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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 36 articles

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17 pages, 484 KiB  
Review
Role of Sport Vision in Performance: Systematic Review
by Andrea Buscemi, Flora Mondelli, Ilaria Biagini, Stella Gueli, Angela D'Agostino and Marinella Coco
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020092 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Sport Vision is a speciality of multidisciplinary interest aimed at improving the performance of the visual system to achieve benefits in practiced sports, as well as in daily life and in preventive care. The type of training practiced by the athlete, his or [...] Read more.
Sport Vision is a speciality of multidisciplinary interest aimed at improving the performance of the visual system to achieve benefits in practiced sports, as well as in daily life and in preventive care. The type of training practiced by the athlete, his or her physical condition, cognitive level, and level of fatigue condition affects the speed of the reaction time and, consequently, the speed of motor response. Specific orthoptic exercises, the use of technological devices, the recovery of static and dynamic postural stability by using unstable platforms and the dual-task paradigm can help to achieve the expected results. The aim of this systematic review of Sport Vision was to assess the overall existing literature on Sport Vision, paying particular attention to the effects of visual training and its application in different sports and in rehabilitation and preventive settings. We analysed published English language studies about the role of sport vision in athletic performance from 1950 to 2023. We searched through the Medline database. The PRISMA 2020 checklist was used to assess the transparency and reproducibility of this review. The enrolled papers were evaluated with the Jadad Scale, Amstar 2 Scale and Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. 25 (16 studies, 5 reviews, 2 comments, 1 editorial, 1 descriptive paper) out of 476 studies met the inclusion criteria. Due to the variability in the age of the samples, the different techniques, the treatments among the participants in the studies and the finding of non-evaluable articles, a meta-analysis was not conducted. The limitations of this review are the single database research, the studies analyzed contain a non-statistically representative sample size and the lack of a control group. There is no standardized test to measure performance. It was shown that the development of visual skills can benefit athletes in injury prevention, and can lead to improved sports performance and motor function at any age, acquiring adaptive motor behaviour even when the visual system is impaired, due to task repetition and familiarity of the gesture. We intended to identify a multidisciplinary approach and a manual treatment scheme to optimize the circuitry involved in sport vision in order to increase the results that are achieved, but further studies will be needed to this end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Neuromuscular Control of Gait and Posture)
15 pages, 649 KiB  
Review
Omega-3 Index as a Sport Biomarker: Implications for Cardiovascular Health, Injury Prevention, and Athletic Performance
by Alessandro Medoro, Andrea Buonsenso, Marco Centorbi, Giuseppe Calcagno, Giovanni Scapagnini, Giovanni Fiorilli and Sergio Davinelli
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020091 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 223
Abstract
The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the cell membrane plays a crucial role in cell signaling and function. Physical activity can induce shifts in PUFA metabolism, potentially altering their membrane composition. Given the multifaceted regulatory and structural roles of PUFA, training-related [...] Read more.
The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the cell membrane plays a crucial role in cell signaling and function. Physical activity can induce shifts in PUFA metabolism, potentially altering their membrane composition. Given the multifaceted regulatory and structural roles of PUFA, training-related fluctuations in PUFA concentrations may impact health and athletic performance in both elite and non-elite athletes, highlighting the critical role of these fatty acids’ nutritional intake. The ω-3 index (O3I), a biomarker reflecting the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in red blood cell membranes, is considered a marker of cardiovascular risk, gaining increasing interest in sports medicine. Dietary interventions aimed at maintaining an optimal O3I may offer several benefits for elite and non-elite athletes, including cardiovascular health performance optimization, recovery, and injury prevention. Here, we discuss emerging evidence on the application of O3I in sports and physical exercise, highlighting its promising role as a biomarker in a wide range of sports practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
11 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Bioelectric and Biomechanical EMG Normalization Techniques in Healthy Older and Young Adults during Walking Gait
by Drew Commandeur, Marc Klimstra, Ryan Brodie and Sandra Hundza
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020090 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 215
Abstract
This study compares biomechanical and bioelectric electromyography (EMG) normalization techniques across disparate age cohorts during walking to assess the impact of normalization methods on the functional interpretation of EMG data. The biomechanical method involved scaling EMG to a target absolute torque (EMGTS [...] Read more.
This study compares biomechanical and bioelectric electromyography (EMG) normalization techniques across disparate age cohorts during walking to assess the impact of normalization methods on the functional interpretation of EMG data. The biomechanical method involved scaling EMG to a target absolute torque (EMGTS) from a joint-specific task and the chosen bioelectric methods were peak and mean normalization taken from the EMG signal during gait, referred to as dynamic mean and dynamic peak normalization (EMGMean and EMGPeak). The effects of normalization on EMG amplitude, activation pattern, and inter-subject variability were compared between disparate cohorts, including OLD (76.6 yrs N = 12) and YOUNG (26.6 yrs N = 12), in five lower-limb muscles. EMGPeak normalization resulted in differences between YOUNG and OLD cohorts in Biceps Femoris (BF) and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) that were not observed with EMGMean or EMGTS normalization. EMGPeak and EMGMean normalization also demonstrated interactions between age and the phase of gait in BF that were not seen with EMGTS. Correlations showed that activation patterns across the gait cycle were similar between all methods for both age groups and the coefficient of variation comparisons found that EMGTS produced the greatest inter-subject variability. We have shown that the normalization technique can influence the interpretation of findings when comparing disparate populations, highlighting the need to carefully interpret functional differences in EMG between disparate cohorts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanical Analysis in Physical Activity and Sports)
11 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Lean Body Mass, Muscle Architecture and Powerlifting Performance during Preseason and in Competition
by Konstantinos Tromaras, Nikolaos Zaras, Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki, Thomas Mpampoulis and Gerasimos Terzis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020089 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Lean body mass (LBM) is correlated with powerlifting performance in athletes competing in different bodyweight classes. However, it remains unknown whether changes in LBM are correlated with performance changes in powerlifters preparing for a competition. The aim of this study was to investigate [...] Read more.
