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Heritage, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Veil of Manoppello is a semitransparent icon of the face of Christ (Holy Face). The face is [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Case Study of the Medieval Town Walls of Gubbio in Italy: First Results on the Characterization of Mortars and Binders
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 468-478; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020031
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
Good conservation and restoration practices of cultural heritage assets rely on the knowledge of original materials. In the framework of the HERACLES Project (HERACLES—HEritage Resilience Against CLimate Events on Site, H2020 Grant Agreement 700395), dealing with the effects of climatic actions and natural
[...] Read more.
Good conservation and restoration practices of cultural heritage assets rely on the knowledge of original materials. In the framework of the HERACLES Project (HERACLES—HEritage Resilience Against CLimate Events on Site, H2020 Grant Agreement 700395), dealing with the effects of climatic actions and natural hazards on built heritage, a set of important heritage sites are currently under study to improve their resilience against climate events. Among these are the medieval Gubbio Town Walls in Italy. The present work focuses on the mortars and binders of this monument and collected samples related to different parts of the Walls, corresponding to various historical periods of construction and interventions. They were characterized to determine their minerochemical composition, thermal behavior, and morphology. For that purpose, ex-situ laboratory techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), optical microscopy (OM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (TG-DTA) were used to discern trends in different sampling areas due to construction/reconstruction periods and building techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle European Silver Sources from the 15th to the 17th Century: The Influx of “New World” Silver in Portuguese Currency
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 453-467; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020030
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
The circulation trading routes and the characterization of the silver metal used in the European continent in the 15–17th centuries are historical issues that are still open. This study aimed to bring an insight into the silver processed within a chronological framework in
[...] Read more.
The circulation trading routes and the characterization of the silver metal used in the European continent in the 15–17th centuries are historical issues that are still open. This study aimed to bring an insight into the silver processed within a chronological framework in the Portuguese territory, relating the analytical data with the known historical information. This investigation developed on 230 high silver coins from two important Portuguese coin collections was based mainly on surface particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, complemented with a few energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyses. The silver processed in different timelines was discriminated based on the variation of the impurity contents, namely Au and Bi. European silver with high Au and Hg and low Pb and Bi contents supplied the 15th century chronologies, being replaced at the dawn of the 16th century by a new metal entering the Portuguese capital. This new metal, with low Au and high Bi contents, was probably derived from European argentiferous copper ores. By the end of the 1500s, the Philippine chronologies reveal the newly discovered Potosí silver, identified for the first time based on PIXE minor and trace element surface contents, distinguishable from the European silver in use until 1578 in the Portuguese territory, by Au contents <100 ppm and very low Bi contents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heritage for Sale! The Role of Museums in Promoting Metal Detecting and Looting in Romania
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 437-452; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020029
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
The phenomenon of metal detecting in Romania is growing rapidly, with more and more cases being registered every year. In a context where there is less money for archaeological research, museums are relying more and more on discoveries made by metal detectorists in
[...] Read more.
The phenomenon of metal detecting in Romania is growing rapidly, with more and more cases being registered every year. In a context where there is less money for archaeological research, museums are relying more and more on discoveries made by metal detectorists in order to enrich their collections. This situation encourages the practice, and in time could have damaging effects on the archaeological heritage of Romania. Metal detecting represents an activity that has raised lots of debate, but the authorities have not yet taken action. Thus, this study is necessary: in order to find a middle ground between metal detectorists, archaeology, and the institutions responsible for the protection of heritage. Such a middle ground could be a bridge that leads to the better preservation of archaeological heritage in Romania. This study focuses on creating a policy to protect the archaeological sites of Romania, creating awareness among local communities as well as a policy that could be applicable elsewhere in other places that are also involved in this sort of activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Tangible Interaction to Communicate Tacit Knowledge of Built Heritage
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 414-436; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020028
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
Meanings and values of built heritage vary from factual and explicit meanings which are relatively easy to present, to more tacit knowledge, which is typically more challenging to communicate due to its implicit and often abstract character. In this paper, we investigate how
[...] Read more.
