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Infrastructures, Volume 5, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 11 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The assessment of aging dams constitutes a challenge for the whole dam engineering community. It [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Asphalt Pavement Behaviour, Taking into Account Interface Bonding Conditions
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020021 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
The interface bond between layers plays an important role in the behavior of pavement structure. However, this aspect has not yet been adequately considered in the pavement analysis process due to the lack of advanced characterizations of actual condition. In many pavement design [...] Read more.
The interface bond between layers plays an important role in the behavior of pavement structure. However, this aspect has not yet been adequately considered in the pavement analysis process due to the lack of advanced characterizations of actual condition. In many pavement design procedures, only completely bonded or unbounded interfaces between the layers are considered. For the purpose of the better evaluation of the asphalt pavement behavior, this work focused on its investigation taking into account the actual interface bonding condition between the asphalt layers. Based on the layered theory developed by Burmister (1943), the actual interaction between pavement layers was taken into account by introducing a horizontal shear reaction modulus which represents the interface bonding condition for a given state. The analytical solution was then implemented in a numerical program before doing forward calculations for sensitivity analysis which highlights the influence of the interface bonding conditions on the structural behaviors of asphalt pavement under a static load. Furthermore, the numerical program was applied through an original experimental case study where falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests were carried out on two full-scale pavement structures with or without a geogrid at the interface between the asphalt layers. Backcalculations of the FWD measurements allowed determining field condition of the interface bond between the asphalt layers. The obtained values of the interface shear modulus in pavement structure with a geogrid are smaller than the ones in pavement structure without geogrid. Moreover, all of these values representing field performance are at the same order of magnitude as those from dynamic interlayer shear testing. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fundamental Approaches to Predict Moisture Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: State-of-the-Art Review
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020020 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Moisture susceptibility is still one of the primary causes of distress in flexible pavements, reducing the pavements’ durability. A very large number of tests are available to evaluate the susceptibility of a binder aggregate combination. Tests can be conducted on the asphalt mixture, [...] Read more.
Moisture susceptibility is still one of the primary causes of distress in flexible pavements, reducing the pavements’ durability. A very large number of tests are available to evaluate the susceptibility of a binder aggregate combination. Tests can be conducted on the asphalt mixture, either in a loose or compacted form, or on the individual components of an asphalt pavement. Apart from various mechanisms and models, fundamental concepts have been proposed to calculate the thermodynamic tendency of a binder aggregate combination to adhere and/or debond under wet conditions. The aim of this review is to summarize literature findings and conclusions, regarding these concepts as carried out in the CEDR project FunDBits. The applied test methods, the obtained results, and the validation or predictability of these fundamental approaches are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lessons Learned Regarding Cracking of a Concrete Arch Dam Due to Seasonal Temperature Variations
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020019 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Dams located in cold areas are subjected to large seasonal temperature variations and many concrete dams have cracked as a result. In the 14th International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) Benchmark Workshop, a case study was presented where contributors should predict the cracking [...] Read more.
Dams located in cold areas are subjected to large seasonal temperature variations and many concrete dams have cracked as a result. In the 14th International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) Benchmark Workshop, a case study was presented where contributors should predict the cracking and displacements due to seasonal variations. In this paper, the conclusions from this case study are presented. Overall, the results from the contributors are well in line with the observations that can be made on the dam and the measurements performed. This shows that using non-linear numerical models is a suitable tool to accurately predict cracking and estimate the displacements of cracked dams. This case study also highlighted important aspects that need special consideration in order to obtain realistic results that can be used to predict the crack pattern, these being: (1) the importance of performing transient thermal analyses based on robin boundary conditions; (2) the influence of contact formulation between the concrete dam and the foundation; and (3) the use of realistic non-linear material properties. The results and conclusions presented in this paper constitute one important step in achieving best practices to estimate dam safety and better understand the potential failure modes and ageing of concrete dams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
In Situ Pavement Monitoring: A Review
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020018 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1740
Abstract
The assessment of pavement conditions and their evolution with time is a crucial component for the establishment of pavement quality management (QM) plans and the implementation of QM practices. An effective pavement management system (PMS) is based on pavement conditions data continuously collected [...] Read more.
The assessment of pavement conditions and their evolution with time is a crucial component for the establishment of pavement quality management (QM) plans and the implementation of QM practices. An effective pavement management system (PMS) is based on pavement conditions data continuously collected along the lifetime of a road. These data are used to model the pavement response, evaluate its performances, and trigger the necessary maintenance actions when they do not meet previously defined performance indicators. In the last decades, pavement monitoring via embedded sensing technologies has attracted more and more attention. Indeed, the integration of sensors in the road pavement allows the assessment of the complete history of pavement conditions, starting from sensor installation. Once the technologies are stabilized, collecting this information is expected to help road managers to define more effective asset management plans. This paper first proposes an overview of the most used devices for pavement instrumentation, categorized according to the measured parameters. Then a review of some prominent instrumented sections is presented by focusing on the methodology used for data interpretation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Separate Track Impact Factor Application Depending on Track Types through Correlative Analysis with Track Support Stiffness
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020017 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Track impact factor (TIF) is a coefficient for estimating the increase of train dynamic load and is a major factor for the evaluation of dynamic stability of railway tracks. Many kinds of TIF in ballasted and ballast-less slab tracks consider only speed as [...] Read more.