Lean body mass (LBM) is correlated with powerlifting performance in athletes competing in different bodyweight classes. However, it remains unknown whether changes in LBM are correlated with performance changes in powerlifters preparing for a competition. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in LBM and performance in powerlifters preparing for a competition. Eight male powerlifters (age 31.7 ± 9.8 years, height 1.77 ± 0.06 m, weight 99.2 ± 14.6 kg) and three female powerlifters (age 32.7 ± 16.3 years, height 1.54 ± 0.06 m, weight 66.6 ± 20.9 kg) participated in the study. The athletes followed individualized periodized training programs for 12 weeks, aiming to maximize their performance for the national championship. The maximum strength (1-RM) in the squat, bench press, and deadlift, body composition, handgrip strength, anaerobic power, quadriceps’ cross-sectional area and vastus lateralis muscle architecture were measured before and after the training period. Significant increases were found after the training period in the squat (5.8 ± 7.0%, p < 0.05), bench press (4.9 ± 9.8%, p = 0.05) and deadlift (8.3 ± 16.7%, p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between the 1-RM and LBM before and after the training period (r > 0.75, p < 0.05). The changes in the 1-RM after the training intervention correlated with the changes in the total LBM (p < 0.05). These results suggest that individual changes in LBM due to systematic resistance training for a competition may dictate increases in the 1-RM strength in powerlifters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training and Performance Enhancement in Athletes)
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13 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
Tactical Situations and Playing Styles as Key Performance Indicators in Soccer
by Spyridon Plakias, Themistoklis Tsatalas, Vasileios Armatas, Dimitris Tsaopoulos and Giannis Giakas
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020088 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The game of soccer is complex and unpredictable, demanding multifaceted strategies for success. Performance analysis has evolved, focusing on key performance indicators (KPIs) to determine the factors that most significantly influence a team’s success or failure during matches. Traditional performance analysis methods have [...] Read more.
The game of soccer is complex and unpredictable, demanding multifaceted strategies for success. Performance analysis has evolved, focusing on key performance indicators (KPIs) to determine the factors that most significantly influence a team’s success or failure during matches. Traditional performance analysis methods have emphasized quantifiable data like physical exertion and basic play events but often neglected the subtler tactical dimensions that could significantly impact game outcomes. This study aimed to fill the gap in the current literature by creating a comprehensive framework that incorporates tactical situations as KPIs. The objective was to examine whether specific playing styles adopted by teams in various tactical situations and phases of the game could predict the outcome of matches. A dataset comprising all First Division Championship matches from 11 different European countries for the 2021–2022 season was analyzed. Variables representing tactical situations were correlated with match outcomes using a Generalized Estimating Equation framework. The model was specified with a binomial distribution and a logit link function. Statistical significance was determined using Wald χ2 tests with a significance level set at p < 0.05. The study’s findings revealed that possession style, counterattacking during offensive transitions, and a balanced aggressive defensive strategy significantly increase a team’s chances of victory. It also showed that successful teams tend to focus on central attacks, minimize crossing, and execute strategic plays that lead to final attempts on goal with minimal ball possession. The above findings demonstrate that adopting certain tactical approaches significantly influences soccer match outcomes, highlighting the importance of considering tactical aspects as KPIs. Full article
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9 pages, 295 KiB  
Communication
Sleep Quality in Greek Adolescent Swimmers
by Vasileios T. Stavrou, George D. Vavougios, Glykeria Tsirimona, Zoe Daniil and Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020087 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and functional indices, swimming distance and gender in adolescent competitive swimmers. Forty-eight adolescent swimmers (boys, n = 22, 15.7 ± 1.0 years and girls, n = 26, 15.1 ± 0.8 [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and functional indices, swimming distance and gender in adolescent competitive swimmers. Forty-eight adolescent swimmers (boys, n = 22, 15.7 ± 1.0 years and girls, n = 26, 15.1 ± 0.8 years) were included in our study. They were assessed for handgrip strength, respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function, answered a Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI), and recorded their anthropometric and morphological characteristics and training load for the last four weeks. The results showed differences between swimming distance and chest circumference difference, between maximal inhalation and exhalation (Δchest) (p = 0.033), PSQI score (p < 0.001), and sleep quality domains for “cannot breathe comfortably” (p = 0.037) and “have pain” (p = 0.003). Binary logistic regression (chi-square = 37.457, p = 0.001) showed that the variables Δchest (p = 0.038, 95% CI: 1.05–6.07) and PSQI score (p = 0.048, 95% CI: 0.1–1.07) remained independent predictors of the swim distance groups. Girls had a lower percentage of predicted values for the maximal inspiratory pressure (p < 0.001), maximal expiratory pressure (p = 0.027), forced expiratory volume within the first second (p = 0.026), forced vital capacity (p = 0.008) and sleep quality domains for “cough or snore loudly” (p = 0.032) compared to boys. A regression analysis showed that the sleep quality score was explained by the six independent variables: respiratory muscle strength (t = 2.177, β = 0.164, p = 0.035), Δchest (t = −2.353, β = −0.17, p = 0.023), distance (t = −5.962, β = −0.475, p < 0.001), total body water (t = −7.466, β = −0.687, p < 0.001), lean body mass (t = −3.120, β = −0.434, p = 0.003), and handgrip (t = 7.752, β = 1.136, p < 0.001). Our findings demonstrate that sleep quality in adolescent swimmers is a multifactorial result of morphometric characteristics, strength and respiratory function. Full article
11 pages, 1464 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Muscle Oxygenation after a Normobaric Hypoxia Tolerance Test
by Inés Albertus-Cámara, María-José Paredes-Ruiz and Ignacio Martínez-González-Moro
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020086 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on quadricep oxygenation. Muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) was measured using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) technology during a normobaric hypoxia tolerance test (NHTT). SmO2 was measured with a [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on quadricep oxygenation. Muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) was measured using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) technology during a normobaric hypoxia tolerance test (NHTT). SmO2 was measured with a Humon Hex® device. In total, 54 healthy subjects participated, 68.5 of which were males and 31.5% of which were females. They performed an NHTT with the IAltitude® simulator, breathing air with an FiO2 level of 11% (equivalent to 5050 m). The maximum duration of the NHTT was set at 10 min, stopping if it reached 83% SpO2. The initial values (PRE) were compared with those obtained at the end of the test (POST) and after 10 min of recovery. The participants were divided into two groups based on whether (G1) they completed the ten minutes or not (G2). In total, 35.1% of men and 41.2% of women completed the 10 min. In both groups, significant differences were observed in the decrease in SmO2 values (p < 0.0001) (G1: PRE = 59.5 ± 12.48%; POST = 55.95 ± 14.30%; G2: PRE = 60.06 ± 13.46%; POST = 57.2 ± 12.3%). There were no differences between groups in any of the three periods. Exposure to normobaric hypoxia produces a decrease in quadricep levels of SmO2 in both sexes, regardless of whether the test is completed. Two patterns appeared: A.—less time and more hypoxia; B. a longer duration and less hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Functional Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System)
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17 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Effects of Four Weeks of In-Season Pre-Workout Supplementation on Performance, Body Composition, Muscle Damage, and Health-Related Markers in Basketball Players: A Randomized Controlled Study
by Athanasios Douligeris, Spyridon Methenitis, Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, George Panayiotou, Paris Vogazianos, Antonia Lazou, Konstantinos Feidantsis, Constantinos Giaginis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Giannis Arnaoutis, Yannis Manios, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Sousana K. Papadopoulou
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020085 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 378
Abstract
This randomized, double-blinded, experimental study investigated the effects of a four-week daily pre-workout supplementation (200 mg caffeine, 3.3 g creatine monohydrate, 3.2 g β-alanine, 6 g citrulline malate, and 5 g BCAA) vs. placebo (isocaloric maltodextrin) on anaerobic (jumping, sprinting, agility, and the [...] Read more.