Meanings and values of built heritage vary from factual and explicit meanings which are relatively easy to present, to more tacit knowledge, which is typically more challenging to communicate due to its implicit and often abstract character. In this paper, we investigate how tangible interaction influences the communication of this tacit knowledge of built heritage, and howit affects the experience of visitors. Through a between-group comparative study in a real-world museum context, we examined howthe tangible characteristics of an interactive prototypemuseuminstallation influence how visitors perceive a particular story containing tacit heritage knowledge. The communicated story relates a historical journey in ancient Egypt to the physical and architectural characteristics of the entrance colonnade at the Djoser Complex in Saqqara. Our experimental conditions consisted of an interactive navigation (input) and a passive representation (output) components, ranging from traditional digital displays to fully tangible means of interaction. We report on our findings, which showed various differences and commonalities between our three experimental conditions. We conclude with a number of discussion points and design recommendations: (a) to strive for balance between navigation and representation modalities in terms of affordance and the required cognitive effort; (b) to take advantage of physical representation and grasping, such as conveying particular physical details and characteristics; and (c) to consider design aspects of embodiment, physical abstraction and materiality for future research or potential further development of communicating the meanings and values of heritage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Archaeological Restoration and Heritage Actions in Ollantaytambo
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 392-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020027
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
This article is concerned with the history of restoration work carried out over the last 40 years or so in the Inca site of Ollantaytambo, in the Cuzco region of Peru. The information gathered comes mainly from interviews conducted with professionals relevant to
[...] Read more.
This article is concerned with the history of restoration work carried out over the last 40 years or so in the Inca site of Ollantaytambo, in the Cuzco region of Peru. The information gathered comes mainly from interviews conducted with professionals relevant to the study, as well as from archival work. Rather than dwelling on the appropriateness or not of the technical solutions implemented, from the point of view of international standards and expectations, the focus lies on the underlying reasons that have driven changes in the site´s physical appearance. Factors like restoration principles at work during the various interventions, the role of photography and visibility, the delicate relationship between tangible and intangible heritage, and the influence of tourism in an area visually inspired by the powerful imaginaries of Machu Picchu are explored. Some of the problems identified are associated with processes of puesta en valor, monumentalism, the influence of foreign models, and the role of architect-restorers. It will be argued that the site´s restoration history is problematic in ways that invite critical reassessment and engagement with current international debates on conservation and restoration concepts and practices, like authenticity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Introducing the HERACLES Ontology—Semantics for Cultural Heritage Management
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 377-391; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020026
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
Cultural Heritage (CH) (In the context of this paper, we consider cultural heritage built tangible cultural heritage, such as buildings or monuments.) is an important source of identity for humankind and needs to be conserved for future generations. Climate change (CC) will morph
[...] Read more.
Cultural Heritage (CH) (In the context of this paper, we consider cultural heritage built tangible cultural heritage, such as buildings or monuments.) is an important source of identity for humankind and needs to be conserved for future generations. Climate change (CC) will morph the environmental landscape, thus leading to climate stress imposed on CH. Experts from different domains, including, but not limited to, material scientists, conservators and managers of cultural heritage collaborate to find out how CC affects CH and how potentially harmful impacts can be mitigated. To find and understand correlations and effects of different factors, researchers collect and analyse vast amounts of data. Still, experts often cannot exchange or make efficient use of data since it often is unstructured, incompatible, or its plain existence is simply unknown. This article introduces means to achieve consent about available knowledge, to exploit synergy effects through the combination of available information and to provide a flexible multisource information platform in collaborative cultural heritage management projects. In the context of the European project HERACLES (HERACLES—HEritage Resilience Against CLimate Events on Site. Further information: http://www.heracles-project.eu/), an application-ontology was developed. The ontology facilitates reuse and integration of data through structuring and representing its semantics. The involvement in the HERACLES project guaranteed end-user driven development, practical results and encompassment of all domains represented in the project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Environment in the Alteration of the Stained-Glass Windows in Portuguese Monuments
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 365-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020025
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
This work presents the results of the exposure of soda-lime, potash-lime and mixed-alkali silicate glasses during ten and twenty months in different Portuguese monuments with historical stained-glass windows to characterize the influence of local environmental conditions. The glass samples were exposed in the
[...] Read more.
