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Vision, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Migraine aura consists of sensory hallucinations that are thought to result from a tsunami-like wave of neural activity that spreads through the cortex. Reaction diffusion equations can model the hallucinations, depending on the balance between excitation and inhibition. This review shows how these models can provide a theoretical framework to relate mechanisms of excitability to empirical evidence from electrophysiological recordings. View this paper
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Article
No Evidence of Reduced Contrast Sensitivity in Migraine-with-Aura for Large, Narrowband, Centrally Presented Noise-Masked Stimuli
Vision 2021, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020032 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1619
Abstract
Individuals with migraine aura show differences in visual perception compared to control groups. Measures of contrast sensitivity have suggested that people with migraine aura are less able to exclude external visual noise, and that this relates to higher variability in neural processing. The [...] Read more.
Individuals with migraine aura show differences in visual perception compared to control groups. Measures of contrast sensitivity have suggested that people with migraine aura are less able to exclude external visual noise, and that this relates to higher variability in neural processing. The current study compared contrast sensitivity in migraine with aura and control groups for narrow-band grating stimuli at 2 and 8 cycles/degree, masked by Gaussian white noise. We predicted that contrast sensitivity would be lower in the migraine with aura group at high noise levels. Contrast sensitivity was higher for the low spatial frequency stimuli, and decreased with the strength of the masking noise. We did not, however, find any evidence of reduced contrast sensitivity associated with migraine with aura. We propose alternative methods as a more targeted assessment of the role of neural noise and excitability as contributing factors to migraine aura. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Visual Aura in Migraine)
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Review
Current Management of Amblyopia with New Technologies for Binocular Treatment
Vision 2021, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020031 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4056
Abstract
Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular poor vision affecting up to 3.7% of the global population. Classically, the first step in treatment has been optical correction, followed by patching and/or pharmacological treatment. However, this is an evolving scenario, since researchers and [...] Read more.
Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular poor vision affecting up to 3.7% of the global population. Classically, the first step in treatment has been optical correction, followed by patching and/or pharmacological treatment. However, this is an evolving scenario, since researchers and clinicians are interested in new binocular treatments due to the increasing development of new technologies. In this article main, current binocular treatments as Dig Rush, falling blocks, I-BiT, Occlu-tab, Vivid Vision, and movies are reviewed for binocular amblyopia management. Full article
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Article
Migraine Visual Aura and Cortical Spreading Depression—Linking Mathematical Models to Empirical Evidence
Vision 2021, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020030 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3636
Abstract
This review describes the subjective experience of visual aura in migraine, outlines theoretical models of this phenomenon, and explores how these may be linked to neurochemical, electrophysiological, and psychophysical differences in sensory processing that have been reported in migraine with aura. Reaction–diffusion models [...] Read more.
This review describes the subjective experience of visual aura in migraine, outlines theoretical models of this phenomenon, and explores how these may be linked to neurochemical, electrophysiological, and psychophysical differences in sensory processing that have been reported in migraine with aura. Reaction–diffusion models have been used to model the hallucinations thought to arise from cortical spreading depolarisation and depression in migraine aura. One aim of this review is to make the underlying principles of these models accessible to a general readership. Cortical spreading depolarisation and depression in these models depends on the balance of the diffusion rate between excitation and inhibition and the occurrence of a large spike in activity to initiate spontaneous pattern formation. We review experimental evidence, including recordings of brain activity made during the aura and attack phase, self-reported triggers of migraine, and psychophysical studies of visual processing in migraine with aura, and how these might relate to mechanisms of excitability that make some people susceptible to aura. Increased cortical excitability, increased neural noise, and fluctuations in oscillatory activity across the migraine cycle are all factors that are likely to contribute to the occurrence of migraine aura. There remain many outstanding questions relating to the current limitations of both models and experimental evidence. Nevertheless, reaction–diffusion models, by providing an integrative theoretical framework, support the generation of testable experimental hypotheses to guide future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Visual Aura in Migraine)
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Review
Nitric Oxide Interaction with the Eye