This randomized, double-blinded, experimental study investigated the effects of a four-week daily pre-workout supplementation (200 mg caffeine, 3.3 g creatine monohydrate, 3.2 g β-alanine, 6 g citrulline malate, and 5 g BCAA) vs. placebo (isocaloric maltodextrin) on anaerobic (jumping, sprinting, agility, and the running-based anaerobic sprint test: RAST) and aerobic (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1) performance, as well as on body composition and selective muscle damage/health-related blood markers in well-trained basketball players during the in-season period. Eighteen basketball players (age: 24.4 ± 6.3 years, height: 185.7 ± 8.0 cm, weight: 85.7 ± 12.8 kg, body fat: 16.5 ± 4.2%) were randomly assigned into two groups: pre-workout supplement (PWS, n = 10) or placebo (PL, n = 8). PWS consumption increased aerobic performance (PWS: 8 ± 6%; PL: −2 ± 6%; p = 0.004) compared to PL. A significant decrease was observed in peak (F = 7.0; p = 0.017), average (F = 10.7; p = 0.005), and minimum power (F = 5.1; p = 0.039) following 4 weeks of supplementation in both groups. No other significant changes were observed between groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the consumption of the current PWS over a four-week period appears to positively influence the aerobic performance of well-trained basketball players during the in-season period. However, it does not appear to mitigate the observed decline in anaerobic power, nor does it affect performance in jumping, sprinting, and agility, or alter body composition or selective muscle damage/health-related blood markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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10 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Gender Differences in Anthropometric, Functional Capacity Measures and Quality of Life in Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
by Miguel Jacinto, Diogo Monteiro, Filipe Rodrigues, Susana Diz, Rui Matos, Nuno Amaro and Raul Antunes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020084 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The aim of the of the current investigation was to investigate the possible differences concerning males and females in anthropometry, body composition, functional capacity, strength and quality of life variables. After obtaining signed informed consent, 37 participants (18 males; 19 females), with mean [...] Read more.
The aim of the of the current investigation was to investigate the possible differences concerning males and females in anthropometry, body composition, functional capacity, strength and quality of life variables. After obtaining signed informed consent, 37 participants (18 males; 19 females), with mean age of 39.08 and standard deviation of 11.66 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Anthropometry, body composition, functional capacity, strength, and quality of life were assessed using validated and reliable instruments and tests for this population. The males and females were compared using a Mann–Whitney U signed rank test. Significant differences were detected among the following variables, height (p = 0.028), body mass index (p = 0.033), fat mass (p = 0.002), muscle mass (p ≤ 0.001), phase angle (p = 0.005), medicine ball throwing strength (p = 0.010), and peak toque left knee (p = 0.028), with males showing better results in all the variables. The sample in this study showed differences in the anthropometric, composition, and strength variables. Studying this population can help ensure that everyone has equal access to services and adequate support for their personal needs, improving their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
14 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
Developing the Physical Performance in Youth Soccer: Short-Term Effect of Dynamic–Ecological versus Traditional Training Approach for Sub-Elite U13 Players—An Ecological Exploratory Cluster Randomised Trial
by Italo Sannicandro, Samuel Agostino, Massimiliano Abate Daga, Franco Veglio and Federico Abate Daga
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020083 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Currently, research in youth soccer consists of methodological choices that can raise activity volumes and exercise intensity to promote proper training for youth soccer demands. Therefore, the present cluster randomised trial aims to evaluate the effects of the dynamic–ecological approach on the physical [...] Read more.
Currently, research in youth soccer consists of methodological choices that can raise activity volumes and exercise intensity to promote proper training for youth soccer demands. Therefore, the present cluster randomised trial aims to evaluate the effects of the dynamic–ecological approach on the physical performance parameters compared with a traditional one in a group of sub-elite U13 players. Thirty-five male children (age 12.16 ± 0.55 years; weight 45.59 ± 7.15 kg; height 145.5 ± 4.2 cm; BMI 15.8 ± 2.1 kg·m−2) were recruited for this trial from two teams belonging to sub-elite soccer schools and randomly assigned to a dynamic–ecological approach (DEA) or a traditional training (TTG) group. The training program lasted six weeks and consisted of 18 training sessions of 90 min each (3 sessions per week). The sample was evaluated by the standing long jump (SLJ), hop test (HT), 10 m sprint (10 m), 10 × 5 m shuttle run test (SRT), and leg raise test (LR). The DEA group showed significantly higher results in the SLJ (p < 0.001), HT left leg (p < 0.001), 10 m sprint (p < 0.001), and SRT (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the dynamic–ecological approach provides higher performance adaptations. Therefore, this approach can be considered a suitable method to optimise pre-pubertal player training, mainly when no fitness or strength coach is available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Athletic Training and Human Performance)
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16 pages, 1148 KiB  
Case Report
Short-Term Benefits from Manual Therapy as an Adjunct Treatment for Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness Symptoms: A Preliminary Prospective Case Series
by Brent A. Harper and Larry Steinbeck
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020082 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Persistent dizziness and balance deficits are common, often with unknown etiology. Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness (3PD) is a relatively new diagnosis with symptoms that may include dizziness, unsteadiness, or non-vertiginous dizziness and be persistent the majority of time over a minimum of 90 days. [...] Read more.
Persistent dizziness and balance deficits are common, often with unknown etiology. Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness (3PD) is a relatively new diagnosis with symptoms that may include dizziness, unsteadiness, or non-vertiginous dizziness and be persistent the majority of time over a minimum of 90 days. The purpose of this case series was to investigate short-term outcomes of reducing dizziness symptoms using a manual therapy intervention focused on restoring mobility in the fascia using a pragmatically applied biomechanical approach, the Fascial Manipulation® method (FM®), in patients with 3PD. The preliminary prospective case series consisted of twelve (n = 12) patients with persistent complaints of dizziness who received systematic application of manual therapy to improve fascial mobility after previously receiving vestibular rehabilitation. The manual therapy consisted of strategic assessment and palpation based on the model proposed in the FM® Stecco Method. This model utilizes tangential oscillations directed toward the deep fascia at strategic points. Six males (n = 6) and females (n = 6) were included with a mean age of 68.3 ± 19.3 years. The average number of interventions was 4.5 ± 0.5. Nonparametric paired sample t-tests were performed. Significant improvements were observed toward the resolution of symptoms and improved outcomes. The metrics included the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and static and dynamic balance measures. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores decreased (i.e., improved) by 43.6 points (z = −3.1 and p = 0.002). The timed up and go scores decreased (i.e., improved) by 3.2 s (z = −2.8 and p = 0.005). The tandem left increased (i.e., improved) by 8.7 s (z = 2.8 and p = 0.005) and the tandem right increased (i.e., improved) by 7.5 s (z = 2.8 and p = 0.005). Four to five manual therapy treatment sessions appear to be effective for short-term improvements in dizziness complaints and balance in those with 3PD. These results should be interpreted with caution as future research using rigorous methods and a control group must be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy)
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12 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
Incidence of a Multicomponent Physical Exercise Program on Body Composition in Overweight or Obese People Aged 60 Years or Older from Chile
by Yazmina Pleticosic-Ramírez, Marcos Mecías-Calvo, Víctor Arufe-Giráldez and Rubén Navarro-Patón
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020081 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1298
Abstract
This research aimed to explore the changes produced in body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (FMP), muscle mass percentage (MMP), and visceral fat percentage (VFP) in 60-year-old or over overweight or obese people after a multicomponent exercise program. This quasi-experimental study involved [...] Read more.