This work presents the results of the exposure of soda-lime, potash-lime and mixed-alkali silicate glasses during ten and twenty months in different Portuguese monuments with historical stained-glass windows to characterize the influence of local environmental conditions. The glass samples were exposed in the Monastery of Batalha (Batalha), the Monastery of Jerónimos (Lisbon), and the Cathedral of Évora (Évora). A set of analytical techniques to assess the physicochemical effects were used, including optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All the samples presented crystalline deposits on their surface; however, their quantity and nature depended on the atmospheric conditions during the days before the collection. Potash-lime silicate glass was the most altered glass in comparison with soda-lime and mixed-alkali silicate glasses. The samples from the Cathedral of Évora showed a high content of dust and salts on their surface but without severe chemical pathologies; however, those samples exposed in the Monastery of Jerónimos and the Monastery of Batalha presented alteration layers due to a high humidity environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Imaging Analysis and Digital Restoration of the Holy Face of Manoppello—Part II
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 349-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020024
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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Abstract
In this second work on the Holy Face of Manoppello, known also as the Veil, we have performed a spectral analysis of the transmitted image. Its thin linen threads are translucent, presumably because starched, allowing light to pass through them. As a result,
[...] Read more.
In this second work on the Holy Face of Manoppello, known also as the Veil, we have performed a spectral analysis of the transmitted image. Its thin linen threads are translucent, presumably because starched, allowing light to pass through them. As a result, the yellowish colour of the ancient linen and starch contribute substantially to the final hues of the Holy Face, especially when the Veil is lit from the backside with grazing light. Spectrophotometry measurements have allowed calculating how the fabric absorbs the various chromatic components. Through these quantitative evaluations, it has been possible to compensate the colours of the transmitted Holy Face image, by subtracting the contribution due to the yellowish coloration of the thin linen threads. Furthermore, the rotational spectrum of the image has been studied after digital restoration. The linear fit of the power spectrum in bi-logarithmic scale with a power law f P provided a slope parameter P = 3.49 ± 0.03 . This is a surprising value because it is typical of photographs of human faces, not of portraits of human faces painted by artists, which instead have statistical properties of fractal type, with values of slopes P = 2.0 . Full article
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Open AccessArticle LODsyndesis: Global Scale Knowledge Services
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 335-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020023
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we present LODsyndesis, a suite of services over the datasets of the entire Linked Open Data Cloud, which offers fast, content-based dataset discovery and object co-reference. Emphasis is given on supporting scalable cross-dataset reasoning for finding all information about any
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we present LODsyndesis, a suite of services over the datasets of the entire Linked Open Data Cloud, which offers fast, content-based dataset discovery and object co-reference. Emphasis is given on supporting scalable cross-dataset reasoning for finding all information about any entity and its provenance. Other tasks that can be benefited from these services are those related to the quality and veracity of data since the collection of all information about an entity, and the cross-dataset inference that is feasible, allows spotting the contradictions that exist, and also provides information for data cleaning or for estimating and suggesting which data are probably correct or more accurate. In addition, we will show how these services can assist the enrichment of existing datasets with more features for obtaining better predictions in machine learning tasks. Finally, we report measurements that reveal the sparsity of the current datasets, as regards their connectivity, which in turn justifies the need for advancing the current methods for data integration. Measurements focusing on the cultural domain are also included, specifically measurements over datasets using CIDOC CRM (Conceptual Reference Model), and connectivity measurements of British Museum data. The services of LODsyndesis are based on special indexes and algorithms and allow the indexing of 2 billion triples in around 80 min using a cluster of 96 computers. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note Understanding Visitor Motivations at Jimmy Carter National Historic Site: A Principal Components Approach
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 328-334; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020022
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
National park sites draw tourism all across the United States. Although large natural parks see much attention, most national park units are actually designed to protect and interpret unique cultural and historic resources. As an example of this, the National Park Service administers
[...] Read more.