Vision 2021, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020029 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is acknowledged as a vital intercellular messenger in multiple systems in the body. Medicine has focused on its functions and therapeutic applications for decades, especially in cardiovascular and nervous systems, and its role in immunological responses. This review was composed [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is acknowledged as a vital intercellular messenger in multiple systems in the body. Medicine has focused on its functions and therapeutic applications for decades, especially in cardiovascular and nervous systems, and its role in immunological responses. This review was composed to demonstrate the prevalence of NO in components of the ocular system, including corneal cells and multiple cells in the retina. It discussed NO’s assistance during the immune, inflammation and wound-healing processes. NO is identified as a vascular endothelial relaxant that can alter the choroidal blood flow and prompt or suppress vascular changes in age-related macular degeneration and diabetes, as well as the blood supply to the optic nerve, possibly influencing the progression of glaucoma. It will provide a deeper understanding of the role of NO in ocular homeostasis, the delicate balance between overproduction or underproduction and the effect on the processes from aqueous outflow and subsequent intraocular pressure to axial elongation and the development of myopia. This review also recognized the research and investigation of therapies being developed to target the NO complex and treat various ocular diseases. Full article
Article
Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Saccadic Eye Movements in Healthy Children and Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Pilot Study
Vision 2021, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020028 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2180
Abstract
The objective of this study was to characterize saccades in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDG, 17 children, age: 7–12 years) and compare them with a control group (CG, 15 children, age: 7–12 years), comparing the outcomes obtained with a subjective score system (Northeastern [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to characterize saccades in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDG, 17 children, age: 7–12 years) and compare them with a control group (CG, 15 children, age: 7–12 years), comparing the outcomes obtained with a subjective score system (Northeastern State University College of Optometry’s Oculomotor test, NSUCO) with the objective analysis obtained through a commercially available Eye Tracker (Tobii Eye X, Tobii, Stockholm, Sweden) and a specialized software analysis (Thomson Software Solutions, Welham Green, UK). Children from the NDDG obtained significantly lower NSUCO scores (p < 0.001) compared with CG. Concerning eye tracking analyses, we found a significantly higher number of hypometric saccades in NDGG (p ≤ 0.044). Likewise, we found a significantly higher percentage of regressions in the NDDG for a time interval of presentation of stimuli of 1 s (p = 0.012). Significant correlations were found between different NSUCO scores and percentage of regressions, number of saccades completed and number of hypometric saccades. The presence of hypometric saccades and regressions seems to be a differential characteristic sign of children with neurodevelopmental disorders that can be detected using an objective eye tracking analysis, but also using the subjective test NSUCO that can be easily implemented in all clinical settings. Full article
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Article
Ocular Surface Microbiota in Contact Lens Users and Contact-Lens-Associated Bacterial Keratitis
Vision 2021, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020027 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Our objectives were to investigate whether the conjunctival microbiota is altered by contact lens wear and/or bacterial keratitis and to explore the hypothesis that commensals of conjunctival microbiota contribute to bacterial keratitis. Swab samples from both eyes were collected separately from the inferior [...] Read more.
Our objectives were to investigate whether the conjunctival microbiota is altered by contact lens wear and/or bacterial keratitis and to explore the hypothesis that commensals of conjunctival microbiota contribute to bacterial keratitis. Swab samples from both eyes were collected separately from the inferior fornix of the conjunctiva of non-contact-lens users (nparticipants = 28) and contact lens users (nparticipants = 26) and from patients with contact-lens-associated bacterial keratitis (nparticipants = 9). DNA from conjunctival swab samples was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Pathogens from the corneal infiltrates were identified by cultivation. In total, we identified 19 phyla and 283 genera; the four most abundant genera were Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, Staphylococcus, and Cutibacterium. Several pathogens related to bacterial keratitis were identified in the conjunctival microbiota of the whole study population, and the same bacteria were identified by both methods in the conjunctiva and cornea for four patients with contact-lens-associated bacterial keratitis. The overall conjunctival microbiota profile was not altered by contact lens wear or bacterial keratitis; thus, it does not appear to contribute to the development of bacterial keratitis in contact lens users. However, in some individuals, conjunctival microbiota may harbor opportunistic pathogens causing contact-lens-associated bacterial keratitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ocular Microbiome)
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Article
A Riemannian Geometry Theory of Synergy Selection for Visually-Guided Movement
Vision 2021, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020026 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
Bringing together a Riemannian geometry account of visual space with a complementary account of human movement synergies we present a neurally-feasible computational formulation of visuomotor task performance. This cohesive geometric theory addresses inherent nonlinear complications underlying the match between a visual goal and [...] Read more.