This research aimed to explore the changes produced in body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (FMP), muscle mass percentage (MMP), and visceral fat percentage (VFP) in 60-year-old or over overweight or obese people after a multicomponent exercise program. This quasi-experimental study involved 70 overweight or obese older people between 60 and 86 years old (M = 73.15; SD = 5.94) who were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 35) and an experimental group (EG, n = 35). At the beginning and at the end of the intervention program, anthropometric and body composition data were collected. The results showed an increase in BMI after the intervention in the CG (p = 0.010) and a decrease in the EG (p < 0.001). The results regarding the FMP indicate a significant decrease in the EG (p < 0.001) after the intervention, as occurs with the VFP (p = 0.003). The MMP increased in the EG (p < 0.001) after the intervention program. Regarding gender, statistically significant differences were found in the MMP after the intervention (p = 0.025), with higher percentages in men in the EG. VFP decreased in both men (p = 0.005) and women (p = 0.019) in the EG. From the results obtained, we can say that a 6-month multicomponent program produces a decrease in BMI, FMP, and VFP and an increase in MMP in its participants. This type of intervention seems to produce a greater increase in muscle mass in men than in women and a decrease in VFP in both genders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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20 pages, 8845 KiB  
Review
Regenerative Anterior Cruciate Ligament Healing in Youth and Adolescent Athletes: The Emerging Age of Recovery Science
by John Nyland, Michael N. Sirignano, Jarod Richards and Ryan J. Krupp
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020080 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries mainly arise from non-contact mechanisms during sport performance, with most injuries occurring among youth or adolescent-age athletes, particularly females. The growing popularity of elite-level sport training has increased the total volume, intensity and frequency of exercise and competition [...] Read more.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries mainly arise from non-contact mechanisms during sport performance, with most injuries occurring among youth or adolescent-age athletes, particularly females. The growing popularity of elite-level sport training has increased the total volume, intensity and frequency of exercise and competition loading to levels that may exceed natural healing capacity. Growing evidence suggests that the prevailing mechanism that leads to non-contact ACL injury from sudden mechanical fatigue failure may be accumulated microtrauma. Given the consequences of primary ACL injury on the future health and quality of life of youth and adolescent athletes, the objective of this review is to identify key “recovery science” factors that can help prevent these injuries. Recovery science is any aspect of sports training (type, volume, intensity, frequency), nutrition, and sleep/rest or other therapeutic modalities that may prevent the accumulated microtrauma that precedes non-contact ACL injury from sudden mechanical fatigue failure. This review discusses ACL injury epidemiology, current surgical efficacy, the native ACL vascular network, regional ACL histological complexities such as the entheses and crimp patterns, extracellular matrix remodeling, the concept of causal histogenesis, exercise dosage and ligament metabolism, central nervous system reorganization post-ACL rupture, homeostasis regulation, nutrition, sleep and the autonomic nervous system. Based on this information, now may be a good time to re-think primary ACL injury prevention strategies with greater use of modified sport training, improved active recovery that includes well-planned nutrition, and healthy sleep patterns. The scientific rationale behind the efficacy of regenerative orthobiologics and concomitant therapies for primary ACL injury prevention in youth and adolescent athletes are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine and Nutrition)
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12 pages, 6158 KiB  
Article
Do Longer Fins Improve Ocean Rescues? A Comprehensive Investigation into Lifeguard Performance and Physiological Impact
by Isaac Ignacio-Rodríguez, Roberto Barcala-Furelos, Ezequiel Rey and Marcos Sanmartín-Montes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020079 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Coastal environments present dynamic challenges necessitating rapid and efficient responses during aquatic emergencies. Lifeguards, as pivotal links in the intervention chain, rely on various tools, with rescue time being paramount. The choice of fins, specifically long versus short ones, plays a critical role [...] Read more.
Coastal environments present dynamic challenges necessitating rapid and efficient responses during aquatic emergencies. Lifeguards, as pivotal links in the intervention chain, rely on various tools, with rescue time being paramount. The choice of fins, specifically long versus short ones, plays a critical role in optimizing lifeguard performance during rescues. This randomized cross-over study explores the impact of flipper size on ocean rescues, employing a sample of 14 lifeguards. Long fins (LFs) and short fins (SFs) were compared in terms of rescue time (RT) and physiological load (PL). Tests included ocean rescues without fins (R), with LF (R-LF), and with SF (R-SF). Variables recorded encompassed swim approach time, tow-in time, overall rescue time, perceived exertion rates (RPEs), and post-rescue lactate concentration. Long fins demonstrated superior performance in swim approach and tow-in times compared to both short fins and no fins (p < 0.001). Overall rescue time favored long fins significantly (p < 0.001), indicating their efficiency in practical ocean rescue scenarios. Physiologically, long fins induced lower perceived exertion in arms (p = 0.033) compared to short fins. Lactate concentrations post-rescue revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that long fins significantly improve lifeguard performance during ocean rescues, reducing rescue times and alleviating arm fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Athletic Training and Human Performance)
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14 pages, 608 KiB  
Review
Kinesiophobia in Injured Athletes: A Systematic Review
by Jatin P. Ambegaonkar, Matthew Jordan, Kelley R. Wiese and Shane V. Caswell
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020078 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Athletes have a high risk of injury. Kinesiophobia is a condition in which an individual experiences a fear of physical movement and activity after an injury occurs. Our purpose was to systematically review the literature about Kinesiophobia in athletes. A systematic review was [...] Read more.