National park sites draw tourism all across the United States. Although large natural parks see much attention, most national park units are actually designed to protect and interpret unique cultural and historic resources. As an example of this, the National Park Service administers numerous presidential historic sites. However, we know very little about the people who visit them. Understanding visitor motivations to presidential historic sites can help to provide for better visitor experiences of presidential resources. This research uses intercept surveys at the Jimmy Carter National Historic Site in Plains, Georgia, to gain an understanding of visitor motivations. From the results, seven motivation types are identified. The information in this article can be used to better understand public values related to presidential resources, and to help the managers of these resources to improve on-site experiences by addressing visitor motivations. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note Assessing Looting from Space: The Destruction of Early Iron Age Burials in Northern Xinjiang
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 320-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020021
Received: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Burial mounds (kurgans) of the Early Iron Age in the steppe zones of Central Asia have long been the target of severe looting activities. Protection of these monuments in remote areas is difficult since accurate mapping is rarely available. We map an area
[...] Read more.
Burial mounds (kurgans) of the Early Iron Age in the steppe zones of Central Asia have long been the target of severe looting activities. Protection of these monuments in remote areas is difficult since accurate mapping is rarely available. We map an area in northern Xinjiang using a combination of high-resolution optical data and on-ground survey to establish a quantitative and qualitative assessment of looting. We find that at least 74.5% of burial mounds are looted or otherwise destroyed. Due to the large number of visibly impacted burial mounds, it becomes clear that the bulk of cultural heritage of the Early Iron Age in this area is under threat. The looting, however, continues until present day. Rescue excavation of potentially untouched burials in the area is advisable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Locating and Mapping the Traces of the Covered Ancient Theater of Amphipolis (Eastern Macedonia, Greece)
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 306-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020020
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Ancient Amphipolis (Eastern Macedonia, Greece) is one of the most important archaeological sites of Greece. Despite the restricted excavation studies, important monuments have been discovered, such as the city walls and the Macedonian burial site at the Kasta hill, etc. Currently, the location
[...] Read more.
Ancient Amphipolis (Eastern Macedonia, Greece) is one of the most important archaeological sites of Greece. Despite the restricted excavation studies, important monuments have been discovered, such as the city walls and the Macedonian burial site at the Kasta hill, etc. Currently, the location of the ancient theater is unknown and only assumptions can be made regarding its location. In the current study, we aim to detect the accurate location of the ancient theater using archaeological prospection tools, data collected from the excavated sites, and testimonies of people of the modern city. For the first step of the approach, the approximate location of the ancient theater was determined using information derived by archived geospatial data (multi-temporal aerial photographs, satellite image, and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the area) as well as information regarding the neighboring excavated sites. For the in-depth study of the area of interest, a drone was used for the acquisition of high-resolution geospatial data. The generated orthorectified image (3 cm spatial resolution), DTM, and Digital Surface Model (DSM) allowed the determination of the potential location of the buried orchestra’s center using geometric rules for the design of ancient theaters. Furthermore, using the produced DSM and DTM, terrain cross-sections were generated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Imaging Analysis and Digital Restoration of the Holy Face of Manoppello—Part I
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 289-305; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020019
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
The Veil of Manoppello is an icon of the face of Christ (Holy Face). Its particular characteristic is being semitransparent. The face is visible on both sides (front–back) and, depending on the lighting and observation conditions, shows some differences in the anatomical details.
[...] Read more.
