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Instruments, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The search for a novel technology for the detection and study of recoil events with the energy of a few keV has become more and more important now that large regions of high-mass dark matter (DM) candidates have been excluded. Moreover, a detector sensitive to the direction of incoming particles will open the possibility of studying DM properties in the case of its discovery. The CYGNO experiment is developing optically readout gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) to exploit the high sensitivity and granularity of the latest-generation active pixel CMOS sensors for the study of rare events as interactions of DM or solar neutrinos. A one cubic meter demonstrator is being installed underground at Gran Sasso Laboratory in 2022/2023, aiming at a larger scale apparatus (30 m3–100 m3) at a later stage. View this paper
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9 pages, 7344 KiB  
Article
AGILE: Development of a Compact, Low-Power, Low-Cost, and On-Board Detector for Ion Identification and Energy Measurement
by Florian Gautier
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010016 - 8 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2256
Abstract
An AGILE (Advanced enerGetic Ion eLectron tElescope) instrument is being developed at the University of Kansas and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to be launched on board a CubeSat in 2022. The AGILE instrument aims to identify a large variety of ions (H-Fe) [...] Read more.
An AGILE (Advanced enerGetic Ion eLectron tElescope) instrument is being developed at the University of Kansas and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to be launched on board a CubeSat in 2022. The AGILE instrument aims to identify a large variety of ions (H-Fe) in a wide energy range (1–100 MeV/nucl) in real-time using fast silicon detectors and fast read-out electronics. This can be achieved by the first use of real-time Pulse Shape Discrimination in space instrumentation. This method of discrimination relies on specific amplitude and time characteristics of the signals sampled every 100 ps and produced by ions that stop in the detector medium. AGILE will be able to observe, in situ, the fluxes of a large variety of particles in a wide energy range to advance our knowledge of the fundamental processes in the universe. This work presents the current stage of development of the instrument, the discrimination method used through the performed simulations, and the first results from lab tests using an Am-241 source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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17 pages, 1851 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Laser Systems at 1550 nm Wavelength for Future Gravitational Wave Detectors
by Fabian Meylahn and Benno Willke
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010015 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
The continuous improvement of current gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) and the preparations for next generation GWDs place high demands on their stabilized laser sources. Some of the laser sources need to operate at laser wavelengths between 1.5 μm and 2.2 μm [...] Read more.
The continuous improvement of current gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) and the preparations for next generation GWDs place high demands on their stabilized laser sources. Some of the laser sources need to operate at laser wavelengths between 1.5 μm and 2.2 μm to support future detectors based on cooled silicon test masses for thermal noise reduction. We present detailed characterizations of different commercial low power seed laser sources and power amplifiers at the wavelength of 1550 nm with respect to performance parameters needed in GWDs. A combination with the most complete set of actuators was arranged as a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA), integrated into a stabilization environment and characterized. We present the results of this characterization that make this stabilized MOPA a highly relevant prototype for future GWDs as well as a low noise light source for other experiments in high precision metrology. Full article
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14 pages, 5911 KiB  
Article
The Development of SiPM-Based Fast Time-of-Flight Detector for the AMS-100 Experiment in Space
by Chanhoon Chung, Theresa Backes, Clemens Dittmar, Waclaw Karpinski, Thomas Kirn, Daniel Louis, Georg Schwering, Michael Wlochal and Stefan Schael
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010014 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3046
Abstract
AMS-100 is the next-generation high-energy cosmic-ray experiment in Space. It is designed as a magnetic spectrometer with a geometrical acceptance of 100 m2 · sr to be operated for ten years at the Sun–Earth Lagrange Point 2. Its Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector is [...] Read more.