Athletes have a high risk of injury. Kinesiophobia is a condition in which an individual experiences a fear of physical movement and activity after an injury occurs. Our purpose was to systematically review the literature about Kinesiophobia in athletes. A systematic review was conducted in February 2023 using PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed, in English, within the last 20 years and included athletes who had been injured and tracked Kinesiophobia. Articles were checked for quality via the modified Downs and Black checklist. Fourteen studies were included in the review and had an average “fair” quality score. Authors examined Kinesiophobia in injured athletes with mostly lower-extremity injuries. Kinesiophobia was associated with lower physical and mental outcomes. Kinesiophobia exists in athletes and can affect both physical and mental factors. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) was the most common tool used to examine Kinesiophobia. Common mental factors associated with Kinesiophobia include anxiety, low confidence, and fear avoidance. Full article
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12 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
The Flexion Relaxation Phenomenon in Patients with Radiculopathy and Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Marijan Peharec, Stanislav Peharec, Vedran Srhoj-Egekher, Romana Jerković, Dean Girotto and Gordana Starčević-Klasan
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020077 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Although the measurements of the lumbar spine and pelvic flexion have shown that subjects with radiculopathy exhibited greater decreases of motion when compared with subjects with low back pain, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the changes in flexion relaxation ratio [...] Read more.
Although the measurements of the lumbar spine and pelvic flexion have shown that subjects with radiculopathy exhibited greater decreases of motion when compared with subjects with low back pain, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the changes in flexion relaxation ratio in patients with radiculopathy. The aims of this study were to investigate the flexion relaxation ratio and flexion of the lumbar spine and pelvis in subjects with low back pain (LBP) and LBP with radiculopathy (LBPR) in comparison with healthy subjects (CG—control group). A total of 146 participants were divided in three groups: LBP patients (54 males; 21 females); LBPR patients (26 males; 11 females); and CG subjects (16 males; 18 females). The lumbar spine and pelvis flexion was recorded using optoelectronic motion capture system. The electrical activity of the erector spinae muscles was assessed by surface electromyography during flexion-extension movements. Comparisons between groups were made using one-way ANOVA tests and Mann–Whithney U test with the level of statistical significance at 0.05. The lumbar and pelvic flexion and electromyography of the erector spinae muscle showed significant differences between LBP and LBPR patients compared to CG. Patients LBPR showed significantly smaller angles of lumbar and pelvic flexion compared to LBP patients and CG. An increase in the erector spinae muscle activity during flexion was also observed in patients with radiculopathy. The increased muscular activity of the erector spinae is related to the reduced flexion of the lumbar spine in order to protect the lumbar spine structure. Measurements of trunk, lumbar spine and pelvic flexion, and the flexion relaxation ratio may allow us to predict better outcomes or responsiveness to treatment of LBPR patients in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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11 pages, 413 KiB  
Article
Effects of CurraNZ, a New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract during 1 Hour of Treadmill Running in Female and Male Marathon des Sables Athletes in Hot Conditions: Two Case Studies
by Mark E. T. Willems, Patrick W. Bray, Holly M. Bassett, Tilly J. Spurr and Andrew T. West
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020076 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Four weeks before competition in the 2023 Marathon des Sables, a 6-stage, ~250 km running event in the Sahara Desert, we examined the effects of a 7-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract (210 mg anthocyanins per day) on 1 h treadmill running-induced [...] Read more.
Four weeks before competition in the 2023 Marathon des Sables, a 6-stage, ~250 km running event in the Sahara Desert, we examined the effects of a 7-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract (210 mg anthocyanins per day) on 1 h treadmill running-induced physiological and metabolic responses in the heat (~34 °C, relative humidity: ~30%) in non-acclimatized amateur female and male athletes (age: 23, 38 yrs, BMI: 24.2, 28.4 kg·m−2, body fat%: 29.2, 18.8%, V˙O2max: 50.1, 52.1 mL·kg−1·min−1). During the 1 h run at 50%V˙O2max (speed female: 7.3, male: 7.5 km·h−1), indirect calorimetry was used, and heart rate was recorded at 15 min intervals with core temperature monitoring (0.05 Hz). The 1 h runs took place 3 h after a light breakfast and 2 h after intake of the final dose of New Zealand blackcurrant extract with water allowed ad libitum during the run. The New Zealand blackcurrant extract had no effects on the female athlete. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of the female athlete in the non-supplement control condition was 0.77 ± 0.01, indicating an existing ~77% contribution of fat oxidation to the energy requirements. In the male athlete, during 1 h of running, fat oxidation was higher by 21% (p < 0.01), carbohydrate oxidation was 31% lower (p = 0.05), RER was 0.03 units lower (p = 0.04), and core temperature was 0.4 °C lower (p < 0.01) with no differences for heart rate, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide production for the New Zealand blackcurrant condition compared to the non-supplement control condition. Seven-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract (210 mg anthocyanins per day) provided beneficial physiological and metabolic responses during exertional heat stress by 1 h of indoor (~34 °C) treadmill running in a male Marathon des Sables athlete 4 weeks before competition. Future work is required to address whether New Zealand blackcurrant provides a nutritional ergogenic effect for Marathon des Sables athletes during long-duration running in the heat combined with personalized nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine and Nutrition)
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13 pages, 3043 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sex and Different Repetition Maximums on Kinematics and Surface Electromyography in the Last Repetition of the Barbell Back Squat
by Andreas Hegdahl Gundersen, Hallvard Nygaard Falch, Andrea Bao Fredriksen and Roland van den Tillaar
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020075 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 838
Abstract
During the ascent phase of a maximal barbell back squat after an initial acceleration, a deceleration region occurs as the result of different biomechanical factors. This is known as the sticking region. However, whether this region is similar in the last repetition of [...] Read more.
During the ascent phase of a maximal barbell back squat after an initial acceleration, a deceleration region occurs as the result of different biomechanical factors. This is known as the sticking region. However, whether this region is similar in the last repetition of different repetition maximums and if sex has an impact on biomechanics of this region are not known. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of sex (men/women) and repetition maximum (1-, 3-, 6-, and 10RM) on kinematics and surface electromyography around the sticking region. Twenty-six resistance-trained individuals comprising 13 men (body mass: 82.2 ± 8.7; age: 23.6 ± 1.9; height: 181.1 ± 6.5) and 13 women (body mass: 63.6 ± 6.6; age: 23.9 ± 4.5; height: 166.0 ± 4.5) participated in the study. The main findings were that women, in comparison to men, displayed larger trunk lean and lower hip extension angles in the sticking region, possibly due to different hip/knee extensor strength ratios. Moreover, an inverse relationship was discovered between repetition range and timing from V0 to Vmax2, in which lower repetition ranges (1- and 3RM) were shorter in Vmax2 compared to higher ranges (6- and 10RM). It was concluded that this occurrence is due to more moments of inertia in lower repetition ranges. Our findings suggest that both sex and repetition range might induce different requirements during the squat ascent. Full article
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9 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Blood Flow Restriction during Walking Does Not Impact Body Composition or Performance Measures in Highly Trained Runners
by Ashley A. Herda, Christopher J. Cleary, Dana Young, KathleenMae B. Rogers, Santiago E. Umana Segura, Christopher Bernard, Lisa M. Vopat and Bryan G. Vopat
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020074 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Blood flow restriction (BFR) is a commonly used training modality that has been demonstrated to enhance muscle characteristics such as size and function. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 4-week walking program with or without BFR in healthy, active [...] Read more.