The Veil of Manoppello is an icon of the face of Christ (Holy Face). Its particular characteristic is being semitransparent. The face is visible on both sides (front–back) and, depending on the lighting and observation conditions, shows some differences in the anatomical details. An analysis of this icon has allowed us to clarify some aspects of the possible physical mechanism underlying its unusual optical behavior. It is a linen fiber fabric consisting of very thin threads with a thickness of about 0.1 mm, separated by distances even double the thickness of the threads, so that about 42% of the Veil is empty space. The fibers constituting the linen threads may have been cemented by an organic substance of chemical composition similar to cellulose, presumably starch, eliminating the air between them. Such a structure causes the optical behavior of the medium to be intermediate between those of a translucent medium (thin cemented linen threads) and a transparent one (empty space between the threads). The problem of digital image restoration in spatial terms has also been tackled, since the Holy Face is deformed due to distortions of the meshes of the Veil, caused by the yielding of the very fine structure of the fabric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Uncovering the Morphology of Kōm ad-Dikka in Alexandria
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 273-288; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020018
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
The historical residential area of Kōm ad–Dikka in Alexandria has experienced morphological transformation from the ancient era until the present. Each historical period had a physical impact on the city’s urban structure that in turn struggled to survive the successive one with its
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The historical residential area of Kōm ad–Dikka in Alexandria has experienced morphological transformation from the ancient era until the present. Each historical period had a physical impact on the city’s urban structure that in turn struggled to survive the successive one with its different urban conception. However, the sinuous streets of this area, which probably date back to the late Egyptian Medieval period, are characterized as being the only surviving organic fabric intra–muros that was not altered during the Egyptian Modern period. In the absence of scientific publications regarding the history of Kōm ad–Dikka, this paper elaborately investigated its chronological history since the ancient era until the mid-twentieth century. Based on an in-depth investigation of historical maps and memoirs, this paper revealed the possible reasons behind the area’s extant sinuous urban form and postulated reconstructions of its urban morphology through sequential phases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Conservation of the Traditional Grain Mills in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt: Study of Mechanical Systems and Restoration
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 254-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020017
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper is the first study of traditional grain mills in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt, to ensure the sustainability of these traditional production systems while retaining their original function. In this sense, the aim of this study was to analyze the mechanical systems of
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This paper is the first study of traditional grain mills in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt, to ensure the sustainability of these traditional production systems while retaining their original function. In this sense, the aim of this study was to analyze the mechanical systems of the animal-powered traditional mills in Dakhla Oasis, which remain the key to figuring out the puzzle of how these mills work and produce flour. This is an original study that examines a sample animal-powered mill to be conserved; this sample old mill was selected from seven potential grain mills, after investigating each mill. This study provides the technical background and description of the selected grain mill in Dakhla Oasis, and describes its working and mechanical movement. In addition, the physical properties of the historic grain mill wood were measured (e.g., density, shrinkage, and hardness), using scientific techniques, to get some information about their properties. In this study, the methodology for grain mill conservation was based on a combination of the traditional experience of the old craftsmen and modern technology applications in the restoration and rehabilitation of animal-powered mills, in addition to the use of software programs in data analysis. Our results proved that the ancient traditional expertise of the old craftsmen and scientific techniques are the most appropriate methods for restoring and preserving animal-powered mills, which include the determination and rework of the mechanical movement between the wooden gear wheel and millstones. Finally, this study gives an in-depth look into the practical scientific restoration of animal-powered mills in Egypt and other countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Personality of the Influencers, the Characteristics of Qualitative Discussions and Their Analysis for Recommendations to Cultural Institutions
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 239-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020016
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Social media usage is affecting peoples’ views through opinion sharing, a fact that has started to attract cultural institutions, as it is possible that this procedure can possibly be a part of a museum experience. As the main goal of a cultural institution
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Social media usage is affecting peoples’ views through opinion sharing, a fact that has started to attract cultural institutions, as it is possible that this procedure can possibly be a part of a museum experience. As the main goal of a cultural institution is the maximization of senses stimulation, the device that is offered to the visitors’ hands everyday and every moment, becomes an important tool for the art spaces. In this notion we perform research on issues that can be of great importance for the museum’s online presence and attraction. We focus on establishing the personality of influencers related to culture, as well as the characteristics of qualitative discussions on the social media. Crosscult Project is an EU funded project, that aims to spur a change in the way European citizens appraise History, and sets that basis of our research as the experiments are conducted within its scope of. Through the experimental procedure, we collect information in order to define the character of the influencer and the substances of a “serious” conversation. “Serious” conversations are regarded the ones in which a cultural organization can participate actively and benefit from the participation. We present the results of our experimental evaluation and analyze how cultural institutions can benefit from the outcomes of our research. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Battling the Tides of Climate Change: The Power of Intangible Cultural Resource Values to Bind Place Meanings in Vulnerable Historic Districts
