Next Issue
Volume 5, May
Previous Issue
Volume 5, March

Table of Contents

Infrastructures, Volume 5, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 8 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) In this study, we aimed to verify the behavior of geosynthetic-reinforced pavement systems through [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Safety and Performance of Offshore Platforms Subjected to Repeated Earthquakes
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040038 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
In this work, a systematic study is conducted on the behavior of three-dimensional offshore oil/natural gas platforms under the action of seismic sequences. Such repeated earthquakes result in a noteworthy accumulation of damage in a platform since, in many cases, any rehabilitation process [...] Read more.
In this work, a systematic study is conducted on the behavior of three-dimensional offshore oil/natural gas platforms under the action of seismic sequences. Such repeated earthquakes result in a noteworthy accumulation of damage in a platform since, in many cases, any rehabilitation process between any two or more successive ground motions cannot be essentially materialized because of lack of time. Conversely, in the past, the seismic response of offshore platforms has been exclusively investigated for the case of single earthquakes. In this study, two three-dimensional platforms are examined, where the first one is assumed to be completely constrained at its base (fixed boundary conditions), while the second one is founded in deformable soil with the aid of long piles. These structures are subjected to real seismic sequences which have been recorded by the same station in a short period of time. Additionally, the platforms under consideration are also subjected to artificial seismic sequences. In this study, we found that sequential earthquakes have a significant effect on the response of these special structures, and this finding should be taken into account in their design. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Integration of BIM and Procedural Modeling Tools for Road Design
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040037 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a design and management methodology strongly used in the Industry of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC). It allows the creation of a 3D model through parametric modelling in a workflow that updates data, geometry and semantics using the [...] Read more.
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a design and management methodology strongly used in the Industry of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC). It allows the creation of a 3D model through parametric modelling in a workflow that updates data, geometry and semantics using the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) standard. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a BIM method for road infrastructures. The creation of the BIM 3D models was carried out using different visual programming software and BIM tools, designing the spatial and parametric representation of the roadway. This way, it has been possible to discover the advantages of using procedural modelling to design road infrastructure through software that are usually used in the mechanical and architectural field. Finally, the interoperability of the software to extract and exchange information between these BIM tools was assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Infrastructures)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Prevailing Approaches and Practices of Citizen Participation in Smart City Projects: Lessons from Trondheim, Norway
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040036 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Citizen participation has become an important aspect in the design of smart cities. This paper investigates the frame and modality of citizen participation in a European Horizon2020 smart city project, +CityxChange, in Trondheim. +CityxChange aims at enabling citizen participation and co-creation in the [...] Read more.
Citizen participation has become an important aspect in the design of smart cities. This paper investigates the frame and modality of citizen participation in a European Horizon2020 smart city project, +CityxChange, in Trondheim. +CityxChange aims at enabling citizen participation and co-creation in the transition to a positive energy city. The question is “what are the prevailing approaches and practices in relation to citizen participation amongst the key actors involved in +CityxChange? Which structures and processes have inhibited or fostered the participation mechanisms (e.g., for, by, and of people) and practices in Trondheim?” Through participatory observations and interviews with key local actors and citizens, we found that the focus of +CityxChange on efficiency and creating innovative solutions “for” people in partnership with the private sector has disturbed the “by” and “of” people mechanisms of participation. Citizens’ power and roles are not delegated to challenge or replace the project’s predetermined issue or plan. The anchorage of the project outside of the formal administrative structure has caused other functional barriers that inhibit citizen participation, rather than facilitate it. This paper discusses the causal relationships between these interconnected barriers and suggests how authorities can possibly overcome them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Infrastructures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Viability and Simplicity of 3D-Printed Construction: A Military Case Study
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040035 - 06 Apr 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
In November 2019, U.S. Marines, Air Force, and Army Corps of Engineers personnel demonstrated the viability and simplicity of three-dimensionally (3D)-printed construction in a controlled environment at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center—Construction Engineering Research Laboratory in Champaign, Illinois. The tri-service [...] Read more.
In November 2019, U.S. Marines, Air Force, and Army Corps of Engineers personnel demonstrated the viability and simplicity of three-dimensionally (3D)-printed construction in a controlled environment at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center—Construction Engineering Research Laboratory in Champaign, Illinois. The tri-service exercise spanned three days and culminated in the construction of three 1 m × 1 m × 1 m (3 ft × 3 ft × 3 ft) concrete dragon’s teeth (square pyramid military fortifications used to defend against tanks and armored vehicles) and several custom-designed objects. The structural components were printed using a custom-built, gantry-style printer called ACES Lite 2 and a commercially available, proprietary mortar mix. This paper examines the viability of using 3D-printed construction in remote, isolated, and expeditionary environments by considering the benefits and challenges associated with the printing materials, structural design, process efficiency, labor demands, logistical considerations, environmental impact, and project cost. Based on the results of this exercise, 3D-printed construction was found to be faster, safer, less labor-intensive, and more structurally efficient than conventional construction methods: the dragon’s teeth were printed in an average of 57 min each and required only two laborers. However, the use of commercially procured, pre-mixed materials introduced additional cost, logistical burden, and adverse environmental impact as compared to traditional, on-site concrete mixing and production. Finally, this paper suggests future applications and areas of further research for 3D-printed construction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Recent Advances and Future Trends in Pavement Engineering
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040034 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
This Special Issue “Recent Advances and Future Trends in Pavement Engineering” has been proposed and organized to present recent developments in the field of innovative pavement materials and engineering. For this reason, the articles and state-of-the-art reviews highlighted in this editorial relate to [...] Read more.