Blood flow restriction (BFR) is a commonly used training modality that has been demonstrated to enhance muscle characteristics such as size and function. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 4-week walking program with or without BFR in healthy, active adults has an effect on body composition, anaerobic, and aerobic running performance. Thirty-three participants, randomized among three groups, completed the walking program, which included five sets of 2 min walking intervals with 1 min rest, with or without BFR, or 10 min walking with BFR. Assessments completed before and after the walking program included body composition, 40-yard sprints, and a VO2MAX test on a treadmill. A two-way ANOVA revealed no changes among the groups nor for any variables at any time (p > 0.05). Additionally, one main effect for time indicated the VO2 at V-slope threshold was greater following training for all groups combined (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that low volume and intensity walking with BFR for 4 weeks did not provide a sufficient stimulus for changing body composition or performance metrics in a group of very active adults. Longer or more isolated exposure of BFR on the limbs may contribute to more pronounced adaptations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
10 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
Does Pelvic Tilt Angle Influence the Isokinetic Strength of the Hip and Knee Flexors and Extensors?
by Eleftherios Kellis, Athanasios Konstantopoulos, Georgios Salonikios and Athanasios Ellinoudis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020073 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 823
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pelvic tilt angle on maximum hip and knee muscles’ strength and antagonist/agonist strength ratios. Twenty-one young males and females performed maximum isokinetic concentric knee extension–flexion and hip extension–flexion efforts at 60°·s−1 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pelvic tilt angle on maximum hip and knee muscles’ strength and antagonist/agonist strength ratios. Twenty-one young males and females performed maximum isokinetic concentric knee extension–flexion and hip extension–flexion efforts at 60°·s−1, 120°·s−1, and 180°·s−1 from three positions: anterior, neutral, and posterior pelvic tilt. Peak torques and knee flexor-to-extensor and hip flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were analyzed. An analysis of variance showed that peak hip extensor torque was significantly greater in the anterior pelvic tilt condition compared to either neutral or posterior pelvic tilt angles (p > 0.05). No effects of changing pelvic tilt angle on hip flexor, knee flexor, or knee extension values were found (p > 0.05). The hip flexor-to-extensor torque ratio decreased (p < 0.05) in the anterior pelvic tilt position relative to the other positions, while no difference in the knee flexor-to-extensor ratio between pelvic positions was observed (p > 0.05). This study shows that an increased anterior pelvic tilt affects the maximum isokinetic strength of the hip extensors, supporting previous suggestions regarding the link between pelvic position and hip and knee muscle function. Isokinetic testing from an anterior pelvic tilt position may alter the evaluation of hip flexion/extension strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Mechanics)
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12 pages, 527 KiB  
Review
Surgical Outcomes and Complications of Custom-Made Prostheses in Upper Limb Oncological Reconstruction: A Systematic Review
by Camillo Fulchignoni, Silvia Pietramala, Ivo Lopez, Giovan Giuseppe Mazzella, Chiara Comisi, Carlo Perisano, Lorenzo Rocchi and Tommaso Greco
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020072 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Bone tumors of the upper limb are a common cause of bone pain and pathological fractures in both old and young populations. Surgical reconstruction and limb salvage have become valid options for these patients despite this kind of surgery being challenging due to [...] Read more.
Bone tumors of the upper limb are a common cause of bone pain and pathological fractures in both old and young populations. Surgical reconstruction and limb salvage have become valid options for these patients despite this kind of surgery being challenging due to the need for wide bone resection and the involvement of surrounding soft tissues. Computer-assisted technology helps the surgeon in pre-operative planning and in designing customized implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes and complications of custom-made prostheses in oncologic reconstruction of the upper limb and if they are reliable options for patients suffering from aggressive tumors. An electronic search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify all available articles on the use of custom-made prostheses in oncological resections of the upper limb. Twenty-one studies were included in the review, comprising a total of 145 patients with a mean age of 33.68 years. The bone involved was the humerus in 93 patients, and the radius was involved in 36 patients. There were only six cases involving proximal ulna, three cases involving the scapula, and seven cases involving the elbow as well as soft tissues around it. The most frequent primary tumor was the giant cell tumor, with 36 cases, followed by osteosarcoma with 25 cases, Ewing Sarcoma with 17 cases, and Chondrosarcoma with 7 total cases. Forty patients were affected by bone metastases (such as renal cell cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and rectal cancer) or hematologic diseases involving bone (lymphoma, myeloma, or non-Hodgkin disease). Custom-made prostheses are a viable option for patients who suffer from malignant tumors in their upper limbs. They are a reliable aid for surgeons in cases of extensive resections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Functional Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System)
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9 pages, 952 KiB  
Case Report
Safety of a Porous Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute in Orthopedics and Traumatology: A Multi-Centric Clinical Study
by Leo Massari, Achille Saracco, Sebastiano Marchesini, Edoardo Gambuti, Alessandro Delorenzi and Gaetano Caruso
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020071 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The development of biomaterials in recent years has made it possible to broaden their use in the surgical field. Although iliac crest bone graft harvesting currently remains the gold standard as an autograft, the properties of hydroxyapatite bone substitutes appear to be beneficial. [...] Read more.
The development of biomaterials in recent years has made it possible to broaden their use in the surgical field. Although iliac crest bone graft harvesting currently remains the gold standard as an autograft, the properties of hydroxyapatite bone substitutes appear to be beneficial. The first fundamental step to consider is the safety of using these devices. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study is to consider all the adverse events observed in our population and assess their relationships with the bone substitute device. The population analyzed consisted of patients undergoing trauma osteosynthesis with at least one implanted porous hydroxyapatite device. We considered a court of 114 patients treated at “Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Ferrara—U.O. di Ortopedia e Traumatologia” in the period from January 2015 to December 2022. Upon analyzing our population, no adverse events related to the device emerged. Taking into consideration different study groups from other National Hospital Centers, no critical issues were detected except for three cases of extrusion of the biomaterial. It is necessary to clarify that bone substitutes cannot replace compliance with the correct principles linked to the biomechanics of osteosynthesis. This report outlines a safety profile for the use of these devices as bone substitutes in trauma orthopedic surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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13 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
A Comparison between Core Stability Exercises and Muscle Thickness Using Two Different Activation Maneuvers
by Ioannis Tsartsapakis, Ioanna Bagioka, Flora Fountoukidou and Eleftherios Kellis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020070 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Core stability training is crucial for competitive athletes, individuals who want to improve their health and physical performance, and those undergoing clinical rehabilitation. This study compared the ultrasound (US) muscle thickness of the abdominals and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles between seven popular trunk [...] Read more.
