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Safety, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 17 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Auditory hazard warning systems have been found to improve distracted young and inexperienced [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Hybrid Sensor Technology in Winter Road Assessment
Safety 2020, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010017 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Road conditions during the winter months in Nordic countries can be highly unstable. Slippery roads combined with heavy haul traffic and ordinary road users can create dangerous, even lethal, situations if road maintenance is unsuccessful. Accidents and critical road conditions may lead to [...] Read more.
Road conditions during the winter months in Nordic countries can be highly unstable. Slippery roads combined with heavy haul traffic and ordinary road users can create dangerous, even lethal, situations if road maintenance is unsuccessful. Accidents and critical road conditions may lead to blocked roads, putting strain on a limited number of main roads in many regions, and may in the worst case isolate areas entirely. Using sensors in winter road assessment has been a popular topic for over 20 years. However, with today’s developments connected to smaller and cheaper sensors, new opportunities are presenting themselves. In this study, we performed preliminary experiments on a variety of sensors, both commercial and experimental, to evaluate their benefits in possible hybrid sensor technology, which can give a more complete characterization of the road surface than what is possible from just one sensor. From the collected data and visual analysis of the results, the idea of a hybrid sensor seems promising when considering the differences in the tested sensors and how they may complement each other. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research Engagement Changes Attitudes and Behaviours towards Agrichemical Safety in Australian Farmers
Safety 2020, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010016 - 12 Mar 2020
Viewed by 964
Abstract
There is limited research that evaluates the effect of farmer involvement in agrichemical exposure surveillance on their attitudes and behaviour towards pesticide handling and use of personal protective equipment. This limited follow-up study aimed to (i) evaluate attitudes/behaviours towards the use of personal [...] Read more.
There is limited research that evaluates the effect of farmer involvement in agrichemical exposure surveillance on their attitudes and behaviour towards pesticide handling and use of personal protective equipment. This limited follow-up study aimed to (i) evaluate attitudes/behaviours towards the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among farmers who participated in the In-Field Personalised Cholinesterase Assessment Project (PCAP) (2016/17); and (ii) qualitatively assess the effect of monthly presentation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) testing results on farmer agrichemical safety practices and behaviours prior to, and following participation in PCAP. This study surveyed 42 farming men and women, asking questions about agrichemical usage and hygiene practices. The majority of surveyed farmers’ self-apply agrichemicals on their farm (97.6%), with 81% reporting that involvement in PCAP research changed the way they handled Organophosphates (OPs)—a widely used insecticide in agriculture. By enabling people to think critically about their exposure, there was a 66% increase in frequency of respirator usage post-PCAP. Following this, participants were invited to take part in one-on-one interviews to further discuss their involvement in PCAP. Many responses were positive, with participants stating they were more aware and cautious of their own practices. This study determined that research participation and point-of-care testing and education can result in effective engagement of farmers and farm workers, increase health literacy and change farming practice—highlighting the importance of an interactive, participatory model in order to bring about change, to reduce possible pesticide exposures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Pressure Hydrogen Sulfide Experiments: How Did Our Safety Measures and Hazard Control Work during a Failure Event?
Safety 2020, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010015 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazardous, colorless, flammable gas with a distinct rotten-egg smell at low concentration. Exposure to a concentration greater than 500 ppm of H2S can result in irreversible health problems and death within minutes. Because of [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazardous, colorless, flammable gas with a distinct rotten-egg smell at low concentration. Exposure to a concentration greater than 500 ppm of H2S can result in irreversible health problems and death within minutes. Because of these hazards, operations such as oil and gas processing and sewage treatment that handle or produce H2S and/or sour gas require effective and well-designed hazard controls, as well as state-of-the-art gas monitoring/detection mechanisms for the safety of workers and the public. Laboratories studying H2S for improved understanding must also develop and continually improve upon lab-specific safety standards with unique detection systems. In this study, we discuss various H2S detection methods and hazard control strategies. Also, we share our experience regarding a leak that occurred as a result of the failure of a perfluoroelastomer O-ring seal on a small stirred autoclave vessel used for studying H2S hydrate dissociation/formation conditions in our laboratory, and discuss how our emergency response plan was activated to mitigate the risk of exposure to the researchers and public. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Assessment of Safety Culture: An Integrated Modeling Approach
Safety 2020, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010014 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to apply structural equation modeling (SEM) integrated with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach to model the safety culture of the petrochemical industry of Japan. Workers from five companies located in the Chugoku region of [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to apply structural equation modeling (SEM) integrated with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach to model the safety culture of the petrochemical industry of Japan. Workers from five companies located in the Chugoku region of Japan completed a paper-based survey distributed by email. SEM and ANFIS methods were integrated in order to identify and model the important factors of the safety culture. The results of SEM indicate that employee attitudes toward safety, coworker’s support, work pressure, and plant safety management systems were significant factors influencing violation behavior, personnel safety motivation, and personnel error behavior. Furthermore, the application of the ANFIS modeling approach showed that employees’ attitude was the most critical predictor of violation behavior and personnel error behavior, while coworkers support was the most critical predictor in modeling personnel safety motivation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Commuters’ Single-Bicycle Crashes in Insurance Data
Safety 2020, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010013 - 16 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2050
Abstract
In order to maximize the public health benefits of cycling, the negative impacts of cycling, such as the number and types of crashes, should be identified. Single-bicycle crashes, in which other road users are not collided with, are one of the main safety [...] Read more.
