Next Article in Journal
Effect of Current Rate and Prior Cycling on the Coulombic Efficiency of a Lithium-Ion Battery
Previous Article in Journal
A Bilevel Equalizer to Boost the Capacity of Second Life Li Ion Batteries
Article

Glycine-Nitrate Process for Synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)3 Cathode Material and Optimization of Glucose-Derived Hard Carbon Anode Material for Characterization in Full Cells

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
2
Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2019, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030056
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Battery Concepts)
Cost-effective methods need to be developed to lower the price of Na-ion battery (NIB) materials. This paper reports a proof-of-concept study of using a novel approach to the glycine-nitrate process (GNP) to synthesize sodium vanadium phosphate (Na3V2(PO4)3 or NVP) materials with both high-energy (102 mAh g−1 at C/20) and high-power characteristics (60 mAh g−1 at 20 C). Glucose-derived hard carbons (GDHCs) were optimized to reduce both sloping and irreversible capacity. The best results were achieved for electrodes with active material heat treated at 1400 °C and reduced Super P additive. Sloping region capacity 90 mAh g−1, irreversible capacity 47 mAh g−1, discharge capacity 272 mAh g−1 (of which plateau 155 mAh g−1) and 1st cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) 85% were demonstrated. GDHC||NVP full cell achieved 80 mAh g−1 (reversible) by NVP mass out of which 60 mAh g−1 was the plateau (3.4 V) region capacity. Full cell specific energy and energy density reached 189 Wh kg−1 and 104 Wh dm−3, respectively. After 80 cycles, including rate testing from C/20 to 10 C, the cell cycled at 65 mAh g−1 with 99.7% CE. With further optimization, this method can have very high industrial potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: NVP; Na-ion battery; glycine-nitrate process; hard carbon; solution combustion; sodium NVP; Na-ion battery; glycine-nitrate process; hard carbon; solution combustion; sodium
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Väli, R.; Aruväli, J.; Härmas, M.; Jänes, A.; Lust, E. Glycine-Nitrate Process for Synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)3 Cathode Material and Optimization of Glucose-Derived Hard Carbon Anode Material for Characterization in Full Cells. Batteries 2019, 5, 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030056

AMA Style

Väli R, Aruväli J, Härmas M, Jänes A, Lust E. Glycine-Nitrate Process for Synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)3 Cathode Material and Optimization of Glucose-Derived Hard Carbon Anode Material for Characterization in Full Cells. Batteries. 2019; 5(3):56. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030056

Chicago/Turabian Style

Väli, Ronald, Jaan Aruväli, Meelis Härmas, Alar Jänes, and Enn Lust. 2019. "Glycine-Nitrate Process for Synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)3 Cathode Material and Optimization of Glucose-Derived Hard Carbon Anode Material for Characterization in Full Cells" Batteries 5, no. 3: 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5030056

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop