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Vision, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The colour we perceive from an area does not only depend on the colour spectrum of this area but also on the colour spectra and spatial arrangement of neighboring areas. This phenomenon, called colour induction, is thought to be the consequence of mutual modulations of the activity of colour receptors through excitatory–inhibitory mechanisms. By comparing chromatic induction in migraineurs and controls, we provide additional evidence of an excitation/inhibition imbalance in migraine. View this paper.
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Brief Report
Visual Search Asymmetry Due to the Relative Magnitude Represented by Number Symbols
Vision 2021, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030042 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
In visual search tasks, physically large target stimuli are more easily identified among small distractors than are small targets among large distractors. The present study extends this finding by presenting preliminary evidence of a new search asymmetry: stimuli that symbolically represent larger magnitude [...] Read more.
In visual search tasks, physically large target stimuli are more easily identified among small distractors than are small targets among large distractors. The present study extends this finding by presenting preliminary evidence of a new search asymmetry: stimuli that symbolically represent larger magnitude are identified more easily among featurally equivalent distractors that represent smaller magnitude. Participants performed a visual search task using line-segment digits representing the numbers 2 and 5, and the numbers 6 and 9, as well as comparable non-numeric control stimuli. In three experiments, we found that search times are faster when the target is a digit that represents a larger magnitude than the distractor, although this pattern was not evident in one additional experiment. The results provide suggestive evidence that the magnitude of a number symbol can affect perceptual comparisons between number symbols, and that the semantic meaning of a target stimulus can systematically affect visual search. Full article
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Article
High-Accuracy Gaze Estimation for Interpolation-Based Eye-Tracking Methods
Vision 2021, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030041 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
This study investigates the influence of the eye-camera location associated with the accuracy and precision of interpolation-based eye-tracking methods. Several factors can negatively influence gaze estimation methods when building a commercial or off-the-shelf eye tracker device, including the eye-camera location in uncalibrated setups. [...] Read more.
This study investigates the influence of the eye-camera location associated with the accuracy and precision of interpolation-based eye-tracking methods. Several factors can negatively influence gaze estimation methods when building a commercial or off-the-shelf eye tracker device, including the eye-camera location in uncalibrated setups. Our experiments show that the eye-camera location combined with the non-coplanarity of the eye plane deforms the eye feature distribution when the eye-camera is far from the eye’s optical axis. This paper proposes geometric transformation methods to reshape the eye feature distribution based on the virtual alignment of the eye-camera in the center of the eye’s optical axis. The data analysis uses eye-tracking data from a simulated environment and an experiment with 83 volunteer participants (55 males and 28 females). We evaluate the improvements achieved with the proposed methods using Gaussian analysis, which defines a range for high-accuracy gaze estimation between 0.5 and 0.5. Compared to traditional polynomial-based and homography-based gaze estimation methods, the proposed methods increase the number of gaze estimations in the high-accuracy range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Tracking in Human–Computer Interaction)
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Case Report
Maculopathy Masquerading as Migraine
Vision 2021, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030040 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1874
Abstract
We describe a case of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman with a background history of migraines who presented with bilateral paracentral scotomata. The ophthalmoscopy and MRI head were originally thought to be normal, and the scotomata were attributed to be of migrainous origin: a [...] Read more.
We describe a case of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman with a background history of migraines who presented with bilateral paracentral scotomata. The ophthalmoscopy and MRI head were originally thought to be normal, and the scotomata were attributed to be of migrainous origin: a persistent negative aura. However, persistence of her symptoms prompted further specialist review 10 months later, at which time subtle bilateral perifoveal changes were noted, which had been apparent but overlooked at the initial assessment. Near-infrared reflectance imaging enabled better visualization of the lesions, which were apparent prior to any abnormalities on clinical examination. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed the early findings of hyperreflectivity in the outer nuclear and outer plexiform layers characteristic of acute macular neuroretinopathy. Our case aims to emphasize the importance of scrutinising ancillary tests of the macula in patients presenting with scotomata or atypical migraine symptoms, and to caution clinicians against diagnosing migraine with persistent negative aura without these investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Visual Aura in Migraine)
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Concept Paper
Using the Blind Spot to Investigate Trans-Saccadic Perception
Vision 2021, 5(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030039 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 2028
Abstract
We introduce a blind spot method to create image changes contingent on eye movements. One challenge of eye movement research is triggering display changes contingent on gaze. The eye-tracking system must capture the image of the eye, discover and track the pupil and [...] Read more.
We introduce a blind spot method to create image changes contingent on eye movements. One challenge of eye movement research is triggering display changes contingent on gaze. The eye-tracking system must capture the image of the eye, discover and track the pupil and corneal reflections to estimate the gaze position, and then transfer this data to the computer that updates the display. All of these steps introduce delays that are often difficult to predict. To avoid these issues, we describe a simple blind spot method to generate gaze contingent display manipulations without any eye-tracking system and/or display controls. Full article
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Review
Current Perspective on Retinal Migraine
Vision 2021, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030038 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Retinal migraine was first formally described in 1882. Various terms such as “ocular migraine” and “ophthalmic migraine” have since been used interchangeably in the literature. The lack of a consistent consensus-based definition has led to controversy and potential confusion for clinicians and patients. [...] Read more.
Retinal migraine was first formally described in 1882. Various terms such as “ocular migraine” and “ophthalmic migraine” have since been used interchangeably in the literature. The lack of a consistent consensus-based definition has led to controversy and potential confusion for clinicians and patients. Retinal migraine as defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) has been found to be rare. The latest ICHD defined retinal migraine as ‘repeated attacks of monocular visual disturbance, including scintillation, scotoma or blindness, associated with migraine headache’, which are fully reversible. Retinal migraine should be considered a diagnosis of exclusion, which requires other causes of transient monocular visual loss to be excluded. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the literature on retinal migraine, including: epidemiology and risk factors; proposed aetiology; clinical presentation; and management strategies. It is potentially a misnomer as its proposed aetiology is different from our current understanding of the mechanism of migraine Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Visual Aura in Migraine)
Article
Chromatic Induction in Migraine
Vision 2021, 5(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030037 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
The human visual system is not a colorimeter. The perceived colour of a region does not only depend on its colour spectrum, but also on the colour spectra and geometric arrangement of neighbouring regions, a phenomenon called chromatic induction. Chromatic induction is thought [...] Read more.
The human visual system is not a colorimeter. The perceived colour of a region does not only depend on its colour spectrum, but also on the colour spectra and geometric arrangement of neighbouring regions, a phenomenon called chromatic induction. Chromatic induction is thought to be driven by lateral interactions: the activity of a central neuron is modified by stimuli outside its classical receptive field through excitatory–inhibitory mechanisms. As there is growing evidence of an excitation/inhibition imbalance in migraine, we compared chromatic induction in migraine and control groups. As hypothesised, we found a difference in the strength of induction between the two groups, with stronger induction effects in migraine. On the other hand, given the increased prevalence of visual phenomena in migraine with aura, we also hypothesised that the difference between migraine and control would be more important in migraine with aura than in migraine without aura. Our experiments did not support this hypothesis. Taken together, our results suggest a link between excitation/inhibition imbalance and increased induction effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Visual Aura in Migraine)
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Article
The Effect of Ocular Perfusion Pressure on Retinal Thickness in Young People with Presumed Systemic Hypotension
Vision 2021, 5(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030036 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Low ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) may increase the risk of optic neuropathy. This study investigated the effects of OPP on the ganglion cell complex (GCC) and optic nerve head-retinal nerve fibre layer (ONH-RNFL) thickness in presumed systemic hypotensives (PSH). Fifteen participants with PSH [...] Read more.
Low ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) may increase the risk of optic neuropathy. This study investigated the effects of OPP on the ganglion cell complex (GCC) and optic nerve head-retinal nerve fibre layer (ONH-RNFL) thickness in presumed systemic hypotensives (PSH). Fifteen participants with PSH and 14 controls underwent automated sphygmomanometry and Icare tonometry to calculate OPP: mean OPP (MOPP), systolic OPP (SOPP), and diastolic OPP (DOPP). ONH-RNFL and macula GCC thickness were evaluated using the Optovue iVue optical coherence tomographer. Statistical analysis comprised independent t-tests, the Mann–Whitney U test and binary logistic regression analysis. There was no significant difference when comparing ONH-RNFL and macula GCC thickness between both groups. Increased MOPP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27–0.97; p = 0.039) and SOPP (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64–0.98; p = 0.035) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of reductions in GCC total thickness. Increased SOPP (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01–0.89; p = 0.027) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of reductions in the average ONH-RNFL thickness. The study found no significant retinal thickness changes in PSH’s, in comparison to the controls. The study established that, by increasing MOPP and SOPP, there was a decreased risk of reductions in the total GCC thickness and average ONH-RNFL thickness. Higher SOPP may decrease the possibility of retinal thinning of the GCC and ONH-RNFL. However, higher MOPP may decrease the odds of thinning of the GCC before ONH-RNFL changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocular Blood Flow and Visual Function)
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Article
Accommodative Response in Patients with Central Field Loss: A Matched Case-Control Study
Vision 2021, 5(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030035 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the accommodative response in young participants with visual impairment in comparison with visually normal participants. Methods: Fifteen participants with confirmed visual impairment and 30 visually normal participants aged 12–15 years were recruited. Accommodative response [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the accommodative response in young participants with visual impairment in comparison with visually normal participants. Methods: Fifteen participants with confirmed visual impairment and 30 visually normal participants aged 12–15 years were recruited. Accommodative response was measured using autorefractor (Grand Seiko WV500) at distances of accommodative demand of 33, 25, and 20 cm. The targets were one-line-above participant threshold acuity. The participants’ accommodative responses were compared between both groups after calibration for refractive errors and the vertex distance of the glasses. Visual acuity and refractive status were also assessed. Results: The age was not significantly different between both participant groups. The visual acuity of visually impaired patients was 6/30 to 6/240, and that of visually normal participants was 6/7.5 or better. Ten of the visually impaired patients and 29 of visually normal participants were myopic. In total, 61–73% of visually impaired patients showed an accommodative lead. Five subtypes of accommodative response were observed. In general, the accommodative inaccuracy increased with increasing accommodative demand. However, the visually normal participants largely exhibited an accommodative lag. A mild-to-moderate relationship was observed between visual acuity and accommodative response (r = 0.3–0.5, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Accommodative response in young visually impaired patients can be variable and on an individual basis. Low vision specialists should anticipate accommodative response outside the normal range. Therefore, we shall consider evaluating each patient’s accommodative response before prescribing any near addition lenses. Accommodation inaccuracy is often more complex than predicted due to increased depth of focus caused by reduced visual acuity. Full article
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Article
Use of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and ReGeneraTing Agent Matrix for the Treatment of Corneal Diseases
Vision 2021, 5(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030034 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the use of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) associated with tissue ReGeneraTing Agent (RGTA) drops for the treatment of noninfectious corneal ulcers. RGTA treatment was applied (one drop every two days); however, if ulcer closure was not [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the use of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) associated with tissue ReGeneraTing Agent (RGTA) drops for the treatment of noninfectious corneal ulcers. RGTA treatment was applied (one drop every two days); however, if ulcer closure was not achieved, PRGF eye drops treatment was added (four times/day). The time taken to reach the ulcer closure, the Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), Visual Analog Scale (VAS, in terms of frequency and severity of symptoms), and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) were evaluated. Seventy-four patients (79 eyes) were included, and the mean age was 56.8 ± 17.3 years. The neurotrophic corneal ulcer was the most frequent disorder (n = 27, 34.2%), mainly for herpes virus (n = 15, 19.0%). The time of PRGF eye drops treatment associated with the RGTA matrix was 4.2 ± 2.2 (1.5–9.0) months, and the follow-up period was 44.9 ± 31.5 months. The ulcer closure was achieved in 76 eyes (96.2%). BCVA, VAS and OSDI improved from the baseline (p < 0.001), and IOP remained unchanged (p = 0.665). RGTA and PRGF in noninfectious ulcers were effective and could be a therapeutic alternative for this type of corneal disease. Full article
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Article
Does Vergence Affect Perceived Size?
Vision 2021, 5(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5030033 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Since Kepler (1604) and Descartes (1637), it has been suggested that ‘vergence’ (the angular rotation of the eyes) plays a key role in size constancy. However, this has never been tested divorced from confounding cues such as changes in the retinal image. In [...] Read more.
Since Kepler (1604) and Descartes (1637), it has been suggested that ‘vergence’ (the angular rotation of the eyes) plays a key role in size constancy. However, this has never been tested divorced from confounding cues such as changes in the retinal image. In our experiment, participants viewed a target which grew or shrank in size over 5 s. At the same time, the fixation distance specified by vergence was reduced from 50 to 25 cm. The question was whether this change in vergence affected the participants’ judgements of whether the target grew or shrank in size? We found no evidence of any effect, and therefore no evidence that eye movements affect perceived size. If this is correct, then our finding has three implications. First, perceived size is much more reliant on cognitive influences than previously thought. This is consistent with the argument that visual scale is purely cognitive in nature (Linton, 2017; 2018). Second, it leads us to question whether the vergence modulation of V1 contributes to size constancy. Third, given the interaction between vergence, proprioception, and the retinal image in the Taylor illusion, it leads us to ask whether this cognitive approach could also be applied to multisensory integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Size Constancy for Perception and Action)
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