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Surfaces, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 6 articles

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9 pages, 2757 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Water Condensation on Hybrid Surfaces by Optimizing Wettability Contrast
by Do-Thuy Chi and Thanh-Binh Nguyen
Surfaces 2024, 7(3), 508-516; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces7030033 (registering DOI) - 24 Jul 2024
Viewed by 90
Abstract
This study uses a hybrid concept to propose an optimal textured surface morphology for enhancing water condensation. The natural phenomenon-inspired morphology, which combined different degrees of wettability presented on the surface, documented their advantage in water harvesting compared to untreated surfaces. These superiorities [...] Read more.
This study uses a hybrid concept to propose an optimal textured surface morphology for enhancing water condensation. The natural phenomenon-inspired morphology, which combined different degrees of wettability presented on the surface, documented their advantage in water harvesting compared to untreated surfaces. These superiorities might be explained by the appropriate combination of nucleation and water-driven ability facilitated by the superhydrophobic surrounding area. The uniform condensed droplets are effectively agglomerated to achieve the critical size. The best combination was found on a superhydrophobic-hydrophilic hybrid sample that improved water collection efficiency by up to 50% compared to bare Al. Condensation performance also illustrated an interesting tendency that revealed the great contribution of wettability on hydrophilic dots and the water-driven ability of the high-hydrophobicity area. The results were supported by a theoretical model which predicts the critical volume of a single droplet before it has departed from the surface. The findings reveal a good level of agreement between theory and real-time measurement, demonstrating the potential of combinations of hybrid samples to induce water collection efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Surface Engineering for Metallic Alloys)
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15 pages, 3801 KiB  
Article
Eliminating Manifold Pharmaceutical Pollutants with Carbon Nanoparticles Driven via a Short-Duration Ball-Milling Process
by Tarig G. Ibrahim, Rasmiah S. Almufarij, Babiker Y. Abdulkhair and Mohamed E. Abd Elaziz
Surfaces 2024, 7(3), 493-507; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces7030032 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 399
Abstract
One of the major problems facing humanity in all parts of the world is water pollution. Since carbon nanoparticles (CPs) are known for their excellent absorbability, this study explored preparing CPs via a facilitated ball-milling protocol. Four CP products were prepared with the [...] Read more.
One of the major problems facing humanity in all parts of the world is water pollution. Since carbon nanoparticles (CPs) are known for their excellent absorbability, this study explored preparing CPs via a facilitated ball-milling protocol. Four CP products were prepared with the friction enhancer being variated, typically 0-CPs, 2.5-CPs, 5-CPs, and 10-CPs. The four sorbents were characterized using TEM, EDX, XRD, BET, and FTIR methods. The 0-CPs, 2.5-CPs, 5-CPs, and 10-CPs possessed a BET surface area of 113, 139, 105, and 98.5 m2 g−1, respectively, and showed a sorption capacity of 55.6, 147.0, 65.8, and 24.6 mg g−1 when tested with chlorohexidine (CH). Therefore, the 2.5-CPs were selected as the best sorbents among the prepared nanomaterials and employed for further sorption investigations. The CH sorption on the 2.5-CPs followed the pseudo-second-order, and the liquid–film diffusion controlled the CH sorption onto the 2.5-CPs. The Langmuir isotherm model was followed, and the Dubinin–Radushkevich energy was 3.0 kJ mole−1, indicating a physisorption process. The thermodynamic outputs suggested that CH sorption by 2.5-CPs was favorable. Furthermore, the 2.5-CPs sorbent was tested for treating water samples contaminated with 20 mg L−1 of ciprofloxacin, dextromethorphan, guaifenesin, metronidazole, ibuprofen, chlorzoxazone, chlorpheniramine malate paracetamol, and hydro-chlorothiazide. The 2.5-CPs showed an average removal efficiency of 94.1% with a removal range of 92.1% to 98.3% and a 2.21 standard deviation value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Articles for Surfaces)
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11 pages, 1890 KiB  
Article
Application of High-Surface Tension and Hygroscopic Ionic Liquid-Infused Nanostructured SiO2 Surfaces for Reversible/Repeatable Anti-Fogging Treatment
by Satoshi Nakamura, Jerred Wassgren, Sayaka Sugie and Atsushi Hozumi
Surfaces 2024, 7(3), 482-492; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces7030031 - 2 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Anti-fogging coatings/surfaces have attracted much attention lately because of their practical applications in a wide variety of engineering fields. In this study, we successfully developed transparent anti-fogging surfaces using a non-volatile and hygroscopic ionic liquid (IL), bis(hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium methanesulfonate ([BHEDMA][MeSO3]), with a [...] Read more.