AMS-100 is the next-generation high-energy cosmic-ray experiment in Space. It is designed as a magnetic spectrometer with a geometrical acceptance of 100 m2 · sr to be operated for ten years at the Sun–Earth Lagrange Point 2. Its Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector is a crucial sub-detector for the main trigger and the particle identification constructed from individual scintillation counters. A fast time measurement with a resolution of 20 ps for a single counter is required to cover wide energy ranges for particle identification. A prototype counter has been designed based on a fast plastic scintillator tile readout by two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). An amplifier board was built to merge 16 SiPM channels into four readout channels in a hybrid connection. The signals are read out by a fast waveform digitizer. The timing performance was studied with electrons from a 90Sr source. A time resolution of 40 ps for a single counter has been achieved. Various operational and environmental conditions have been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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12 pages, 8658 KiB  
Article
Performance of the FASTPIX Sub-Nanosecond CMOS Pixel Sensor Demonstrator
by Justus Braach, Eric Buschmann, Dominik Dannheim, Katharina Dort, Thanushan Kugathasan, Magdalena Munker, Walter Snoeys and Mateus Vicente
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010013 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Within the ATTRACT FASTPIX project, a monolithic pixel sensor demonstrator chip has been developed in a modified 180 nm CMOS imaging process, targeting sub-nanosecond timing measurements for single ionizing particles. It features a small collection electrode design on a 25 micron thick [...] Read more.
Within the ATTRACT FASTPIX project, a monolithic pixel sensor demonstrator chip has been developed in a modified 180 nm CMOS imaging process, targeting sub-nanosecond timing measurements for single ionizing particles. It features a small collection electrode design on a 25 micron thick epitaxial layer and contains 32 mini matrices of 68 hexagonal pixels each, with pixel pitches ranging from 8.66 to 20 micron. Four pixels are transmitting an analog output signal and 64 are transmitting binary hit information. Various design variations are explored, aiming at accelerating the charge collection and making the timing of the charge collection more uniform over the pixel area. Signal treatment of the analog waveforms, as well as reconstruction of time and charge information, is carried out off-chip. This contribution introduces the design of the sensor and readout system and presents the first performance results for 10 μm and 20 μm pixel pitch achieved in measurements with particle beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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9 pages, 10715 KiB  
Article
Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon Pixel Detector
by Christopher Betancourt, Dario De Simone, Gregor Kramberger, Maria Manna, Giulio Pellegrini and Nicola Serra
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010012 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
We report on the measurements of time resolution for double-sided 3D pixel sensors with a single cell of 50 μm × 50 μm and thickness of 285 μm, fabricated at IMB-CNM and irradiated with reactor neutrons from 8 [...] Read more.
We report on the measurements of time resolution for double-sided 3D pixel sensors with a single cell of 50 μm × 50 μm and thickness of 285 μm, fabricated at IMB-CNM and irradiated with reactor neutrons from 8 ×1014 1MeV neq/cm2 to 1.0 ×1016 1MeV neq/cm2. The time resolution measurements were conducted using a radioactive source at a temperature of −20 and 20 °C in a bias voltage range of 50–250 V. The reference time was provided by a low gain avalanche detector produced by Hamamatsu. The results are compared to measurements conducted prior to irradiation where a temporal resolution of about 50 ps was measured. These are the first ever timing measurements on an irradiated 3D sensor and which serve as a basis for understanding their performance and to explore the possibility of performing 4D tracking in high radiation environments, such as the innermost tracking layers of future high energy physics experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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10 pages, 5848 KiB  
Article
Multichannel Time Synchronization Based on PTP through a High Voltage Isolation Buffer Network Interface for Thick-GEM Detectors
by Luis Guillermo García Ordóñez, Maria Liz Crespo, Sergio Carrato, Andres Cicuttin, Werner Oswaldo Florian Samayoa, Daniele D’Ago and Stefano Levorato
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010011 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Data logging and complex algorithm implementations acting on multichannel systems with independent devices require the use of time synchronization. In the case of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Thick-GEM (THGEM) detectors, the biasing potential can be generated at the detector level via DC [...] Read more.
Data logging and complex algorithm implementations acting on multichannel systems with independent devices require the use of time synchronization. In the case of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) and Thick-GEM (THGEM) detectors, the biasing potential can be generated at the detector level via DC to DC converters operating at floating voltage. In this case, high voltage isolation buffers may be used to allow communication between the different channels. However, their use add non-negligible delays in the transmission channel, complicating the synchronization. Implementation of a simplified precise time protocol is presented for handling the synchronization on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) side of a Xilinx SoC Zynq ZC7Z030. The synchronization is done through a high voltage isolated bidirectional network interface built on a custom board attached to a commercial CIAA_ACC carrier. The results of the synchronization are shown through oscilloscope captures measuring the time drift over long periods of time, achieving synchronization in the order of nanoseconds. Full article
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12 pages, 929 KiB  
Article
Beyond the N-Limit of the Least Squares Resolution and the Lucky Model
by Gregorio Landi and Giovanni E. Landi
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010010 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
A very simple Gaussian model is used to illustrate an interesting fitting result: a linear growth of the resolution with the number N of detecting layers. This rule is well beyond the well-known rule proportional to N for the resolution of the usual [...] Read more.