This Special Issue “Recent Advances and Future Trends in Pavement Engineering” has been proposed and organized to present recent developments in the field of innovative pavement materials and engineering. For this reason, the articles and state-of-the-art reviews highlighted in this editorial relate to different aspects of pavement engineering, from recycled asphalt pavements to alkali-activated materials, from hot mix asphalt concrete to porous asphalt concrete, from interface bonding to modal analysis, from destructive testing to non-destructive pavement monitoring by using fiber optics sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Trends in Pavement Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Stiffness and Strength Improvement of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Pavement Foundation Using Large-Scale Wheel Test
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040033 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Laboratory cyclic plate load tests are commonly used in the assessment of geosynthetic performance in pavement applications due to the repeatability of testing results and the smaller required testing areas than traditional Accelerated Pavement Testing facilities. While the objective of traditional plate load [...] Read more.
Laboratory cyclic plate load tests are commonly used in the assessment of geosynthetic performance in pavement applications due to the repeatability of testing results and the smaller required testing areas than traditional Accelerated Pavement Testing facilities. While the objective of traditional plate load testing procedure is to closely replicate traffic conditions, the reality is that rolling wheel loads produce different stresses in pavement layers than traditional cyclic plate load tests. This two-fold study investigates the differences between the stress response of subgrade soil from a rolling wheel load (replicating rolling traffic conditions) and a unidirectional dynamic load (replicating traditional plate load test procedures) in order to obtain a more realistic stress response of pavement layers from rolling wheel traffic. Ultimately, results show that the testing specimens that experienced rolling wheel loading had an average of 17% higher pressure measurements in the top of the subgrade than vertically loaded (unidirectional dynamic load) specimens. The second segment of this study is used in conjunction with the first to analyze aggregate base material behavior when using a geosynthetic for reinforcement. The study aimed to determine the difference in the post-trafficked strength and stiffness of pavement foundation. A Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Light Weight Deflectometer were utilized to determine material changes from this trafficking and revealed that all specimens that included a geosynthetic had a higher base stiffness and strength while the specimen with geotextile and geogrid in combination created the highest stiffness and strength after large-scale rolling wheel trafficking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cross-Frames on Load Distribution of Steel Bridges with Fractured Girder
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040032 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 658
Abstract
In steel girder bridges, fracture of one girder may occur without noticeable bridge profile changes. It is critical to ensure that the bridge will have adequate capacity to prevent collapse until the next cycle of inspection discovers the damage. It is realized that [...] Read more.
In steel girder bridges, fracture of one girder may occur without noticeable bridge profile changes. It is critical to ensure that the bridge will have adequate capacity to prevent collapse until the next cycle of inspection discovers the damage. It is realized that once one of the bridge girders is fractured, vertical loads need to be distributed through an alternative path to the intact girder(s). In this case, cross-frames can play an important role in transferring the loads and preventing from sudden collapse. This paper investigates the impact of cross-frames on load distribution after a fracture is occurred in one girder. Bridge configurations with different cross-frame spacing were studied using finite element modeling and simulation of the bridge behavior with a fractured steel plate girder. Nonlinear and dynamic solution methods were used for these analyses. Results of this investigation demonstrated the important role cross-frames can play in providing some reserved capacity for the bridge with fractured girder to enhance the bridge redundancy. The contribution of the cross-frames and the behavior of the bridge after fracture in one girder however depends on the configuration of the bridge. A study of the variation of the effect of cross-frames with respect to the number of girders is also included in this paper. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Governance Approach of Smart City Initiatives. Evidence from Trondheim, Bergen, and Bodø
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040031 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
A pragmatic and polity-focused solution for governing a smart city in the direction of sustainability is still missing in theory and practice. A debate about whether a smart city is a pragmatic solution for modern challenges or just a technology-led urban utopia is [...] Read more.
A pragmatic and polity-focused solution for governing a smart city in the direction of sustainability is still missing in theory and practice. A debate about whether a smart city is a pragmatic solution for modern challenges or just a technology-led urban utopia is entangled with the vexed issue of governance. While ‘smart governance’ has drawn unprecedented interest, the combination of its conceptual vagueness and broad applications couple with a lack of focus on its underlying international and local political paradigms have raised concerns about its utility. This study contributes to restoring attention to the original concept of governance, its differences with governing and government, and the potential challenges resulting from its functionality in its real, multi-layered, and complex contexts. This paper explores the intellectual connection between governance and smart cities, from both an empirical and a conceptual/analytical perspective. From the empirical side, we examine which actors, processes, and relational mechanisms at different levels that have had an impact on the initiation of smart cities in three Norwegian cities: Trondheim, Bergen, and Bodø. We illustrate how the structural sources of the interests, roles, and power in smart city initiatives have caused governance to emerge and change, but have also affected the goals designed by specific actors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Infrastructures)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop