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Batteries, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Electrochemical impedance spectra of batteries, fuel cells, and double-layer capacitors present [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Management of a DC Microgrid Composed of Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Systems
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030063 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 286
Abstract
In this paper, a classic proportional–integral (PI) control strategy as an energy management strategy (EMS) and a microgrid stand-alone power system configuration are proposed to work independently out of grid. The proposed system combines photovoltaics (PVs), fuel cells (FCs), batteries, and supercapacitors (SCs). [...] Read more.
In this paper, a classic proportional–integral (PI) control strategy as an energy management strategy (EMS) and a microgrid stand-alone power system configuration are proposed to work independently out of grid. The proposed system combines photovoltaics (PVs), fuel cells (FCs), batteries, and supercapacitors (SCs). The system supplies a dump load with its demand power. The system includes DC/DC and DC/AC converters, as well as a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the harvested energy from PV array. The system advantages are represented to overcome the problem of each source when used individually and to optimize the hydrogen consumption. The classic PI control strategy is used to control the main system parameters like FC current and the state-of-charge (SOC) for the battery and SC. In order to analyze and monitor the system, it was implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation done for fuzzy logic and high frequency decoupling and state machine control strategies to validate the PI classic control strategy. The obtained results confirmed that the system works efficiently as a microgrid system. The results show that the SOC for the battery is kept between 56 and 65.4%, which is considered a proper value for such types of batteries. The DC bus voltage (VDC) is kept within the acceptable level. Moreover, the H2 fuel consumption is 12.1 gm, as the FCs are used as supported sources working with the PV. A big area for improvement is available for cost saving, which suggests the need for further research through system optimization and employing different control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Capacitors)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameterization and Validation of an Electrochemical Thermal Model of a Lithium-Ion Battery
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030062 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The key challenge in developing a physico-chemical model is the model parameterization. The paper presents a strategic model parameterization procedure, parameter values, and a developed model that allows simulating electrochemical and thermal behavior of a commercial lithium-ion battery with high accuracy. Steps taken [...] Read more.
The key challenge in developing a physico-chemical model is the model parameterization. The paper presents a strategic model parameterization procedure, parameter values, and a developed model that allows simulating electrochemical and thermal behavior of a commercial lithium-ion battery with high accuracy. Steps taken are the analysis of geometry details by opening a battery cell under argon atmosphere, building upon reference data of similar material compositions, incorporating cell balancing by a quasi-open-circuit-voltage experiment, and adapting the battery models reaction kinetics behavior by comparing experiment and simulation of an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and hybrid pulse power characterization. The electrochemical-thermal coupled model is established based on COMSOL Multiphysics® platform (Stockholm, Sweden) and validated via experimental methods. The parameterized model was adopted to analyze the heat dissipation sources based on the internal states of the battery at different operation modes. Simulation in the field of thermal management for lithium-ion batteries highly depends on state of charge-related thermal issues of the incorporated cell composition. The electrode balancing is an essential step to be performed in order to address the internal battery states realistically. The individual contribution of the cell components heat dissipation has significant influence on the temperature distribution pattern based on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Characteristics of Batteries 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Li-Ion Battery Gases Vented in an Inert Atmosphere Thermal Test Chamber
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030061 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 475
Abstract
One way to support the development of new safety practices in testing and field failure situations of electric vehicles and their lithium-ion (Li-ion) traction batteries is to conduct studies simulating plausible incident scenarios. This paper focuses on risks and hazards associated with venting [...] Read more.
One way to support the development of new safety practices in testing and field failure situations of electric vehicles and their lithium-ion (Li-ion) traction batteries is to conduct studies simulating plausible incident scenarios. This paper focuses on risks and hazards associated with venting of gaseous species formed by thermal decomposition reactions of the electrolyte and electrode materials during thermal runaway of the cell. A test set-up for qualitative and quantitative measurements of both major and minor gas species in the vented emissions from Li-ion batteries is described. The objective of the study is to measure gas emissions in the absence of flames, since gassing can occur without subsequent fire. Test results regarding gas emission rates, total gas emission volumes, and amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and CO2 formed in inert atmosphere when heating lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) dioxide/lithium manganese oxide (LMO) spinel cell stacks are presented and discussed. Important test findings include the large difference in total gas emissions from NMC/LMO cells compared to LFP, 780 L kg−1 battery cells, and 42 L kg−1 battery cells, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the total amount of HF formed for both cell types, suggesting that LFP releases higher concentrations of HF than NMC/LMO cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Copper-Decorated CNTs as a Possible Electrode Material in Supercapacitors
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030060 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Copper is probably one of the most important metal used in the broad range of electronic applications. It has been developed for many decades, and so it is very hard to make any further advances in its electrical and thermal performance by simply [...] Read more.