A very simple Gaussian model is used to illustrate an interesting fitting result: a linear growth of the resolution with the number N of detecting layers. This rule is well beyond the well-known rule proportional to N for the resolution of the usual fits. The effect is obtained with the appropriate form of the variance for each hit (observation). The model reconstructs straight tracks with N parallel detecting layers, the track direction is the selected parameter to test the resolution. The results of the Gaussian model are compared with realistic simulations of silicon micro-strip detectors. These realistic simulations suggest an easy method to select the essential weights for the fit: the lucky model. Preliminary results of the lucky model show an excellent reproduction of the linear growth of the resolution, very similar to that given by realistic simulations. The maximum likelihood evaluations complete this exploration of the growth in resolution. Full article
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8 pages, 11906 KiB  
Article
First 3D Printed IH-Type Linac Structure—Proof-of-Concept for Additive Manufacturing of Linac RF Cavities
by Hendrik Hähnel and Ulrich Ratzinger
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010009 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM or “3D printing”) has become a powerful tool for the rapid prototyping and manufacturing of complex part geometries. Especially interesting for the world of particle accelerators is the process of the 3D printing of stainless steel (and copper) parts. We [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM or “3D printing”) has become a powerful tool for the rapid prototyping and manufacturing of complex part geometries. Especially interesting for the world of particle accelerators is the process of the 3D printing of stainless steel (and copper) parts. We present a first prototype of a 433 MHz IH-type linac cavity with an internal drift tube structure manufactured by metal 3D printing. The prototype cavity has been constructed to act as a proof-of-concept for the technology. In this paper we present the concept of the cavity as well as first results of vacuum testing and materials testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Particle Accelerator Instrumentation)
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2 pages, 206 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Instruments in 2021
by Instruments Editorial Office
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010008 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
11 pages, 2248 KiB  
Article
Development of an MCP-Based Timing Layer for the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2
by Stefano Perazzini, Fabio Ferrari, Vincenzo Maria Vagnoni and on behalf of the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2 R&D Group
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010007 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
The increase in instantaneous luminosity during the high-luminosity phase of the LHC represents a significant challenge for future detectors. A strategy to cope with high-pileup conditions is to add a fourth dimension to the measurements of the hits, by exploiting the time separation [...] Read more.
The increase in instantaneous luminosity during the high-luminosity phase of the LHC represents a significant challenge for future detectors. A strategy to cope with high-pileup conditions is to add a fourth dimension to the measurements of the hits, by exploiting the time separation of the various proton–proton primary collisions. According to LHCb simulation studies, resolutions of about 10–20 picoseconds, at least an order of magnitude shorter than the average time span between primary interactions, would be greatly beneficial for the physics reach of the experiment. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers are compact devices capable of measuring the arrival time of charged particles with the required resolution. The technology of large-area picosecond photodetectors (LAPPDs) is under investigation to implement a timing layer that can be placed within a sampling calorimeter module with the purpose of measuring the arrival time of electromagnetic showers. LAPPD performances, using a Gen-I tile with a delay-line anode and a Gen-II with a capacitively coupled anode, have been measured thoroughly both with laser (wavelength of 405 nm and pulse width of 27.5 ps FWHM) and high-energy electron (1–5.8 GeV) beams. Time resolutions of the order of 30 ps for single photoelectrons and 15 ps for electromagnetic showers initiated by 5-GeV electrons, as measured at the shower maximum, are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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30 pages, 8933 KiB  
Article
The CYGNO Experiment
by Fernando Domingues Amaro, Elisabetta Baracchini, Luigi Benussi, Stefano Bianco, Cesidio Capoccia, Michele Caponero, Danilo Santos Cardoso, Gianluca Cavoto, André Cortez, Igor Abritta Costa, Rita Joanna da Cruz Roque, Emiliano Dané, Giorgio Dho, Flaminia Di Giambattista, Emanuele Di Marco, Giovanni Grilli di Cortona, Giulia D’Imperio, Francesco Iacoangeli, Herman Pessoa Lima Júnior, Guilherme Sebastiao Pinheiro Lopes, Amaro da Silva Lopes Júnior, Giovanni Maccarrone, Rui Daniel Passos Mano, Michela Marafini, Robert Renz Marcelo Gregorio, David José Gaspar Marques, Giovanni Mazzitelli, Alasdair Gregor McLean, Andrea Messina, Cristina Maria Bernardes Monteiro, Rafael Antunes Nobrega, Igor Fonseca Pains, Emiliano Paoletti, Luciano Passamonti, Sandro Pelosi, Fabrizio Petrucci, Stefano Piacentini, Davide Piccolo, Daniele Pierluigi, Davide Pinci, Atul Prajapati, Francesco Renga, Filippo Rosatelli, Alessandro Russo, Joaquim Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Giovanna Saviano, Neil John Curwen Spooner, Roberto Tesauro, Sandro Tomassini and Samuele Torelliadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010006 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4520