Bringing together a Riemannian geometry account of visual space with a complementary account of human movement synergies we present a neurally-feasible computational formulation of visuomotor task performance. This cohesive geometric theory addresses inherent nonlinear complications underlying the match between a visual goal and an optimal action to achieve that goal: (i) the warped geometry of visual space causes the position, size, outline, curvature, velocity and acceleration of images to change with changes in the place and orientation of the head, (ii) the relationship between head place and body posture is ill-defined, and (iii) mass-inertia loads on muscles vary with body configuration and affect the planning of minimum-effort movement. We describe a partitioned visuospatial memory consisting of the warped posture-and-place-encoded images of the environment, including images of visible body parts. We depict synergies as low-dimensional submanifolds embedded in the warped posture-and-place manifold of the body. A task-appropriate synergy corresponds to a submanifold containing those postures and places that match the posture-and-place-encoded visual images that encompass the required visual goal. We set out a reinforcement learning process that tunes an error-reducing association memory network to minimize any mismatch, thereby coupling visual goals with compatible movement synergies. A simulation of a two-degrees-of-freedom arm illustrates that, despite warping of both visual space and posture space, there exists a smooth one-to-one and onto invertible mapping between vision and proprioception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Size Constancy for Perception and Action)
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Correction
Correction: Mather, G. Aesthetic Image Statistics Vary with Artistic Genre. Vision 2020, 4, 10
Vision 2021, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020025 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 1185
Abstract
The author wishes to make the following corrections to the paper [...] Full article
Article
Attention Trade-Off for Localization and Saccadic Remapping
Vision 2021, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020024 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Predictive remapping may be the principal mechanism of maintaining visual stability, and attention is crucial for this process. We aimed to investigate the role of attention in predictive remapping in a dual task paradigm with two conditions, with and without saccadic remapping. The [...] Read more.
Predictive remapping may be the principal mechanism of maintaining visual stability, and attention is crucial for this process. We aimed to investigate the role of attention in predictive remapping in a dual task paradigm with two conditions, with and without saccadic remapping. The first task was to remember the clock hand position either after a saccade to the clock face (saccade condition requiring remapping) or after the clock being displaced to the fixation point (fixation condition with no saccade). The second task was to report the remembered location of a dot shown peripherally in the upper screen for 1 s. We predicted that performance in the two tasks would interfere in the saccade condition, but not in the fixation condition, because of the attentional demands needed for remapping with the saccade. For the clock estimation task, answers in the saccadic trials tended to underestimate the actual position by approximately 37 ms while responses in the fixation trials were closer to veridical. As predicted, the findings also revealed significant interaction between the two tasks showing decreased predicted accuracy in the clock task for increased error in the localization task, but only for the saccadic condition. Taken together, these results point at the key role of attention in predictive remapping. Full article
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Case Report
An Innovatory Surgical Technique for Submacular Hemorrhage Displacement by Means of a Bioengineering Perspective
Vision 2021, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020023 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
The purpose of this case report is to present a new surgical technique for the treatment of large Subretinal Hemorrhage (SRH) secondary to Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Considering the biomechanics of foam evolution theory, bubble coarsening effect, and gas–liquid biphasic absorption, an SRH [...] Read more.
The purpose of this case report is to present a new surgical technique for the treatment of large Subretinal Hemorrhage (SRH) secondary to Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Considering the biomechanics of foam evolution theory, bubble coarsening effect, and gas–liquid biphasic absorption, an SRH due to an AMD case was treated with vitrectomy. The treatment was implemented by subretinal injection of air bubbles combined with rtPA followed by air fluid exchange. The air bubbles helped mess up and remove the blood from the macula area, and no complications occurred. Two weeks postoperatively, there was no sign of hemorrhage and the Central Macular Thickness (CMT) was sharply decreased from 443 μm to 317 μm. At the five-month follow-up, the CMT remained at 267 μm and the patient’s visual acuity improved from light perception to 20/70 according to the Snellen chart. The combination of injecting multiple air bubbles and submacular rtPA, followed by air fluid exchange, was able to displace more than (90%) of the subretinal blood just two weeks postoperatively. Our technique is a promising alternative surgical approach for the displacement of SMH due to AMD, with a clear visual and anatomical benefit seen in the early follow-up period. Full article
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Case Report
Virtual Reality Visual Training in an Adult Patient with Anisometropic Amblyopia: Visual and Functional Magnetic Resonance Outcomes
Vision 2021, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020022 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
A case of an adult with anisometropic amblyopia who underwent a successful vision therapy program playing videogames in a virtual reality environment is described, reporting changes in conventional visual clinical data, as well as in brain activity. The patient was a 22 year [...] Read more.