Copper is probably one of the most important metal used in the broad range of electronic applications. It has been developed for many decades, and so it is very hard to make any further advances in its electrical and thermal performance by simply changing the manufacture to even more oxygen-free conditions. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to their excellent electrical, thermal and mechanical properties seem like an ideal component to produce Cu-CNT composites of superior electrochemical performance. In this report we present whether Cu-CNT contact has a beneficial influence for manufacturing of a new type of carbon-based supercapacitor with embedded copper particles. The prepared electrode material was examined in symmetric cell configuration. The specific capacity and cyclability of composite were compared to parent CNT and oxidized CNT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Capacitors)
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Open AccessArticle
Incremental Capacity Analysis-Based Impact Study of Diverse Usage Patterns on Lithium-Ion Battery Aging in Electrified Vehicles
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030059 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Aging assessment is critical for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as the technology of choice for energy storage in electrified vehicles (EVs). Existing research is mainly focused on either increasing modeling precision or improving algorithm efficiency, while the significance of data applied for aging assessment [...] Read more.
Aging assessment is critical for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as the technology of choice for energy storage in electrified vehicles (EVs). Existing research is mainly focused on either increasing modeling precision or improving algorithm efficiency, while the significance of data applied for aging assessment has been largely overlooked. Moreover, reported studies are mostly confined to a specific condition without considering the impacts of diverse usage patterns on battery aging, which is practically challenging and can greatly affect battery degradation. This paper addresses these issues through incremental capacity (IC) analysis, which can both utilize data directly available from on-board sensors and interpret degradations from a physics-based perspective. Through IC analysis, the optimal health feature (HF) and the state of charge (SOC)-based optimal data profile for battery aging assessment have been identified. Four stress factors, i.e., depth-of-discharge (DOD), charging C-rate, operating mode, and temperature, have been selected to jointly characterize diverse usage patterns. Impact analysis of different stress factors through the optimal HF with the SOC-based optimal data profile from aging campaign experiments have generated practical guidance on usage patterns to improve battery health monitoring and lifetime control strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Factors Affecting Capacity Design of Lithium-Ion Stationary Batteries
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030058 - 28 Aug 2019
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Lead-acid batteries are currently the most popular for direct current (DC) power in power plants. They are also the most widely used electric energy storage device but too much space is needed to increase energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density, [...] Read more.
Lead-acid batteries are currently the most popular for direct current (DC) power in power plants. They are also the most widely used electric energy storage device but too much space is needed to increase energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density, allowing them to store more energy than other types of batteries. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the factors affecting the capacity design of lithium-ion stationary batteries. Factors that need to be considered in calculating the capacity of stationary lithium-ion batteries are investigated and reviewed, and based on the results, a method of calculating capacity of stationary lithium-ion batteries for industrial use is proposed. In addition, the capacity and area required for replacing the lead-acid batteries for nuclear power plants with lithium-ion batteries are reviewed as part of this case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Lithium Ion Batteries: From Production to Recycling)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Current Rate and Prior Cycling on the Coulombic Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030057 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The determination of coulombic efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries can contribute to comprehend better their degradation behavior. In this research, the coulombic efficiency and capacity loss of three lithium-ion batteries at different current rates (C) were investigated. Two new battery cells were discharged [...] Read more.
The determination of coulombic efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries can contribute to comprehend better their degradation behavior. In this research, the coulombic efficiency and capacity loss of three lithium-ion batteries at different current rates (C) were investigated. Two new battery cells were discharged and charged at 0.4 C and 0.8 C for twenty times to monitor the variations in the aging and coulombic efficiency of the battery cell. In addition, prior cycling was applied to the third battery cell which consist of charging and discharging with 0.2 C, 0.4 C, 0.6 C, and 0.8 C current rates and each of them twenty times. The coulombic efficiency of the new battery cells was compared with the cycled one. The experiments demonstrated that approximately all the charge that was stored in the battery cell was extracted out of the battery cell, even at the bigger charging and discharging currents. The average capacity loss rates for discharge and charge during 0.8 C were approximately 0.44% and 0.45% per cycle, correspondingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Battery Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle
Glycine-Nitrate Process for Synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)3 Cathode Material and Optimization of Glucose-Derived Hard Carbon Anode Material for Characterization in Full Cells
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030056 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Cost-effective methods need to be developed to lower the price of Na-ion battery (NIB) materials. This paper reports a proof-of-concept study of using a novel approach to the glycine-nitrate process (GNP) to synthesize sodium vanadium phosphate (Na3V2(PO4) [...] Read more.