Track impact factor (TIF) is a coefficient for estimating the increase of train dynamic load and is a major factor for the evaluation of dynamic stability of railway tracks. Many kinds of TIF in ballasted and ballast-less slab tracks consider only speed as a variable in different regions of the world. Because of this lack of clarification, nations such as Korea and those in the Middle East, and South East Asia are implementing overly simplified calculation methods for TIF, resulting in inconsistent maintenance of different railway track types. A comparative analysis of theoretically track support stiffness (TSS) and trackside measurement calculated TSS at wheel-rail contact point shows different values (depending on speed) between ballasted and ballast-less slab tracks. Based on this finding, this paper investigates a TIF formulation method that considers both dynamic wheel load and speed as variables, and a separate application of TIF formulation depending on track types is proposed. A clarified distinction of how these parameters (TSS and TIF) interact differently between ballasted and ballast-less slab track structures can be an important factor in case of track designing and maintenance aspects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Method to Evaluate the Post-Earthquake Performance and Safety of Reinforced Concrete Structural Frame Systems
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020016 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
This study examines the relation between maximum seismic displacements and residual displacements for reinforced concrete building structures. In order to achieve a reliable relationship between these critical structural parameters for the seismic performance of concrete buildings, an extensive parametric study is conducted by [...] Read more.
This study examines the relation between maximum seismic displacements and residual displacements for reinforced concrete building structures. In order to achieve a reliable relationship between these critical structural parameters for the seismic performance of concrete buildings, an extensive parametric study is conducted by examining the nonlinear behavior of numerous planar framed structures. In this work, dynamic inelastic analyses are executed to investigate the seismic behavior of two sets of frames. The first group consists of four planar frames which have been designed for seismic and vertical loads according to modern structural codes while the second group also consists of four frames, which have been designed for vertical loads only, in order to examine older structures that have been designed using codes with inadequate seismic provisions. These two sets of buildings are subjected to various earthquakes with different amplitudes in order to develop a large structural response databank. On the basis of this wide-ranging parametric investigation, after an appropriate statistical analysis, simple empirical expressions are proposed for a straightforward and efficient evaluation of maximum seismic displacements of reinforced concrete buildings structures from their permanent deformation. Permanent displacements can be measured in-situ after strong ground motions as a post-earthquake assessment. It can be concluded that the measure of permanent deformation can be efficiently used to estimate the post-seismic performance level of reinforced concrete buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Resilient Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Geostatistical Interpolation and Numerical Weather Model Predictions for Meteorological Conditions Mapping
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020015 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Mapping of meteorological conditions surrounding road infrastructures is a critical tool to identify high-risk spots related to harsh weather. However, local or regional data are not always available, and researchers and authorities must rely on coarser observations or predictions. Thus, choosing a suitable [...] Read more.
Mapping of meteorological conditions surrounding road infrastructures is a critical tool to identify high-risk spots related to harsh weather. However, local or regional data are not always available, and researchers and authorities must rely on coarser observations or predictions. Thus, choosing a suitable method for downscaling global data to local levels becomes essential to obtain accurate information. This work presents a deep analysis of the performance of two of these methods, commonly used in meteorology science: Universal Kriging geostatistical interpolation and Weather Research and Forecasting numerical weather prediction outputs. Estimations from both techniques are compared on 11 locations in central continental Portugal during January 2019, using measured data from a weather station network as the ground truth. Results show the different performance characteristics of both algorithms based on the nature of the specific variable interpolated, highlighting potential correlations to obtain the most accurate data for each case. Hence, this work provides a solid foundation for the selection of the most appropriate tool for mapping of weather conditions at the local level over linear transport infrastructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Inland Transport Networks to Extreme Events)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing the Performance of Ternary Concrete Mixtures Involving Slag and Metakaolin
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020014 - 31 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Ternary blends of cementitious materials are investigated. A cement replacement level of 45% is used for all ternary mixtures consisting of 15% metakaolin and 30% slag replacements. Three metakaolin and two blast furnace slag, referred to as ‘slag’ for short, products commercially available [...] Read more.