Core stability training is crucial for competitive athletes, individuals who want to improve their health and physical performance, and those undergoing clinical rehabilitation. This study compared the ultrasound (US) muscle thickness of the abdominals and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles between seven popular trunk stability exercises performed using hollowing and bracing maneuvers. Forty-four healthy young adults, aged between 21 and 32 years, performed a plank, bird dog, beast crawl, dead bug, Pilates tap, bridge, and side planks using the bracing and the hollowing maneuver. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and LM muscles was measured simultaneously using two ultrasound machines. Analysis of variance designs indicated that during hollowing, the bird dog and side plank exercises resulted in the greatest increase in the muscle’s relative thickness overall. The relative thickness of all muscles was significantly greater (p < 0.001) during hollowing (22.7 ± 7.80 to 106 ± 24.5% of rest) compared to bracing (18.7 ± 7.40 to 87.1 ± 20.9% of rest). The TrA showed the greatest increase in thickness (p < 0.001) compared to the IO and LM. Additionally, the IO had a greater increase in thickness (p < 0.001) than the LM. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the bird dog and side plank exercises, when performed with hollowing, showed the most significant total muscle thickness increase. Notably, the hollowing maneuver enhances the thickness of the TrA, IO, and LM muscles more than the bracing maneuver. This contributes to the discussion on optimal strategies for dynamic core stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Functional Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System)
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11 pages, 1148 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Femur Mineral Content and Local Muscle Strength and Mass
by Bruno V. R. Ramos, Danilo A. Massini, Tiago A. F. Almeida, Eliane A. Castro, Mário C. Espada, Cátia C. Ferreira, Ricardo A. M. Robalo, Anderson G. Macedo and Dalton M. Pessôa Filho
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020069 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
Among the stimuli able to prevent early decreases in bone mineralization, exercise has a noticeable role per se as the source of mechanical stimulus or through lean tissue enlargement by its increasing of tensional stimulus. However, prevention strategies, including exercise, generally do not [...] Read more.
Among the stimuli able to prevent early decreases in bone mineralization, exercise has a noticeable role per se as the source of mechanical stimulus or through lean tissue enlargement by its increasing of tensional stimulus. However, prevention strategies, including exercise, generally do not establish the moment in life when attention should begin to be paid to bone integrity, according to age group- and sex-related differences. Thus, this study analyzed the relationship between variables from the diagnosis of total and regional body composition, muscle strength, and bone mineral content (BMC) of femurs in young adult males. Thirty-four young Caucasian men (24.9 ± 8.6 years) had their body composition and bone density assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The subjects performed a one-repetition maximum test (1-RM) in a bench press, front pulley, seated-row, push press, arm curl, triceps pulley, leg flexion, leg extension, and 45° leg press for the assessment of muscle strength in upper and lower limbs in single- and multi-joint exercises. Lean tissue mass in the trunk and upper and lower limbs were related to femoral BMC (Pearson coefficient ranging from 0.55 to 0.72, p < 0.01), and 1-RM values for different exercises involving both upper and lower limbs also correlated with femoral BMC (Pearson coefficients ranging from 0.34 to 0.46, p < 0.05). Taken together, these correlations suggest that muscle mass and strength are positively linked with the magnitude of femoral mass in men, even in early adulthood. Hence, the importance of an enhanced muscle mass and strength to the health of femoral bones in young adults was highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Mechanics)
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12 pages, 1035 KiB  
Article
Female Lower Body Muscle Forces: A Musculoskeletal Modeling Comparison of Back Squats, Split Squats and Good Mornings
by Jessica S. Jaeggi, Basil Achermann and Silvio R. Lorenzetti
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020068 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze lower leg muscle forces during strength exercises such as back squats, good mornings and split squats, with a particular emphasis on females. By focusing on females, who are more vulnerable to anterior cruciate ligament injuries, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze lower leg muscle forces during strength exercises such as back squats, good mornings and split squats, with a particular emphasis on females. By focusing on females, who are more vulnerable to anterior cruciate ligament injuries, we aimed to better understand muscle engagement and its role in injury prevention. Eight participants were monitored during exercises with a barbell load of 25% of body weight and, during the back squat, an additional 50% load. The analysis was conducted using personalized musculoskeletal models, electromyography (EMG) and Vicon motion capture systems to assess various muscle groups, including the m. gluteus maximus and m. gluteus medius, as well as the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. The back squat produced the highest forces for the quadriceps muscles, particularly the rectus femoris (>25 N/kg), as well as in the back leg during the split squat (>15 N/kg). The gluteal muscles were most active during good mornings and in the front leg of the split squat, especially the m. gluteus maximus medial part (>20 N/kg). The hamstrings generated the highest muscle forces in the front leg of the split squat, with the greatest forces observed in the m. semimembranosus. Our research highlights how musculoskeletal modeling helps us to understand the relationship among muscles, joint angles and anterior cruciate ligament injury risks, especially in strength training females. The results emphasize the need for personalized exercise guidance and customized models to make strength training safer and more effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Mechanics)
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11 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
Does Radial Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Applied to the Achilles Tendon Influence Ankle Functionality?
