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Magnetochemistry, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Conflicts of Interest and Misleading Statements in Official Reports about the Health Consequences of Radiofrequency Radiation and Some New Measurements of Exposure Levels
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020031
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Official reports to governments throughout the Western world attempt to allay public concern about the increasing inescapability of the microwaves (also known as radiofrequency radiation or RF) emitted by “smart” technologies, by repeating the dogma that the only proven biological effect of RF [...] Read more.
Official reports to governments throughout the Western world attempt to allay public concern about the increasing inescapability of the microwaves (also known as radiofrequency radiation or RF) emitted by “smart” technologies, by repeating the dogma that the only proven biological effect of RF is acute tissue heating, and assuring us that the levels of radiation to which the public are exposed are significantly less than those needed to cause acute tissue heating. The present paper first shows the origin of this “thermal-only” dogma in the military paranoia of the 1950s. It then reveals how financial conflict of interest and intentionally misleading statements have been powerful factors in preserving that dogma in the face of now overwhelming evidence that it is false, using one 2018 report to ministers of the New Zealand government as an example. Lastly, some new pilot measurements of ambient RF power densities in Auckland city are reported and compared with levels reported in other cities, various international exposure limits, and levels shown scientifically to cause biological harm. It is concluded that politicians in the Western world should stop accepting soothing reports from individuals with blatant conflicts of interest and start taking the health and safety of their communities seriously. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Series of Chloranilate-Bridged Dinuclear Lanthanide Complexes: Kramers Systems Showing Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020030
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
A series of chloralilate-bridged dinuclear lanthanide complexes of formula [{LnIII(Tp)2}2(μ-Cl2An)]·2CH2Cl2, where Cl2An2− and Tp represent the chloranilate and hydrotris (pyrazolyl)borate ligands, respectively, and Ln = Gd ( [...] Read more.
A series of chloralilate-bridged dinuclear lanthanide complexes of formula [{LnIII(Tp)2}2(μ-Cl2An)]·2CH2Cl2, where Cl2An2− and Tp represent the chloranilate and hydrotris (pyrazolyl)borate ligands, respectively, and Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Ho (3), Er (4), and Yb (5) was synthesized. All five complexes were characterized by an elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and SQUID measurements. The complexes 15 in the series were all isostructural. A comparison of the temperature dependence of the dc magnetic susceptibility data of these complexes revealed clear differences depending on the lanthanide center. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that none of the five complexes exhibited a slow magnetic relaxation under a zero applied dc field. On the other hand, the Kramers systems (complexes 4 and 5) clearly displayed a slow magnetic relaxation under applied dc fields, suggesting field-induced single-molecule magnets that occur through Orbach and Raman relaxation processes. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Sensitive Water Ligand Observed via Gradient Spectroscopy with 19F Detection for Analysis of Fluorinated Compounds Bound to Proteins
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020029
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
The water ligand observed via a gradient spectroscopy type experiment with 19F detection was applied to selectively detect fluorinated compounds with affinity to the target proteins. The 19F signals of bound and unbound compounds were observed as opposite phases, which was [...] Read more.
The water ligand observed via a gradient spectroscopy type experiment with 19F detection was applied to selectively detect fluorinated compounds with affinity to the target proteins. The 19F signals of bound and unbound compounds were observed as opposite phases, which was advantageous to distinguish the binding state. The proposed NMR method was optimized based on the 19F{1H} saturation transfer difference pulse sequence, and various inversion pulses for the water resonance were evaluated with the aim of high sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bilayer Thin Films That Combine Luminescent and Spin Crossover Properties for an Efficient and Reversible Fluorescence Switching
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020028
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
We report on the vacuum thermal deposition of bilayer thin films of the luminescent complex Ir(ppy)3, tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III), and the spin crossover complex [Fe(HB(tz)3)2], bis[hydrotris(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)borate]iron(II). Switching the spin state of iron ions from the low spin to the [...] Read more.
We report on the vacuum thermal deposition of bilayer thin films of the luminescent complex Ir(ppy)3, tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III), and the spin crossover complex [Fe(HB(tz)3)2], bis[hydrotris(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)borate]iron(II). Switching the spin state of iron ions from the low spin to the high spin state around 337 K leads to a reversible jump of the luminescence intensity, while the spectrum shape and the luminescence lifetime remain unchanged. The luminescence modulation occurs due to the different UV light absorption properties of the iron complex in the two spin states and its magnitude can therefore be precisely adjusted by varying the film thickness. These multilayer luminescence switches hold potential for micro- and nanoscale thermal sensing and imaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Beyond the Immediate Tribute)
Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Slow Magnetic Relaxations and Molecular Structures of Dy(III) Complexes with N5O4 Nona-Coordination
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020027
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
A series of Dy(III) mononuclear complexes [DyA2L]+ (L denotes Schiff base N5 ligand that occupies equatorial positions and A denotes bidentate anionic O-donor ligands such as NO3 (1), AcO (2), [...] Read more.
