# Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon Pixel Detector

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Experimental Setup

#### 2.2. Waveform Analysis

## 3. Results

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Schematic view from top of a single cell structure (

**left**). Cross section of a single cell structure (

**right**) [4].

**Figure 4.**An example of the waveform from an LGAD (B) and 3D detector (B). The red lines indicate the CFD threshold value and corresponding timestamp on the signal.

**Figure 5.**Distribution of $\Delta t$ in the configuration with two LGADs at −20 °C (

**left**). Distribution of $\Delta t$ in the configuration 3D-LGAD (

**right**) with the 3D detector irradiated at a fluence of 1.0 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{16}$${n}_{eq}$, at a temperature of −20 °C for a bias voltage of 150 V.

**Figure 7.**Time resolution vs. fluence for different bias voltages at 20 °C.

**Top**: ${\sigma}_{3D}$,

**middle**: ${\sigma}_{wf}$, and

**bottom**: ${\sigma}_{j}$.

**Figure 8.**Time resolution vs. fluence for different bias voltages at −20 °C.

**Top**: ${\sigma}_{3D}$,

**middle**: ${\sigma}_{wf}$, and

**bottom**: ${\sigma}_{j}$.

**Figure 9.**Time resolution ${\sigma}_{3D}$ vs. bias voltage at 20 and −20 °C for 1.0 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{16}$${n}_{eq}$.

8 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{14}$ ${n}_{eq}$ |

2.3 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{15}$ ${n}_{eq}$ |

4.8 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{15}$ ${n}_{eq}$ |

1.0 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{16}$ ${n}_{eq}$ |

Temp. (°C) | CFD (%) | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\mathit{LGAD}}$ (ps) |
---|---|---|

+20 | 14 | 38.0 ± 0.7 |

−20 | 14 | 35.3 ± 0.9 |

+20 °C | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{3\mathit{D}}$ (ps) | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\mathit{w}\mathit{f}}$ (ps) | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\mathit{j}}$ (ps) |
---|---|---|---|

not irradiated | 62 ± 6 | 55 ± 6 | 29 ± 5 |

2.3 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{15}$ n${}_{eq}$ | 51 ± 4 | 43 ± 3 | 28 ± 5 |

4.8 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{15}$ n${}_{eq}$ | 59 ± 5 | 53 ± 3 | 26 ± 5 |

1.0 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{16}$ n${}_{eq}$ | 80 ± 5 | 68 ± 2 | 22 ± 4 |

−20 °C | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\mathit{3}\mathit{D}}$(ps) | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\mathit{w}\mathit{f}}$(ps) | ${\mathit{\sigma}}_{\mathit{j}}$(ps) |

not irradiated | 52 ± 6 | 43 ± 6 | 29 ± 4 |

2.3 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{15}$ ${n}_{eq}$ | 33 ± 2 | 24 ± 3 | 22 ± 5 |

4.8 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{15}$ ${n}_{eq}$ | 47 ± 2 | 40 ± 3 | 26 ± 5 |

1.0 $\times \phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{10}^{16}$ ${n}_{eq}$ | 45 ± 2 | 40 ± 2 | 20 ± 4 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Betancourt, C.; De Simone, D.; Kramberger, G.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Serra, N. Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon Pixel Detector. *Instruments* **2022**, *6*, 12.
https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010012

**AMA Style**

Betancourt C, De Simone D, Kramberger G, Manna M, Pellegrini G, Serra N. Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon Pixel Detector. *Instruments*. 2022; 6(1):12.
https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010012

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Betancourt, Christopher, Dario De Simone, Gregor Kramberger, Maria Manna, Giulio Pellegrini, and Nicola Serra. 2022. "Time Resolution of an Irradiated 3D Silicon Pixel Detector" *Instruments* 6, no. 1: 12.
https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010012