by Younglan Joo, Wonjae Choi, Jihye Jung, Hyunjoong Kim, Sungeon Park, Sangbong Lee and Seungwon Lee
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020067 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) in enhancing ankle function in patients with Achilles tendon injuries. The choice of rESWT was based on previous success in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The study involved an intervention [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) in enhancing ankle function in patients with Achilles tendon injuries. The choice of rESWT was based on previous success in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The study involved an intervention group that received rESWT, and a control group that received sham therapy. The results revealed that rESWT led to significant improvements in single-leg vertical jump (d = 0.55, p < 0.05), indicating enhanced power generation and ankle functionality that were not observed in the control group. Additionally, the therapy resulted in increased ankle mobility, as observed by improvements in plantar flexion and heel-rise tests. Interestingly, these functional gains were not accompanied by changes in the Achilles tendon stiffness, suggesting that the benefits of rESWT may be more functional than structural. This study highlights rESWT as a promising tool for rehabilitation, particularly following Achilles tendon injuries. The study concluded that, although rESWT appears to improve certain aspects of ankle function, further studies with a larger and more diverse population over a longer period are necessary to confirm these findings and establish comprehensive treatment protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy)
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10 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Net Heart Rate for Estimating Oxygen Consumption in Active Adults
by José A. Bragada, Pedro M. Magalhães, Eric São-Pedro, Raul F. Bartolomeu and Jorge E. Morais
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020066 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of predicting oxygen consumption (O2) in predominantly aerobic activities based on net heart rate (netHR), sex, and body mass index (BMI) in active adults. NetHR is the value of the difference [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of predicting oxygen consumption (O2) in predominantly aerobic activities based on net heart rate (netHR), sex, and body mass index (BMI) in active adults. NetHR is the value of the difference between the resting HR (HRrest) and the average HR value obtained during a given session or period of physical activity. These activities must be continuous, submaximal, and of a stabilized intensity. The magnitude of the netHR depends mainly on the intensity of the exercise. The HR is measured in beats per minute (bpm). A total of 156 participants, 52 women and 104 men, between the ages of 18 and 81, had their netHR and net oxygen intake (netVO2) assessed. There were 79 participants in group 1 (prediction sample) (52 males and 27 females). There were 77 people in group 2 (validation sample) (52 males and 25 females). The results of the multiple linear regression showed that netVO2 (R2 = 85.2%, SEE = 3.38) could be significantly predicted by sex (p < 0.001), netHR (p < 0.001), and BMI (p < 0.001). The Bland–Altman plots satisfied the agreement requirements, and the comparison of the measured and estimated netVO2 revealed non-significant differences with a trivial effect size. We calculated the formula NetVO2 (mL/(kg·min)) = 16 + 3.67 (sex) + 0.27 (netHR) − 0.57 (BMI) to predict netVO2, where netVO2 is the amount of oxygen uptake (mL/(kg·min)) above the resting value, netHR is the heart rate (beats per minute) above the resting value measured during exercise, sex is equal to zero for women and one for men, and BMI is the body mass index. In addition, based on the knowledge of VO2, it was possible to estimate the energy expenditure from a particular training session, and to determine or prescribe the exercise intensity in MET (metabolic equivalent of task). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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10 pages, 1485 KiB  
Communication
Mechanical and Contractile Properties of Knee Joint Muscles after Sports-Related Concussions in Women Footballers
by Georgios Kakavas, Athanasios Tsiokanos, Michael Potoupnis and Panagiotis V. Tsaklis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020065 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if women footballers have an increased lack of neuromuscular control of the knee joint after a concussion compared to a healthy cohort tested with tensiomyography (TMG). Forty-one female collegiate footballers were enrolled in this study [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine if women footballers have an increased lack of neuromuscular control of the knee joint after a concussion compared to a healthy cohort tested with tensiomyography (TMG). Forty-one female collegiate footballers were enrolled in this study from which there were 20 with a history of sports-related concussions (SRCs) and 21 control subjects. Results from the SRC group had significantly higher Tc (ms) (z = −5.478, p = 0.000) and significantly lower Dm (mm) (z = −3.835, p = 0.000) than the control group in the case of the rectus femoris muscle. The SRC group had significantly higher Tc (ms) (z = −2.348, p = 0.016) and significantly lower Dm (mm) (z = −4.776, p = 0.000) than the control group in the case of the vastus medialis muscle. The SRC group had significantly higher Tc (ms) (z = −5.400, p = 0.000) and significantly lower Dm (mm) (z = −4.971, p = 0.000) than the control group in the case of the vastus lateralis muscle. The SRC group had significantly higher Tc (ms) (z = −5.349, p = 0.000) than the control group in the case of the biceps femoris muscle response, whereas no significant difference was found in Dm (mm) (z = −0.198, p = 0.853) between the groups. The results of the current study may have implications for current practice standards regarding the evaluation and management of concussions and can add valuable information for knee prevention programs as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Neurodegenerative Disease 2.0)
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10 pages, 640 KiB  
Article
Muscle Ultrasound Echo Intensity and Fiber Type Composition in Young Females
by Gerasimos Terzis, Eftychia Vekaki, Constantinos Papadopoulos, Giorgos Papadimas and Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020064 - 5 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Ultrasonography has been extensively used to evaluate skeletal muscle morphology. The echo intensity, i.e., the mean pixel intensity of a specific region of interest in an ultrasound image, may vary among muscles and individuals with several intramuscular parameters presumed to influence it. The [...] Read more.
Ultrasonography has been extensively used to evaluate skeletal muscle morphology. The echo intensity, i.e., the mean pixel intensity of a specific region of interest in an ultrasound image, may vary among muscles and individuals with several intramuscular parameters presumed to influence it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between muscle echo intensity and muscle fiber type composition in humans. Thirteen female physical education students (age: 22.3 ± 5.4 years, height: 1.63 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 59.9 ± 7.4 kg) with no history of systematic athletic training participated in the study. Body composition with dual X-ray absorptiometry, leg-press maximum strength (1-RM), echo intensity, and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle according to ultrasonography were measured. Muscle biopsies were harvested from the VL site where the echo intensity was measured. VL echo intensity was not significantly correlated with the percentage of type I muscle fibers or with the percentage area of type I muscle fibers. However, when VL echo intensity was corrected for the subcutaneous fat thickness at the site of the measurement, it was significantly correlated with the percentage of type I muscle fibers (r = 0.801, p < 0.01) and the percentage area of type I muscle fibers (r = 0.852, p < 0.01). These results suggest that the echo intensity of the vastus lateralis muscle corrected for the subcutaneous fat thickness at the measurement site may provide an estimate of the muscle fiber type composition, at least in young moderately trained females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Mechanics)
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Review
Assessing the Effects and Challenges of Total Hip Arthroplasty before Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Systematic Review
by Athanasios Galanis, Stefania Dimopoulou, Panagiotis Karampinas, Elias Vasiliadis, Angelos Kaspiris, Evangelos Sakellariou, Christos Vlachos, Michail Vavourakis, Eftychios Papagrigorakis, Vasileios Marougklianis, Georgios Tsalimas, Dimitrios Zachariou, Christos Patilas, Iordanis Varsamos, Ioannis Kolovos and John Vlamis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020063 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 957
Abstract
Total hip arthroplasty is indubitably one of the most performed operations worldwide. On the other hand, especially in the western world, the average age that women get pregnant has raised confoundedly. Consequently, a steadily increasing number of women become pregnant after they had [...] Read more.
Total hip arthroplasty is indubitably one of the most performed operations worldwide. On the other hand, especially in the western world, the average age that women get pregnant has raised confoundedly. Consequently, a steadily increasing number of women become pregnant after they had hip arthroplasty surgery, with copious potential implications. The amount of knowledge on this particular field is considered inadequate in the existing literature. This paper aims to augment clinicians understanding surrounding this topic. A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Papers from various computerized databases were scrutinized. Article selection was carried out by three authors independently employing specific pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, while disagreements were elucidated with the contribution of other authors. A patently limited number of research articles were detected from our rigorous literature review, with only 12 papers meeting the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were small-scale and examined confined population groups. Most studies had been performed in Finland, utilizing data from nationwide registries. Women with previous history of total hip arthroplasty feature increased rates of c-section delivery, although vaginal labor can be attempted with certain precautions. Hip implants’ survival does not appear to be affected from gestation, which is predominately well-tolerated from these women. Metal ion circulation in mothers’ blood has not been proven to trigger substantial complications concerning either mothers or offspring. It can be considered safe for women with such medical history to get pregnant; however, further multinational studies and pertinent research on this field are vital to attain more solid inferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Functional Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System)
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