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 220-238; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020015
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
Climate change increases not only the vulnerability of cultural resources, but also the cultural values that are deeply embedded in cultural resources and landscapes. As such, heritage managers are faced with imminent preservation challenges that necessitate the consideration of place meanings during adaptation
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Climate change increases not only the vulnerability of cultural resources, but also the cultural values that are deeply embedded in cultural resources and landscapes. As such, heritage managers are faced with imminent preservation challenges that necessitate the consideration of place meanings during adaptation planning. This study explores how stakeholders perceive the vulnerability of the tangible aspects of cultural heritage, and how climate change impacts and adaptation strategies may alter the meanings and values that are held within those resources. We conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals with known connections to the historic buildings located within cultural landscapes on the barrier islands of Cape Lookout National Seashore in the United States (US). Our findings revealed that community members hold deep place connections, and that their cultural resource values are heavily tied to the concepts of place attachment (place identity and place dependence). Interviews revealed a general acceptance of the inevitability of climate impacts and a transition of heritage meanings from tangible resources to intangible values. Our findings suggest that in the context of climate change, it is important to consider place meanings alongside physical considerations for the planning and management of vulnerable cultural resources, affirming the need to involve community members and their intangible values into the adaptive planning for cultural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Working with the Society and for the Society: A Different Way to Run a Cultural Informatics Lab
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 207-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020014
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Founded in 2014 and formally established in 2017, the Knowledge and Uncertainty Research Laboratory (ΓAB LAB) is active in a wide range of research fields, with cultural informatics being the most prominent one. The laboratory is rather unconventional, in the sense that it
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Founded in 2014 and formally established in 2017, the Knowledge and Uncertainty Research Laboratory (ΓAB LAB) is active in a wide range of research fields, with cultural informatics being the most prominent one. The laboratory is rather unconventional, in the sense that it deviates from the typical notion of a research laboratory and follows a more open approach, with more and wider collaborations. In this work, we discuss the way the laboratory works closely with three different public sectors, namely the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Education and the Local Government, as well as with a larger part of the university’s community. We explain the opportunities that arise from this approach and present the challenges that come with them. We find that whilst this approach in the short run has little impact on the most commonly used KPIs for research laboratories, such as publications and received funding, it has a major impact in other directions such as practical impact of the research in the society and academic development of the students. Benefits are also identified for the more conventional research objectives, in the longer run. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Roadmap for the Nomination of Reconstructed Cultural Properties for Inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 189-206; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage1020013
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 23 September 2018
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Abstract
Guidance on reconstruction is being prepared to implement recent decisions of the World Heritage (WH) Committee. Special attention is given to reconstruction post-inscription within the framework of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of destroyed cultural WH properties. However, guidance must also cover reconstruction
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Guidance on reconstruction is being prepared to implement recent decisions of the World Heritage (WH) Committee. Special attention is given to reconstruction post-inscription within the framework of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of destroyed cultural WH properties. However, guidance must also cover reconstruction pre-inscription because destroyed properties on the Tentative Lists of States Parties may be reconstructed and nominated for inscription on the WH List in the future. This article shifts the attention towards the latter. It revisits the pillars of OUV and elucidates the relation between key concepts to develop a roadmap for new nominations in line with the WH Convention and the growing understanding of heritage as dynamic process in scholarly literature. It explains that States Parties must provide a statement of cultural significance (SCS) to meet the qualifying condition of continuity, and a heritage impact report (HIR) to meet the qualifying conditions of compatibility and distinction. Cultural criteria (i)–(vi) form a reminder list rather than a selection list in the roadmap. The SCS and HIR are, instead, the criteria on the basis of which reconstructed cultural properties may be inscribed. Moreover, authenticity and integrity are rendered redundant by the three qualifying conditions. As a result, this article makes a timely, original, academic and operational contribution to the ongoing preparation of guidance at the international level. Full article
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