A case of an adult with anisometropic amblyopia who underwent a successful vision therapy program playing videogames in a virtual reality environment is described, reporting changes in conventional visual clinical data, as well as in brain activity. The patient was a 22 year old man on baseline examination that never previously wore correction for his anisometropia. After prescribing contact lens correction for the anisometropia and after 44 h of virtual reality-based vision therapy over a period of 1.5 years, the best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) in the amblyopic eye improved from 0.05 to 0.5 (Sloan chart). One year after finishing the visual training, the BCDVA experienced a slight decrease to 0.4 (Sloan chart). Through the visual training, the patient gradually developed stereopsis. Likewise, changes were also detected after visual therapy on functional magnetic resonance imaging while the patient was viewing 2D and 3D stimuli. The preliminary results of this case show the potential of using virtual reality-based visual training as a treatment for adult amblyopia. Full article
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Article
The Sternberg Paradigm: Correcting Encoding Latencies in Visual and Auditory Test Designs
Vision 2021, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020021 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3782
Abstract
The Sternberg task is a widely used tool for assessing the working memory performance in vision and cognitive science. It is possible to apply a visual or auditory variant of the Sternberg task to query the memory load. However, previous studies have shown [...] Read more.
The Sternberg task is a widely used tool for assessing the working memory performance in vision and cognitive science. It is possible to apply a visual or auditory variant of the Sternberg task to query the memory load. However, previous studies have shown that the subjects’ corresponding reaction times differ dependent on the used variant. In this work, we present an experimental approach that is intended to correct the reaction time differences observed between auditory and visual item presentation. We found that the subjects’ reaction time offset is related to the encoding speed of a single probe item. After correcting for these individual encoding latencies, differences in the results of both the auditory and visual Sternberg task become non-significant, p=0.252. Thus, an equal task difficulty can be concluded for both variants of item presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Working Memory: Stimulus Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval)
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Review
Visual Perception in Migraine: A Narrative Review
Vision 2021, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020020 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Migraine, the most frequent neurological ailment, affects visual processing during and between attacks. Most visual disturbances associated with migraine can be explained by increased neural hyperexcitability, as suggested by clinical, physiological and neuroimaging evidence. Here, we review how simple (e.g., patterns, color) visual [...] Read more.
Migraine, the most frequent neurological ailment, affects visual processing during and between attacks. Most visual disturbances associated with migraine can be explained by increased neural hyperexcitability, as suggested by clinical, physiological and neuroimaging evidence. Here, we review how simple (e.g., patterns, color) visual functions can be affected in patients with migraine, describe the different complex manifestations of the so-called Alice in Wonderland Syndrome, and discuss how visual stimuli can trigger migraine attacks. We also reinforce the importance of a thorough, proactive examination of visual function in people with migraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Visual Aura in Migraine)
Article
Preoperative Variables Associated with Surgical Outcome for the Correction of Exodeviation
Vision 2021, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020019 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
The success rate of exodeviation surgery in existing literature has been shown to be variable. This study sought to determine the success rate of surgery for exodeviation in Atlantic Canada and determine variables associated with surgical outcome. A retrospective chart review was performed, [...] Read more.
The success rate of exodeviation surgery in existing literature has been shown to be variable. This study sought to determine the success rate of surgery for exodeviation in Atlantic Canada and determine variables associated with surgical outcome. A retrospective chart review was performed, considering patients who had been assessed and surgically treated for exodeviation at the IWK Health Centre between 2011–2018. This study included 176 subjects, aged 1–75 years. Preoperative variables were compared between subjects with successful versus unsuccessful surgical outcomes, using the chi square, Fischer’s exact test and binary logistic regression. A success rate of 43% was determined. Smaller preoperative deviation size at near and distance fixation, as well as the basic type classification were associated with successful operative outcome. Left eye acuity showed a statistically significant association with surgical success outcome. In conclusion, these findings compliment those of previous groups, suggesting exodeviation surgery outcome is variable. Our results add to a growing list of variables implicated in outcomes for these subjects. A smaller deviation preoperatively was associated with success in existing data and in this study, and these findings may suggest a potential role for basic subtype into future exodeviation literature. Full article
Article
The Impact of Shape-Based Cue Discriminability on Attentional Performance
Vision 2021, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020018 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1697
Abstract
With rapidly developing technology, visual cues became a powerful tool for deliberate guiding of attention and affecting human performance. Using cues to manipulate attention introduces a trade-off between increased performance in cued, and decreased in not cued, locations. For higher efficacy of visual [...] Read more.