Anti-fogging coatings/surfaces have attracted much attention lately because of their practical applications in a wide variety of engineering fields. In this study, we successfully developed transparent anti-fogging surfaces using a non-volatile and hygroscopic ionic liquid (IL), bis(hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium methanesulfonate ([BHEDMA][MeSO3]), with a high surface tension (HST, 66.4 mN/m). To prepare these surfaces, a layer of highly transparent, superhydrophilic silica (SiO2) nano-frameworks (SNFs) was first prepared on a glass slide using candle soot particles and the subsequent chemisorption of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). This particulate layer of SNFs was then used as the support for the preparation of the [BHEDMA][MeSO3] layer. The resulting IL-infused SNF-covered glass slide was highly transparent, superhydrophilic, hygroscopic, and had self-healing and reasonable reversible/repeatable anti-fogging/frosting properties. This IL-infused sample surface kept its excellent anti-fogging performance in air for more than 8 weeks due to the IL’s non-volatile, HST, and hygroscopic nature. In addition, even if the water absorption limit of [BHEDMA][MeSO3] was reached, the anti-fogging properties could be fully restored reversibly/repeatably by simply leaving the samples in air for several tens of minutes or heating them at 100 °C for a few minutes to remove the absorbed water. Our IL-based anti-fogging surfaces showed substantial improvement in their abilities to prevent fogging when compared to other dry/wet (super)hydrophobic/(super)hydrophilic surfaces having different surface geometries and chemistries. Full article
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10 pages, 3779 KiB  
Article
Size-Dependence of the Electrochemical Activity of Platinum Particles in the 1 to 2 Nanometer Range
by Hiroshi Yano and Kouta Iwasaki
Surfaces 2024, 7(3), 472-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces7030030 - 2 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Monodisperse Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon (Pt/C) were prepared via an impregnation method. By changing the concentration of the platinum precursor in the initial reagent mixture, the average particle size (d) could be controlled to within a narrow range of less [...] Read more.
Monodisperse Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon (Pt/C) were prepared via an impregnation method. By changing the concentration of the platinum precursor in the initial reagent mixture, the average particle size (d) could be controlled to within a narrow range of less than 2 nm. The specific activity (SA) of these materials, when applied to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), increased rapidly with d in the range below 1.8 nm, with a maximum SA at d = 1.3 nm. This value is approximately four times that of a commercial Pt/CB catalyst. The electrochemical active area, ECAA (electrochemical surface area (ECSA)/specific surface area (SSA) × 100), decreased drastically from 100% with decreases in d below 1.3 nm. In this study, we present a correlation between SA and ECAA as a means of determining the appropriate d for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and propose an optimal size. Full article
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12 pages, 4152 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Printing Performance of Visible Light Photochromic Paper Based on PMoA-PWA/ZnO/PVP Composite
by Wanqing Zhao, Hongmei Zhao, Wei Feng and Honggang Zhao
Surfaces 2024, 7(3), 460-471; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces7030029 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The recyclable paper based on photochromic materials not only reduces the pollution in the paper manufacture process, but also reduces the pollution caused by the use of ink, which receives wide attention. In this paper, a series of phosphomolybdic acid–phosphotungstic acid/ZnO/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PMoA-PWA/ZnO/PVP) hybrid [...] Read more.
The recyclable paper based on photochromic materials not only reduces the pollution in the paper manufacture process, but also reduces the pollution caused by the use of ink, which receives wide attention. In this paper, a series of phosphomolybdic acid–phosphotungstic acid/ZnO/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PMoA-PWA/ZnO/PVP) hybrid films, which had different ratio of PMoA/PWA, was prepared by the ultrasonic composite method. The results indicated that the hybrid film prepared when the ratio of PMoA to PWA was 3 had the best photochromic performance. In this system, ZnO was the photosensitizer, while PMoA/PWA was the chromophore. The photochromic mechanism of the PMoA-PWA/ZnO/PVP hybrid film was based on the photogenerated electron transfer mechanism. ZnO generated photoelectron under the excitation of visible light, then PMoA and PWA obtained the photoelectron and produced photoreduction reaction to generate heteropolyblue. The visible light photochromic paper was prepared by loaded PMoA-PWA/ZnO/PVP hybrid film (A3) on A4 paper. Application tests showed that the prepared paper had extremely stable, excellent and reversible visible light photochromic properties, whether it was printing patterns or words, and could replace ordinary paper to realize the reuse of paper. Full article
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18 pages, 6191 KiB  
Review
Catalytically Active Materials Visualized by Scanning Photoelectron Spectro-Microscopy
by Matteo Amati, Lada V. Yashina, Philipp Winkler, Kevin Sparwasser, Zygmunt Milosz, Günther Rupprechter and Luca Gregoratti
Surfaces 2024, 7(3), 442-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/surfaces7030028 - 26 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Modern catalysts are complex systems whose performance depends both on space and time domains and, most importantly, on the operational environment. As a direct consequence, understanding their functionalities requires sophisticated techniques and tools for measurement and simulation, addressing the proper spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
Modern catalysts are complex systems whose performance depends both on space and time domains and, most importantly, on the operational environment. As a direct consequence, understanding their functionalities requires sophisticated techniques and tools for measurement and simulation, addressing the proper spatial and temporal scale and being capable of mimicking the working conditions of every single component, such as catalyst supports, electrodes, electrolytes, as well as of the entire assembly, e.g., in the case of fuel cells or batteries. Scanning photoelectron spectro-microscopy (SPEM) is one of the approaches that allow combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with sub-micron spatial resolution; in particular, the SPEM hosted at the ESCA Microscopy beamline at Elettra has been upgraded to conduct in situ and operando experiments. Three different case studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the SPEM in the investigation of catalytic materials in different conditions and processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Situ and Operando Catalyst Characterization)
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