In order to maximize the public health benefits of cycling, the negative impacts of cycling, such as the number and types of crashes, should be identified. Single-bicycle crashes, in which other road users are not collided with, are one of the main safety concerns in cycling, but comprehensive knowledge on these crashes is not available due to poor data sources. This study aimed to identify characteristics of commuters’ single-bicycle crashes in Finland. Firstly, insurance data covering 9268 commuter bicycle crashes in 2016 and 2017 were analyzed to find single-bicycle crashes. The insurance data are based on self-reported crashes. In total, 3448 single-bicycle crashes were found with crash descriptions that were informative enough for investigation of their characteristics. According to the results, 62.9% (95% confidence interval +/− 1.6%) of the crashes were related to the infrastructure. In the majority of infrastructure-related crashes, the road surface was slippery. The slippery road surface was typically due to icy or snowy conditions. The lack of proper data complicates the recognition of single-bicycle crashes, and hence policy actions and research projects are needed to develop better data sources for proper investigation of cycling safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Hazard Warning Systems to Improve Young Distracted Drivers’ Hazard Perception Skills
Safety 2020, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010012 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Texting while driving has been shown to impair driving performance with the greatest probability of leading to an accident. This is a great concern with young and inexperienced drivers, who are reported to be the most prolific users of texting while driving and [...] Read more.
Texting while driving has been shown to impair driving performance with the greatest probability of leading to an accident. This is a great concern with young and inexperienced drivers, who are reported to be the most prolific users of texting while driving and are disproportionately involved in car crashes as compared to their experienced and older counterparts. Hazard Warning Systems (HWSs) have been researched to reduce distracted driving and improve driving performance. The first purpose of this study is to showcase a game-based, multi-player, online simulated training (GMOST) application with an integrated HWS. The second is to examine whether such an HWS integrated into the GMOST improves young and inexperienced drivers’ hazard perception skills, as measured by hazard reaction time (HRT) and horizontal road scanning (HS). A total of 22 high school students from a private school participated in this study. To determine the effects of HWS, a 2 × 2 ANOVA and a 2 × 2 MANOVA were run. The results of this study suggest that the GMOST with integrated HWS leads to earlier detection and reaction to hazards as well as wider HS by novice drivers. Therefore, this study reports that HWSs improve novice distracted drivers’ hazard perception skills. Accordingly, a wide-spread use of the GMOST-like training applications by novice drivers would be a proactive approach to lower accident rates caused by texting while driving. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Testing the Effectiveness of a Mixed-Method Pilot Intervention in Reducing Risky Driving Due to Aggression and Stress
Safety 2020, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010011 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
The study aimed at testing the effectiveness of a mixed-method pilot intervention in reducing risky self-reported driving performance, upon addressing stress and aggression while driving. The study recruited individuals who had performed these behaviors during the year preceding the study and allocated them [...] Read more.
