Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Javier Labad and Mary V. Seeman
Clocks & Sleep 2020, 2(4), 399-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep2040030 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4172
Abstract
Sleep disturbances accompany almost all mental illnesses, either because sound sleep and mental well-being share similar requisites, or because mental problems lead to sleep problems, or vice versa. The aim of this narrative review was to examine sleep in patients with delusions, particularly [...] Read more.
Sleep disturbances accompany almost all mental illnesses, either because sound sleep and mental well-being share similar requisites, or because mental problems lead to sleep problems, or vice versa. The aim of this narrative review was to examine sleep in patients with delusions, particularly in those diagnosed with delusional disorder. We did this in sequence, first for psychiatric illness in general, then for psychotic illnesses where delusions are prevalent symptoms, and then for delusional disorder. The review also looked at the effect on sleep parameters of individual symptoms commonly seen in delusional disorder (paranoia, cognitive distortions, suicidal thoughts) and searched the evidence base for indications of antipsychotic drug effects on sleep. It subsequently evaluated the influence of sleep therapies on psychotic symptoms, particularly delusions. The review’s findings are clinically important. Delusional symptoms and sleep quality influence one another reciprocally. Effective treatment of sleep problems is of potential benefit to patients with persistent delusions, but may be difficult to implement in the absence of an established therapeutic relationship and an appropriate pharmacologic regimen. As one symptom can aggravate another, comorbidities in patients with serious mental illness all need to be treated, a task that requires close liaison among medical specialties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Society)
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