Abstract
The search for a novel technology able to detect and reconstruct nuclear and electron recoil events with the energy of a few keV has become more and more important now that large regions of high-mass dark matter (DM) candidates have been excluded. Moreover, [...] Read more.
The search for a novel technology able to detect and reconstruct nuclear and electron recoil events with the energy of a few keV has become more and more important now that large regions of high-mass dark matter (DM) candidates have been excluded. Moreover, a detector sensitive to incoming particle direction will be crucial in the case of DM discovery to open the possibility of studying its properties. Gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) with optical readout are very promising detectors combining the detailed event information provided by the TPC technique with the high sensitivity and granularity of latest-generation scientific light sensors. The CYGNO experiment (a CYGNus module with Optical readout) aims to exploit the optical readout approach of multiple-GEM structures in large volume TPCs for the study of rare events as interactions of low-mass DM or solar neutrinos. The combined use of high-granularity sCMOS cameras and fast light sensors allows the reconstruction of the 3D direction of the tracks, offering good energy resolution and very high sensitivity in the few keV energy range, together with a very good particle identification useful for distinguishing nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. This experiment is part of the CYGNUS proto-collaboration, which aims at constructing a network of underground observatories for directional DM search. A one cubic meter demonstrator is expected to be built in 2022/23 aiming at a larger scale apparatus (30 m3–100 m3) at a later stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Experimental Techniques for Direct Dark Matter Detection)
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5 pages, 909 KiB  
Communication
A Hard Copper Open X-Band RF Accelerating Structure Made by Two Halves
by Bruno Spataro, Mostafa Behtouei, Fabio Cardelli, Martina Carillo, Valery Dolgashev, Luigi Faillace, Mauro Migliorati and Luigi Palumbo
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010005 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
This communication focuses on the technological developments aiming to show the viability of novel welding techniques [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Particle Accelerator Instrumentation)
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11 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
Compact LWFA-Based Extreme Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser: Design Constraints
by Alexander Yu. Molodozhentsev and Konstantin O. Kruchinin
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010004 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
The combination of advanced high-power laser technology, new acceleration methods and achievements in undulator development offers the opportunity to build compact, high-brilliance free electron lasers driven by a laser wakefield accelerator. Here, we present a simulation study outlining the main requirements for the [...] Read more.
The combination of advanced high-power laser technology, new acceleration methods and achievements in undulator development offers the opportunity to build compact, high-brilliance free electron lasers driven by a laser wakefield accelerator. Here, we present a simulation study outlining the main requirements for the laser–plasma-based extreme ultraviolet free electron laser setup with the aim to reach saturation of the photon pulse energy in a single unit of a commercially available undulator with the deflection parameter K0 in the range of 1–1.5. A dedicated electron beam transport strategy that allows control of the electron beam slice parameters, including collective effects, required by the self-amplified spontaneous emission regime is proposed. Finally, a set of coherent photon radiation parameters achievable in the undulator section utilizing the best experimentally demonstrated electron beam parameters are analyzed. As a result, we demonstrate that the ultra-short, few-fs-level pulse of the photon radiation with the wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet range can be obtained with the peak brilliance of ∼7×1028 photons/pulse/mm2/mrad2/0.1%bw. Full article
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8 pages, 1823 KiB  
Article
Experimental Determination of Excitation Function Curves through the Measurement of Thick Target Yields in Liquid Targets: The Examples of the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and 64Zn(p,α)61Cu Nuclear Reactions
by Sergio J. C. do Carmo and Francisco Alves
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010003 - 7 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2332
Abstract
The present work describes a method to determine excitation function curves and, therefore, cross-sections, making use of the irradiation of liquid targets at distinct energies in a biomedical cyclotron. The method relies on the derivative of experimentally measured thick target yield curves to [...] Read more.