The study aimed at testing the effectiveness of a mixed-method pilot intervention in reducing risky self-reported driving performance, upon addressing stress and aggression while driving. The study recruited individuals who had performed these behaviors during the year preceding the study and allocated them into an intervention (n = 10) and a control group (n = 30). A pre-and postintervention evaluation design was employed to explore changes in risky self-reported driving behaviors, 12 months after the intervention. The intervention involved 2 h of experiential instruction and 1 h of cognitive restructuring using a driving simulator and scenarios appropriate for the processing of driving stress, aggression, and risk. The intervention group displayed significant improvements in the scales of “Hazard Monitoring” (p = 0.037) and “Covered Violations” (p = 0.049) at the postintervention level. No statistically significant differences were identified in terms of self-reported driving performance between the intervention and the control group at postintervention level. Launching large-scale experimental surveys with broadened cognitive restructuring approaches seems important to deepen our understanding of the behavioral change processes and increase the effectiveness of future interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hazards That Can Affect CNC Machine Tools during Operation—An AHP Approach
Safety 2020, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010010 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
CNC (computer numerically controlled) machine tools are highly advanced technological systems, used to machine parts by means of metal cutting processes. Their structure and kinematics are very complex, involving accurate coordinated motions on three to five axes. Operating CNC machine tools is a [...] Read more.
CNC (computer numerically controlled) machine tools are highly advanced technological systems, used to machine parts by means of metal cutting processes. Their structure and kinematics are very complex, involving accurate coordinated motions on three to five axes. Operating CNC machine tools is a complicated process, which can easily be affected by errors. Nowadays, safety systems and devices are developed in order to make this process safer and more user friendly. Modern CNC controllers are designed to deal with obvious sources of hazards, such as overloads (by means of various sensor systems) and collisions (by checking the NC code syntax and simulating it on the machine). However, despite of these safety systems, various unwanted events still occur during machining operations on CNC machine tools. These means that there are still certain hazards, not so obvious, which can severely affect the operation of CNC machine tools. This work tries to identify and hierarchize the above-mentioned hazards by using an AHP (analytic hierarchy process) approach. The results of the AHP emphasize which hazard has the biggest influence upon the CNC machine tools operation and consequently should be avoided. The results of this work could be used by the machine tools designers to develop new safety features for the existing CNC controllers. Also, the users of the machine tools could focus some of the safety measures during the machining process upon the most significant hazards pointed by the results of the research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Incident Causal Factors and the Reasons for Conducting Investigations: A Study of Five Ghanaian Large-Scale Mines
Safety 2020, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010009 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Background: This research sought to understand the perspective of mineworkers regarding incident investigations, with the objective of identifying incident investigations improvement opportunities. First, through interviews, the research sought to identify the causal factors considered during investigations and the reasons for conducting investigations in [...] Read more.
Background: This research sought to understand the perspective of mineworkers regarding incident investigations, with the objective of identifying incident investigations improvement opportunities. First, through interviews, the research sought to identify the causal factors considered during investigations and the reasons for conducting investigations in the Ghanaian mining industry. Secondly, through questionnaire surveys, the study focused on understanding the extent to which a large sample of mineworkers considered the identified causal factors and investigation reasons relevant and applicable in their mine. Method: Data were collected from 41 participants through interviews and 659 respondents through surveys, and the data were analyzed through thematic, content, and statistical analyses, including descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and correlation analysis. Result: The interviews led to the identification of five and nine categories of incident causal factors and reasons for investigating incidents, respectively. The results suggested a focus on workers’ unsafe acts as the main incident causal factor and identifying the person who caused the incident as one of the major reasons for investigating incidents, as these two factors where the modal choice from both the interviews and survey across all five mines. The results further showed that concerning the accident causal factors and the reasons for investigating incidents, no significant difference was observed between the perspectives of mineworkers involved in investigations and mineworkers with no investigation responsibilities. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results that talking to ordinary mineworkers does not generate innovative safety responses in this context, as the workers believe whatever they are taught, without critiquing it. Again, the focus on workers’ behavior as an accident causal factor is an indication of single-loop learning in contrast to double-loop learning, and its implication as well as opportunities to strengthen incident investigation focusing on improving organizational safety have been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Leaders’ Influence Tactics for Safety: An Exploratory Study in the Maritime Context
Safety 2020, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010008 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
A growing body of research has pointed out effective leadership as an important influencing factor for safety performance in various high-risk industrial contexts. However, limited systematic knowledge is available about how leaders can effectively persuade rule compliance, and stimulate actions and participation. Recognizing [...] Read more.