Cost-effective methods need to be developed to lower the price of Na-ion battery (NIB) materials. This paper reports a proof-of-concept study of using a novel approach to the glycine-nitrate process (GNP) to synthesize sodium vanadium phosphate (Na3V2(PO4)3 or NVP) materials with both high-energy (102 mAh g−1 at C/20) and high-power characteristics (60 mAh g−1 at 20 C). Glucose-derived hard carbons (GDHCs) were optimized to reduce both sloping and irreversible capacity. The best results were achieved for electrodes with active material heat treated at 1400 °C and reduced Super P additive. Sloping region capacity 90 mAh g−1, irreversible capacity 47 mAh g−1, discharge capacity 272 mAh g−1 (of which plateau 155 mAh g−1) and 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) 85% were demonstrated. GDHC||NVP full cell achieved 80 mAh g−1 (reversible) by NVP mass out of which 60 mAh g−1 was the plateau (3.4 V) region capacity. Full cell specific energy and energy density reached 189 Wh kg−1 and 104 Wh dm−3, respectively. After 80 cycles, including rate testing from C/20 to 10 C, the cell cycled at 65 mAh g−1 with 99.7% CE. With further optimization, this method can have very high industrial potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Battery Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bilevel Equalizer to Boost the Capacity of Second Life Li Ion Batteries
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030055 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 2559
Abstract
There is a strong interest in second life applications for the growing number of used electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but capacity variations amongst these used cells present a problem. Even when these cells are matched for capacity, some imbalance is bound to remain, [...] Read more.
There is a strong interest in second life applications for the growing number of used electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but capacity variations amongst these used cells present a problem. Even when these cells are matched for capacity, some imbalance is bound to remain, and a few lower capacity cells are also likely to develop after the pack begins its second life. Conventional cell voltage equalizers (EQU) do not address this problem, and they only provide a battery discharge capacity that is exactly equal to that of the weakest cell in the pack. This can easily result in a capacity loss of perhaps 20% to 25%, or more. This indicates the need for a new class of EQUs that can provide a discharge capacity that is close to the average of the cells, instead of the weakest cell. It is proposed to call these “capacity EQUs”, and the properties they must have are described. One such EQU is the bilevel equalizer (BEQ), described previously. This present paper provides an enhanced analysis of the BEQ and improved modelling methods. It also presents more details that are necessary to implement the microcontroller algorithm for the BEQ hardware. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Machine Learning Approaches for Designing Mesoscale Structure of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030054 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 778
Abstract
We have proposed a data-driven approach for designing the mesoscale porous structures of Li-ion battery electrodes, using three-dimensional virtual structures and machine learning techniques. Over 2000 artificial 3D structures, assuming a positive electrode composed of randomly packed spheres as the active material particles, [...] Read more.
We have proposed a data-driven approach for designing the mesoscale porous structures of Li-ion battery electrodes, using three-dimensional virtual structures and machine learning techniques. Over 2000 artificial 3D structures, assuming a positive electrode composed of randomly packed spheres as the active material particles, are generated, and the charge/discharge specific resistance has been evaluated using a simplified physico-chemical model. The specific resistance from Li diffusion in the active material particles (diffusion resistance), the transfer specific resistance of Li+ in the electrolyte (electrolyte resistance), and the reaction resistance on the interface between the active material and electrolyte are simulated, based on the mass balance of Li, Ohm’s law, and the linearized Butler–Volmer equation, respectively. Using these simulation results, regression models, using an artificial neural network (ANN), have been created in order to predict the charge/discharge specific resistance from porous structure features. In this study, porosity, active material particle size and volume fraction, pressure in the compaction process, electrolyte conductivity, and binder/additives volume fraction are adopted, as features associated with controllable process parameters for manufacturing the battery electrode. As a result, the predicted electrode specific resistance by the ANN regression model is in good agreement with the simulated values. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses and an optimization of the process parameters have been carried out. Although the proposed approach is based only on the simulation results, it could serve as a reference for the determination of process parameters in battery electrode manufacturing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generalized Distribution of Relaxation Times Analysis for the Characterization of Impedance Spectra
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030053 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Impedance spectroscopy is a universal nondestructive tool for the analysis of the polarization behavior of electrochemical systems in frequency domain. As an extension and enhancement of the standard impedance spectroscopy, the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis was established, where the spectra are [...] Read more.