With rapidly developing technology, visual cues became a powerful tool for deliberate guiding of attention and affecting human performance. Using cues to manipulate attention introduces a trade-off between increased performance in cued, and decreased in not cued, locations. For higher efficacy of visual cues designed to purposely direct user’s attention, it is important to know how manipulation of cue properties affects attention. In this verification study, we addressed how varying cue complexity impacts the allocation of spatial endogenous covert attention in space and time. To gradually vary cue complexity, the discriminability of the cue was systematically modulated using a shape-based design. Performance was compared in attended and unattended locations in an orientation-discrimination task. We evaluated additional temporal costs due to processing of a more complex cue by comparing performance at two different inter-stimulus intervals. From preliminary data, attention scaled with cue discriminability, even for supra-threshold cue discriminability. Furthermore, individual cue processing times partly impacted performance for the most complex, but not simpler cues. We conclude that, first, cue complexity expressed by discriminability modulates endogenous covert attention at supra-threshold cue discriminability levels, with increasing benefits and decreasing costs; second, it is important to consider the temporal processing costs of complex visual cues. Full article
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Article
The Interpretation of E-Motions in Faces and Bodies Derived from Static Artworks by Individuals with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum
Vision 2021, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020017 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
E-motions are defined as those affective states the expressions of which—conveyed either by static faces or body posture—embody a dynamic component and, consequently, convey a higher sense of dynamicity than other emotional expressions. An experiment is presented, aimed at testing whether e-motions are [...] Read more.
E-motions are defined as those affective states the expressions of which—conveyed either by static faces or body posture—embody a dynamic component and, consequently, convey a higher sense of dynamicity than other emotional expressions. An experiment is presented, aimed at testing whether e-motions are perceived as such also by individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which have been associated with impairments in emotion recognition and in motion perception. To this aim we replicate with ASD individuals a study, originally conducted with typically developed individuals (TDs), in which we showed to both ASD and TD participants 14 bodiless heads and 14 headless bodies taken from eleven static artworks and four drawings. The Experiment was divided into two sessions. In Session 1 participants were asked to freely associate each stimulus to an emotion or an affective state (Task 1, option A); if they were unable to find a specific emotion, the experimenter showed them a list of eight possible emotions (words) and asked them to choose one from such list, that best described the affective state portrayed in the image (Task 1, option B). After their choice, they were asked to rate the intensity of the perceived emotion on a seven point Likert scale (Task 2). In Session 2 participants were requested to evaluate the degree of dynamicity conveyed by each stimulus on a 7 point Likert scale. Results showed that ASDs and TDs shared a similar range of verbal expressions defining emotions; however, ASDs (i) showed an impairment in the ability to spontaneously assign an emotion to a headless body, and (ii) they more frequently used terms denoting negative emotions (for both faces and bodies) as compared to neutral emotions, which in turn were more frequently used by TDs. No difference emerged between the two groups for positive emotions, with happiness being the emotion better recognized in both faces and in bodies. Although overall there are no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the emotions assigned to the images and the degree of perceived dynamicity, the interaction Artwork x Group showed that for some images ASDs assigned a different value than TDs to perceived dynamicity. Moreover, two images were interpreted by ASDs as conveying completely different emotions than those perceived by TDs. Results are discussed in light of the ability of ASDs to resolve ambiguity, and of possible different cognitive styles characterizing the aesthetical/emotional experience. Full article
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Article
Progression from Type 2 Macular Neovascularization to Fibrovascular Pigment Epithelial Detachment
Vision 2021, 5(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5020016 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
The aim of this study was to report unusual progression of type 2 macular neovascularization (MNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), high myopia or angioid streaks. Retrospective multicentric observational case series data were used. Eyes that progressed from type 2 MNV secondary [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to report unusual progression of type 2 macular neovascularization (MNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), high myopia or angioid streaks. Retrospective multicentric observational case series data were used. Eyes that progressed from type 2 MNV secondary to AMD, high myopia or angioid streaks to fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment (PED) were included. A total of 29 treatment-naive eyes from 29 patients with type 2 MNV secondary to AMD (n = 14), high myopia (n = 10) or angioid streaks (n = 5) that progressed to a fibrovascular PED on Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography were used. This progression occurred within 3 months after anti-VEGF therapy initiation. Logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) visual acuity improved significantly after anti-VEGF therapy, from 0.55 (SD ± 0.30) (20/63–20/80) at baseline to 0.30 (20/40) at 3 months, and 0.33 (20/40) at the final follow-up (mean follow up: 3.68 years). Mean number of intravitreal injections per year for patients with a total follow-up ≥ 12 months (n = 24) was 4.3 ± 2.1 per year. Progression from type 2 MNV to a fibrovascular PED may occur in patients suffering from AMD, high myopia or angioid streaks. This progression appears early after initiation of anti-VEGF therapy and is associated with a favorable visual and anatomical outcome, at least on a short follow up basis. Full article
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