A growing body of research has pointed out effective leadership as an important influencing factor for safety performance in various high-risk industrial contexts. However, limited systematic knowledge is available about how leaders can effectively persuade rule compliance, and stimulate actions and participation. Recognizing effective means of influence is of value for safety leadership development and evaluation. This study seeks to empirically investigate leaders’ influence tactics for safety in a maritime context. Qualitative exploration is performed with data being collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews with 41 experienced shipboard leaders from various shipping sectors. Five core influence tactics—coaching, role modeling, pressure, consultation and exchange tactics—appeared to be the shipboard leaders’ effective tactics to influence subordinates’ safety compliance and participation behaviors in ship operations. Safety leadership influences flow from exemplification, expert and personal sources of power, and being pursued through soft and rational influence tactics rather than coercion or constructive inducements. The results indicate that the more relationship-oriented the leaders are, the more effective their safety leadership would be in influencing safety behaviors. The implication of the results for maritime safety leadership research, maritime education and training are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Open AccessReview
Levee System Reliability Modeling: The Length Effect and Bayesian Updating
Safety 2020, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010007 - 03 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
In levee system reliability, the length effect is the term given to the phenomenon that the longer the levee, the higher the probability that it will have a weak spot and fail. Quantitatively, it is the ratio of the segment failure probability to [...] Read more.
In levee system reliability, the length effect is the term given to the phenomenon that the longer the levee, the higher the probability that it will have a weak spot and fail. Quantitatively, it is the ratio of the segment failure probability to the cross-sectional failure probability. The literature is lacking in methods to calculate the length effect in levees, and often over-simplified methods are used. An efficient (but approximate) method, which we refer to as the modified outcrossing (MO) method, was developed for the system reliability model used in Dutch national flood risk analysis and for the provision of levee assessment tools, but it is poorly documented and its accuracy has not been tested. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the length effect in levees by sampling the joint spatial distribution of the resistance variables using a copula approach, and represented by a Bayesian Network (BN). We use the BN to verify the MO method, which is also described in detail in this paper. We describe how both methods can be used to update failure probabilities of (long) levees using survival observations (i.e., high water levels and no levee failure), which is important because we have such observations in abundance. We compared the methods via a numerical example, and found that the agreement between the segment failure probability estimates was nearly perfect in the prior case, and very good in the posterior case, for segments ranging from 500 m to 6000 m in length. These results provide a strong verification of both methods, either of which provide an attractive alternative to the more simplified approaches often encountered in the literature and in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Bayesian Networks to System Safety and Reliability)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Safety in 2019
Safety 2020, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010006 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
ATEX-HOF Methodology: Innovation Driven by Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in Explosive Atmosphere Risk Assessment
Safety 2020, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010005 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
ATEX (explosive atmosphere) risk assessment is required when any equipment or system could generate a potentially explosive atmosphere. Despite the fact that many operations on plants and equipment containing dangerous substances are performed by operators, influences of human and organizational factors (HOF) are [...] Read more.
ATEX (explosive atmosphere) risk assessment is required when any equipment or system could generate a potentially explosive atmosphere. Despite the fact that many operations on plants and equipment containing dangerous substances are performed by operators, influences of human and organizational factors (HOF) are mostly neglected in the ATEX risk assessment. The integrated methodology described here is proposed to address two challenges: (1) identification of the HOF influence on the ATEX risk assessment, and (2) quantification of the HOF influence. The proposed methodology enriches the traditional ATEX risk assessment procedure, which consists of four steps: (1) area classification, (2) ignition source identification, (3) damage analysis, and (4) ATEX risk evaluation. The advantages of the ATEX-HOF methodology are demonstrated through the application to a paint mixing station in an automotive manufacturing plant. The ATEX risk assessment methodologies are mainly semi-quantitative. The ATEX-HOF methodology provides a quantitative analysis for the area classification and ignition source identification, and a semi-quantitative approach for the damage analysis. As a result, the ATEX-HOF risk evaluation becomes more accurate. An event tree-based probabilistic assessment has been introduced, considering both the technical barrier failure (Prtbf) and the human intervention in terms of human error probability (HEP). The case study allowed for demonstrating how taking HOFs into account is particularly important in companies where the safety culture is lower and consequently, the usual hypothesis of the correctness of operator intervention (in maintenance, normal operations, and emergency) could bring to non-conservative results. Full article
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Open AccessRetraction
Retraction: Pavarin R.M. Alcohol Misuse Among Young Adults in Northern Italy. Safety 2019, 5, 31
Safety 2020, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010004 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Since publication, we have investigated more closely the ethical procedures associated with the title article [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Recommendations from Mining Incident Investigative Reports: A 50-Year Review
Safety 2020, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010003 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
A systematic analysis was conducted using ten occupational health and safety commissioned reports from Canada, New Zealand, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia spanning from 1967 to 2015. The objective was to identify commonalities and differences in the key recommendations across the identified [...] Read more.