A series of Dy(III) mononuclear complexes [DyA2L]+ (L denotes Schiff base N5 ligand that occupies equatorial positions and A denotes bidentate anionic O-donor ligands such as NO3 (1), AcO (2), and acac (3)) were synthesized to investigate the correlation between the slow magnetic relaxation phenomena and the coordination structures around Dy(III). The Dy(III) ion in each complex is in a nona-coordination with the anionic O-donor ligand occupying up- and down-side positions of the N5 equatorial plane. 2 and 3 show slow magnetic relaxation phenomena under a zero bias-field condition, and all complexes showed slow magnetic relaxation under the applied 1000-Oe bias-field conditions. Arrhenius analyses revealed that the ΔE/kB, the barrier height for magnetization flipping, increases in this order, with the values of 24.1(6), 85(3), and 140(15) K. The effects of the exchanging axial ligands on the magnetic anisotropy were discussed together with the DFT calculations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pressure Effects with Incorporated Particle Size Dependency in Graphene Oxide Layers through Observing Spin Crossover Temperature
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020026
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
This research highlights the pressure effects with the particle size dependency incorporated in two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO). GO and rGO composites employing nanorods (NRs) of type [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) have been prepared, and their pressure effects in the [...] Read more.
This research highlights the pressure effects with the particle size dependency incorporated in two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO). GO and rGO composites employing nanorods (NRs) of type [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) have been prepared, and their pressure effects in the interlayer spaces through observing the changes of the spin crossover (SCO) temperature (T1/2) have been discussed. The composites show the decrease of interlayer spaces from 8.7 Å to 3.5 Å that is associated with GO to rGO transformation. The shorter interlayer spaces were induced by pressure effects, resulting in the increment of T1/2 from 357 K to 364 K. The pressure effects in the interlayers spaces estimated from the T1/2 value correspond to 24 MPa in pristine [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) NRs under hydrostatic pressure. The pressure observed in the composites incorporating NRs (30 × 200 nm) is smaller than that observed in the composite incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) (30 nm). These results clearly demonstrated that the incorporated particle size and shape influenced the pressure effects between the GO/rGO layer. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Laudation: In Celebration of Masahiro Yamashita’s 65th Birthday
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020025
Received: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Professor Masahiro Yamashita at the Tohoku University, Japan, celebrates his 65th birthday in 2019 [...] Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Towards Nanomaterials for Cancer Theranostics: A System of DNA-Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles for Detection and Suppression of RNA Marker in Cancer Cells
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020024
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Theranostics of cancer using smart biocompatible materials can enable early cancer diagnostics and treatment. Here, we report on a DNA-nanoparticle functional material, which can simultaneously report the presence of an mRNA cancer biomarker and trigger its degradation in cultured cells. The nanodevice consists [...] Read more.
Theranostics of cancer using smart biocompatible materials can enable early cancer diagnostics and treatment. Here, we report on a DNA-nanoparticle functional material, which can simultaneously report the presence of an mRNA cancer biomarker and trigger its degradation in cultured cells. The nanodevice consists of two species of magnetic beads, each of which is conjugated with different components of a multicomponent deoxyribozyme (DZ) sensor. The system is activated only under two conditions: (i) in the presence of a specific target mRNA and (ii) when a magnetic field is applied. We demonstrate that delivery of such a system is markedly enhanced by the application of a magnetic field. The system not only fluorescently detects target mRNA in cultured MCF-7 cancer cells, but also induces its downregulation. Thus, the two-component magnetic nanoparticle system has characteristics of a material that can be used for cancer theranostics. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Announcing the 2019 Magnetochemistry Travel Award for Post-Doctoral Fellows
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020023
Received: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
The 2019 Magnetochemistry travel award for post-doctoral fellows has been granted to Dr. Giuseppe Ferrauto from the Molecular Imaging Center, University of Torino, Italy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solution-State Spin Crossover in a Family of [Fe(L)2(CH3CN)2](BF4)2 Complexes
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020022
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
We report herein on five new Fe(II) complexes of general formula [Fe(L)2(NCCH3)2](BF4)2xCH3CN (L = substituted 2-pyridylimine-based ligands). The influence of proximally located electron withdrawing groups (e.g., NO2, [...] Read more.
We report herein on five new Fe(II) complexes of general formula [Fe(L)2(NCCH3)2](BF4)2xCH3CN (L = substituted 2-pyridylimine-based ligands). The influence of proximally located electron withdrawing groups (e.g., NO2, CN, CF3, Cl, Br) bound to coordinated pyridylimine ligands has been studied for the effect on spin crossover in their Fe(II) complexes. Variable-temperature UV-visible spectroscopic studies performed on complexes with more strongly electronegative ligand substituents revealed spin crossover (SCO) in the solution, and thermodynamic parameters associated with the spin crossover were estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Beyond the Immediate Tribute)
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence of Photo-Thermal Effects on the First-Order Thermo-Induced Spin Transition of [{Fe(NCSe)(py)2}2(m-bpypz)] Spin-Crossover Material
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020021
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
We have investigated by means of optical microscopy and magnetic measurements the first-order thermal spin transition of the [{Fe(NCSe)(py)2}2(m-bpypz)] spin-crossover compound under various shining intensities, far from the light-induced spin-state trapping region. We found evidence of photo-heating effects on [...] Read more.
We have investigated by means of optical microscopy and magnetic measurements the first-order thermal spin transition of the [{Fe(NCSe)(py)2}2(m-bpypz)] spin-crossover compound under various shining intensities, far from the light-induced spin-state trapping region. We found evidence of photo-heating effects on the thermally-induced hysteretic response of this spin-crossover material, thus causing the shift of the thermal hysteresis to lower temperature regions. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the apparent crystal temperature and are analyzed theoretically using two evolution equations of motion, written on the high-spin (HS) fraction and heat balance between the crystal and the thermal bath. A very good qualitative agreement was found between experiment and theory in the stationary regime, explaining the experimental observations well and identifying the key factors governing these photo-thermal effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin-Crossover Beyond the Immediate Tribute)
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Magnetochemistry EISSN 2312-7481 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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