Ternary blends of cementitious materials are investigated. A cement replacement level of 45% is used for all ternary mixtures consisting of 15% metakaolin and 30% slag replacements. Three metakaolin and two blast furnace slag, referred to as ‘slag’ for short, products commercially available are used to compare performance in ternary blends. A mixture with a 45% fly ash replacement is included to serve as a benchmark for performance. The control mixture contains 422 kg of cement per cubic meter of concrete, and a water-to-cementitious material ratio of 0.43 is used for all mixtures with varying dosages of superplasticizer to retain workability. Mixtures are tested for mechanical properties, durability, and volumetric stability. Mechanical properties include compression, split-cylinder tension, modulus of rupture, and dynamic Young’s modulus. Durability measures are comprised of rapid chloride-ion penetrability, sulfate resistance, and alkali–silica reactivity. Finally, the measure of dimensional stability is assessed by conducting drying shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion tests. Results indicate that ternary mixtures including metakaolin perform similarly to the control with respect to mechanical strength. It is concluded that ternary blends perform significantly better than both control and fly ash benchmark in tests measuring durability. Furthermore, shrinkage is reduced while the coefficients of thermal expansion are slightly higher than control and the benchmark. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Sustainability of Concrete Mixtures)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Co-Active Prioritization by Means of Contingency Tables for Analyzing Element-level Bridge Inspection Results and Optimizing Returns
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020013 - 29 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
An efficient prioritization of bridge actions such as preventive maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement (MRR) that accounts for inter-element interactions will optimize a long-term return on investments (ROI) in terms of service life extension. What enables this return is the assignment of “Co-Active” elements. [...] Read more.
An efficient prioritization of bridge actions such as preventive maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement (MRR) that accounts for inter-element interactions will optimize a long-term return on investments (ROI) in terms of service life extension. What enables this return is the assignment of “Co-Active” elements. This study develops a methodology based on the concept of “Co-Active elements”. The word, “Co-Active”, is used to represent a small group of elements that act together to improve the Bridge Health Index (BHI). The Co-Active parameters for three major bridge groups in Georgia are presented. To illustrate how the Co-Active model works, 1439 in-service bridges’ Element-Level Bridge Inspection results from the state of Georgia in U.S.A., representing a concrete bridge group with six Co-Active elements, are studied. The analysis results indicate that the overall BHI improves by 20% over the subsequent 20 years when expansion joints are replaced. The effects of Co-Active elements on the BHI predictions are quantifiable and depend on factors such as the timing of MRR, the condition of bridge elements as well as the type of MRR. Furthermore, it is concluded that inter-dependent relationships among Co-Active elements are highly affected by Co-Active coefficients. They increase when the degree of dependency among elements increases. Finally, the proposed bridge Co-Active prioritization analysis accounts for a performance target and associated gaps and thus is able to identify critical elements that affect bridge service life the most. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Ground Penetrating Radar to Estimate Subgrade Soil Density
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020012 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has been widely used in pavement assessment over the last decade. Assessing the subgrade condition and monitoring its temporal variation provide valuable information regarding changes associated with pavement deterioration, allowing for the beneficial prediction of future road maintenance. [...] Read more.
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has been widely used in pavement assessment over the last decade. Assessing the subgrade condition and monitoring its temporal variation provide valuable information regarding changes associated with pavement deterioration, allowing for the beneficial prediction of future road maintenance. This paper presents a method to estimate the density and water content of prepared subgrade soils of highly plastic silt using a 2 GHz GPR scan system and a simple exponential model. A bulk density prediction model was developed based on electromagnetic mixing theory to back calculate subgrade soils density. The model developed determines the soil’s dielectric constant, considering dielectric and volumetric properties of the three major components of soil: air, water, and solid particles. A series of laboratory tests was conducted on six (6) soil samples at various density levels to validate the newly developed model. For validation purposes, sand cone and dynamic cone penetration (DCP) tests were performed and compared with the estimated soils strength from GPR data. The results show that the prediction of soils density and stiffness using nondestructive technology helps efficiently forecast not only pavement deterioration, but potential risks to the subsurface pavement structure with all the advances of time saving using air coupled GPR antenna mounted on a moving vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of High-Speed Rail Service Coverage in Municipalities of Peninsular Spain
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020011 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The Spanish transportation and housing infrastructure plan has planned that in 2024 all provincial capitals in peninsular Spain are to be connected by high-speed rail lines. Nowadays, 35 stations are already operational. These stations and the roads to access them are very important, [...] Read more.
The Spanish transportation and housing infrastructure plan has planned that in 2024 all provincial capitals in peninsular Spain are to be connected by high-speed rail lines. Nowadays, 35 stations are already operational. These stations and the roads to access them are very important, as these are the only access points for travelers to benefit from the high railway speed. The goal of this study is to evaluate the railway coverage of high-speed services in Spanish peninsular municipalities in 2018 and planned for 2024. A methodology and research tools related to accessibility from municipalities to stations have been used, based on Geographic information Systems. An interaction model was used based on the floating catchment area in three steps. The resulting thematic maps and the analysis of the number of municipalities and the resident population is based on the degree of coverage in 2018. Likewise, in 2024 almost all of the municipalities are planned to have high high-speed railway coverage, these being the most densely populated. The analysis allowed us to present a detailed view of the problem; a methodology and a specific application framework are offered to make the high-speed rail services in Spain more equitable. Full article
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