A systematic analysis was conducted using ten occupational health and safety commissioned reports from Canada, New Zealand, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia spanning from 1967 to 2015. The objective was to identify commonalities and differences in the key recommendations across the identified reports. The text-mining software Leximancer was utilized to analyze the content of the recommendations through the semantic extraction of dominant themes, and the relational extraction and mapping of thematic relationships against each other. The identified themes were then analyzed within the concept map to fully understand the relationships. Based on the concept map, the thematic analysis provided a longitudinal perspective of the recommendations, identifying six key themes and 49 sets of overlapping recommendations. Key themes included: health and safety hazards (n = 10), legislation, regulations and organizational structure (n = 13), emergency management and mine rescue (n = 9), training, education and competence (n = 10), technology (n = 4), and research (n = 3). The results of this analysis illustrate that the same hazards continue to be identified across reports and recommendations, regardless of time or country of origin. This indicates that the communication of recommendations and/or the strategies developed in response to the recommendations need to be further addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Control of the Anchoring of Steel Bridge Barriers by Non-Destructive Testing
Safety 2020, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010002 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Traffic barriers represent one of the basic road safety features. There are several types of traffic barriers based on the material from which they are made of and their location. Bridge structures are usually fitted with steel barriers. A steel barrier is, in [...] Read more.
Traffic barriers represent one of the basic road safety features. There are several types of traffic barriers based on the material from which they are made of and their location. Bridge structures are usually fitted with steel barriers. A steel barrier is, in fact, a relatively complex system linking individual steel elements, which, as a whole, has to meet the requirements given by normative regulations. In order for the steel barriers to fulfill their function and prevent the catastrophic consequences of traffic accidents, it is absolutely necessary to ensure their correct installation on the bridge structure. It seemed until recently that carrying out quality inspections of steel barriers installation, i.e., their anchoring into the concrete ledges, was a relatively complicated time- and money-consuming process, and that is why inspections of the correct anchoring installation in new or existing barriers were not carried out as standard. This paper thoroughly describes in detail the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse method, with which the anchoring of steel barriers on selected bridge structures is being checked. From the measurements and statistical evaluation of the results, it is apparent that carrying out inspections of the anchoring of these road safety features should be considered routine, and at the same time, the inspection of anchoring quality should be required by law in order to ensure the safety of road traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design for Transport Safety)
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Open AccessReview
Safety Vision of Agricultural Tractors: An Engineering Perspective Based on Recent Studies (2009–2019)
Safety 2020, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010001 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1660
Abstract
The high rate of injuries occurring in agricultural activities is of major concern in most countries, despite the ever-increasing efforts made at normative levels. In particular, the use of agricultural tractors is recognized as the most hazardous activity for farmers due to the [...] Read more.
The high rate of injuries occurring in agricultural activities is of major concern in most countries, despite the ever-increasing efforts made at normative levels. In particular, the use of agricultural tractors is recognized as the most hazardous activity for farmers due to the large number of fatalities occurring every year. The aim of the present study was to investigate the recent developments in research activities dealing with tractor safety. For this purpose, a systematic literature review was carried out, taking into account engineering journal papers appearing in Scopus in the 2009–2019 period and focusing on tractor safety. As a result, 79 documents were selected and analyzed based on both their type (e.g., conceptual or empirical studies) and specific targets. They were then classified and discussed in accordance with a reference framework representing the main issues of agricultural tractor safety: mechanical hazards, protective devices, command and control, other hazards, ergonomics, information, conformity, and user behavior. The results of this analysis brought to light the need for a more human-centered approach when dealing with tractor safety. In addition, the lack of a reliable framework of technical standards was also stressed. Overall, despite the limitations due to the selection criteria, this study represents the first systematic literature review depicting the status of tractor safety in the engineering field, providing a basis for further research on the emerging themes outlined. Full article
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