The present work describes a method to determine excitation function curves and, therefore, cross-sections, making use of the irradiation of liquid targets at distinct energies in a biomedical cyclotron. The method relies on the derivative of experimentally measured thick target yield curves to determine the corresponding excitation function curves. The technique is presented as a valid and practical alternative to the commonly used activation method combined with the stack monitor technique, whose implementation in liquid targets offers practical difficulties. The working principle is exemplified by presenting the results obtained for the clinically relevant 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and the 64Zn(p,α)61Cu nuclear reactions, obtained though the irradiation of liquid targets containing dissolved natural zinc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Applications of Particle Physics)
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20 pages, 6826 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Irradiated Boron, Carbon-Enriched and Gallium Si-on-Si Wafer Low Gain Avalanche Detectors
by Lucía Castillo García, Evangelos Leonidas Gkougkousis, Chiara Grieco and Sebastian Grinstein
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010002 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are n-on-p silicon sensors with an extra doped p-layer below the n-p junction which provides signal amplification. The moderate gain of these sensors, together with the relatively thin active region, provides excellent timing performance for Minimum Ionizing Particles [...] Read more.
Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are n-on-p silicon sensors with an extra doped p-layer below the n-p junction which provides signal amplification. The moderate gain of these sensors, together with the relatively thin active region, provides excellent timing performance for Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs). To mitigate the effect of pile-up during the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) era, both ATLAS and CMS experiments will install new detectors, the High-Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) and the End-Cap Timing Layer (ETL), that rely on the LGAD technology. A full characterization of LGAD sensors fabricated by Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM), before and after neutron irradiation up to 1015 neq/cm2, is presented. Sensors produced in 100 mm Si-on-Si wafers and doped with boron and gallium, and also enriched with carbon, are studied. The results include their electrical characterization (I-V, C-V), bias voltage stability and performance studies with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and a Sr-90 radioactive source setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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13 pages, 1187 KiB  
Article
Impact of Superconductors’ Properties on the Measurement Sensitivity of Resonant-Based Axion Detectors
by Andrea Alimenti, Kostiantyn Torokhtii, Daniele Di Gioacchino, Claudio Gatti, Enrico Silva and Nicola Pompeo
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010001 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Axions, hypothetical particles theorised to solve the strong CP problem, are presently being considered as strong candidates for cold dark matter constituents. The signal power of resonant-based axion detectors, known as haloscopes, is directly proportional to their quality factor Q. In this [...] Read more.
Axions, hypothetical particles theorised to solve the strong CP problem, are presently being considered as strong candidates for cold dark matter constituents. The signal power of resonant-based axion detectors, known as haloscopes, is directly proportional to their quality factor Q. In this paper, the impact of the use of superconductors on the performances of haloscopes is studied by evaluating the obtainable Q. In particular, the surface resistance Rs of NbTi, Nb3Sn, YBa2Cu3O7δ, and FeSe0.5Te0.5 is computed in the frequency, magnetic field, and temperature ranges of interest, starting from the measured vortex motion complex resistivity and the screening lengths of these materials. From Rs, the quality factor Q of a cylindrical haloscope with copper conical bases and a superconductive lateral wall, operating with the TM010 mode, is evaluated and used to perform a comparison of the performances of the different materials. Both YBa2Cu3O7δ and FeSe0.5Te0.5 are shown to improve the measurement sensitivity by almost an order of magnitude, with respect to a whole Cu cavity, while NbTi is shown to be suitable only at lower frequencies (<10 GHz). Nb3Sn can provide an intermediate improvement of the whole spectrum of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Experimental Techniques for Direct Dark Matter Detection)
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