Impedance spectroscopy is a universal nondestructive tool for the analysis of the polarization behavior of electrochemical systems in frequency domain. As an extension and enhancement of the standard impedance spectroscopy, the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis was established, where the spectra are transferred from frequency into time domain. The DRT helps to analyze complex impedance spectra by identifying the number of polarization processes involved without prior assumptions and by separating and quantifying their single polarization contributions. The DRT analysis, as introduced in literature, claims to be a model-free approach for the characterization of resistive-capacitive systems. However, a data preprocessing step based on impedance models is often required to exclude non-resistive-capacitive components off the measured impedance spectra. The generalized distribution of relaxation times (GDRT) analysis presented in this work is dedicated to complex superposed impedance spectra that include ohmic, inductive, capacitive, resistive-capacitive, and resistive-inductive effects. The simplified work flow without preprocessing steps leads to a reliable and reproducible DRT analysis that fulfills the assumption of being model-free. The GDRT is applicable for the analysis of electrochemical, electrical, and even for non-electrical systems. Results are shown for a lithium-ion battery, a vanadium redox flow battery, and for a double-layer capacitor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Operational Experience of 5 kW/5 kWh All-Vanadium Flow Batteries in Photovoltaic Grid Applications
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030052 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to analyse and characterize the behavior of a 5 kW/5 kWh vanadium battery integrated in an experimental facility with all the auxiliary equipment and determine whether it would be possible to ascertain the most appropriate application for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to analyse and characterize the behavior of a 5 kW/5 kWh vanadium battery integrated in an experimental facility with all the auxiliary equipment and determine whether it would be possible to ascertain the most appropriate application for storage of electricity in photovoltaic (PV) grid applications. The battery has been in operation for 9–10 months. During this time the battery has achieve a full cycle efficiency of approximately 65%. A slight reduction in efficiency is the result of the constant auxiliary power consumption from pumps amounting to 8–9% of rated power, meanwhile the stack is quite efficient showing a cycle efficiency of 73%.The operation of the pumps has been adjusted to fix the current density applied together with the state of charge in order to reduce unnecessary consumption related to the energy required for pumping. According to the results obtained, the intended improvement in global efficiency for the system has not been achieved by this proposed strategy. However, the flow factor evolution selected at this stage needs further optimization in order to establish a trade-off between the concentration overpotential and a detrimental loss in energy due to pumping. Therefore, one should be able to improve system performance through a better configuration of flow factors in order to reach total system efficiencies of 70–75% required for achieving a commercially viable product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vanadium Redox Flow Battery and Its Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Methodological Approaches to End-Of-Life Modelling in Life Cycle Assessments of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030051 - 02 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
This study presents a review of how the end-of-life (EOL) stage is modelled in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Twenty-five peer-reviewed journal and conference papers that consider the whole LIB life cycle and describe their EOL modelling approach sufficiently [...] Read more.
This study presents a review of how the end-of-life (EOL) stage is modelled in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Twenty-five peer-reviewed journal and conference papers that consider the whole LIB life cycle and describe their EOL modelling approach sufficiently were analyzed. The studies were categorized based on two archetypal EOL modelling approaches in LCA: The cutoff (no material recovery, possibly secondary material input) and EOL recycling (material recovery, only primary material input) approaches. It was found that 19 of the studies followed the EOL recycling approach and 6 the cutoff approach. In addition, almost a third of the studies deviated from the expected setup of the two methods by including both material recovery and secondary material input. Such hybrid approaches may lead to double counting of recycling benefits by both including secondary input (as in the cutoff approach) and substituting primary materials (as in the EOL recycling approach). If the archetypal EOL modelling approaches are not followed, it is imperative that the modelling choices are well-documented and motivated to avoid double counting that leads to over- or underestimations of the environmental impacts of LIBs. Also, 21 studies model hydrometallurgical treatment, and 17 completely omit waste collection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Lithium Ion Batteries: From Production to Recycling)
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Open AccessArticle
An Accurate and Precise Grey Box Model of a Low-Power Lithium-Ion Battery and Capacitor/Supercapacitor for Accurate Estimation of State-of-Charge
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030050 - 01 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The fluctuating nature of power produced by renewable energy sources results in a substantial supply and demand mismatch. To curb the imbalance, energy storage systems comprising batteries and supercapacitors are widely employed. However, due to the variety of operational conditions, the performance prediction [...] Read more.
The fluctuating nature of power produced by renewable energy sources results in a substantial supply and demand mismatch. To curb the imbalance, energy storage systems comprising batteries and supercapacitors are widely employed. However, due to the variety of operational conditions, the performance prediction of the energy storage systems entails a substantial complexity that leads to capacity utilization issues. The current article attempts to precisely predict the performance of a lithium-ion battery and capacitor/supercapacitor under dynamic conditions to utilize the storage capacity to a fuller extent. The grey box modeling approach involving the chemical and electrical energy transfers/interactions governed by ordinary differential equations was developed in MATLAB. The model parameters were extracted from experimental data employing regression techniques. The state-of-charge (SoC) of the battery was predicted by employing the extended Kalman (EK) estimator and the unscented Kalman (UK) estimator. The model was eventually validated via loading profile tests. As a performance indicator, the extended Kalman estimator indicated the strong competitiveness of the developed model with regard to tracking of the internal states (e.g., SoC) which have first-order nonlinearities. Full article
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