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Non-Coding RNA, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Neuroinflammation is induced within the central nervous system in response to threat. However, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
miR-625-3p and lncRNA GAS5 in Liquid Biopsies for Predicting the Outcome of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients Treated with Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020041 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Combining neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery is part of multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but not all patients benefit from this approach. In this exploratory analysis, we investigated the prognostic value of circulating miR-625-3p and lncRNA GAS5 after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. 36 MPM [...] Read more.
Combining neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery is part of multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but not all patients benefit from this approach. In this exploratory analysis, we investigated the prognostic value of circulating miR-625-3p and lncRNA GAS5 after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. 36 MPM patients from the SAKK 17/04 trial (NCT00334594), whose blood was available before and after chemotherapy were investigated. RNA was isolated from plasma and reverse transcribed into cDNA. miR-16-5p and β-actin were used as a reference gene for miR-625-3p and GAS5, respectively. After exclusion of samples due to hemolysis or RNA degradation, paired plasma samples from 32 patients before and after chemotherapy were further analyzed. Quantification of miR-625-3p levels in all 64 samples revealed a bimodal distribution and cloning and sequencing of miR-625-3p qPCR product revealed the presence of miR-625-3p isomiRs. Relative change of the circulating miR-625-3p and GAS5 levels after chemotherapy showed that increased circulating miR-625-3p and decreased GAS5 was significantly associated with disease progression (Fisher’s test, p = 0.0393). In addition, decreased levels of circulating GAS5 were significantly associated with shorter overall and progression-free survival. Our exploratory analysis revealed a potential value of circulating non-coding RNA for selection of patients likely to benefit from surgery after platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Non-Coding RNAs in Oncogenesis and Tumor Inhibition)
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Open AccessEditorial
The Non-Coding RNA Journal Club: Highlights on Recent Papers—7
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020040
Received: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
We are delighted to share with you our seventh Journal Club and highlight some of the most interesting papers published recently [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
The Transcribed-Ultra Conserved Regions: Novel Non-Coding RNA Players in Neuroblastoma Progression
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020039
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
The Transcribed-Ultra Conserved Regions (T-UCRs) are a class of novel non-coding RNAs that arise from the dark matter of the genome. T-UCRs are highly conserved between mouse, rat, and human genomes, which might indicate a definitive role for these elements in health and [...] Read more.
The Transcribed-Ultra Conserved Regions (T-UCRs) are a class of novel non-coding RNAs that arise from the dark matter of the genome. T-UCRs are highly conserved between mouse, rat, and human genomes, which might indicate a definitive role for these elements in health and disease. The growing body of evidence suggests that T-UCRs contribute to oncogenic pathways. Neuroblastoma is a type of childhood cancer that is challenging to treat. The role of non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma, in particular for cancer development, progression, and therapy resistance, has been documented. Exosmic non-coding RNAs are also involved in shaping the biology of the tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma. In recent years, the involvement of T-UCRs in a wide variety of pathways in neuroblastoma has been discovered. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of T-UCRs in various cellular pathways, such as DNA damage response, proliferation, chemotherapy response, MYCN (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (avian)) amplification, gene copy number, and immune response, as well as correlate it to patient survival in neuroblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Brain Tumors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020038
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
During the last decade, and mainly primed by major developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalogue of RNA molecules harbouring regulatory functions has increased at a steady pace. Current evidence indicates that hundreds of mammalian RNAs have regulatory roles at several levels, including [...] Read more.
During the last decade, and mainly primed by major developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalogue of RNA molecules harbouring regulatory functions has increased at a steady pace. Current evidence indicates that hundreds of mammalian RNAs have regulatory roles at several levels, including transcription, translation/post-translation, chromatin structure, and nuclear architecture, thus suggesting that RNA molecules are indeed mighty controllers in the flow of biological information. Therefore, it is logical to suggest that there must exist a series of molecular systems that safeguard the faithful inheritance of RNA content throughout cell division and that those mechanisms must be tightly controlled to ensure the successful segregation of key molecules to the progeny. Interestingly, whilst a handful of integral components of mammalian cells seem to follow a general pattern of asymmetric inheritance throughout division, the fate of RNA molecules largely remains a mystery. Herein, we will discuss current concepts of asymmetric inheritance in a wide range of systems, including prions, proteins, and finally RNA molecules, to assess overall the biological impact of RNA inheritance in cellular plasticity and evolutionary fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Circulating microRNAs and Their Role in Multiple Myeloma
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020037
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells. The recent literature has clearly demonstrated clonal heterogeneity in terms of both the genomic and transcriptomic signature of the tumor. Of note, novel studies have also [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells. The recent literature has clearly demonstrated clonal heterogeneity in terms of both the genomic and transcriptomic signature of the tumor. Of note, novel studies have also highlighted the importance of the functional cross-talk between the tumor clone and the surrounding bone marrow milieu, as a relevant player of MM pathogenesis. These findings have certainly enhanced our understanding of the underlying mechanisms supporting MM pathogenesis and disease progression. Within the specific field of small non-coding RNA-research, recent studies have provided evidence for considering microRNAs as a crucial regulator of MM biology and, in this context, circulating microRNAs have been shown to potentially contribute to prognostic stratification of MM patients. The present review will summarize the most recent studies within the specific topic of microRNAs and circulating microRNAs in MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA in Multiple Myeloma)
Open AccessReview
Roles of Non-Coding RNAs in Normal Human Brain Development, Brain Tumor, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020036
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 24 March 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
One of modern biology’s great surprises is that the human genome encodes only ~20,000 protein-coding genes, which represents less than 2% of the total genome sequence, and the majority of them are transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Increasing evidence has shown that ncRNAs, [...] Read more.
One of modern biology’s great surprises is that the human genome encodes only ~20,000 protein-coding genes, which represents less than 2% of the total genome sequence, and the majority of them are transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Increasing evidence has shown that ncRNAs, including miRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), play important roles in regulating a wide range of biological processes of the human brain. They not only regulate the pathogenesis of brain tumors, but also the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. This review provides an integrated overview of the roles of ncRNAs in normal human brain function, brain tumor development, and neuropsychiatric disease. We discussed the functions and molecular mechanisms of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in normal brain function and glioma, respectively, including those in exosome vesicles that can act as a molecular information carrier. We also discussed the regulatory roles of ncRNAs in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. Lastly, we summarized the currently available platforms and tools that can be used for ncRNA identification and functional exploration in human diseases. This study will provide comprehensive insights for the roles of ncRNAs in human brain function and disease. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
MicroRNAs in Neuroinflammation: Implications in Disease Pathogenesis, Biomarker Discovery and Therapeutic Applications
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020035
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The central nervous system can respond to threat via the induction of an inflammatory response. Under normal circumstances this response is tightly controlled, however uncontrolled neuroinflammation is a hallmark of many neurological disorders. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are important for [...] Read more.
The central nervous system can respond to threat via the induction of an inflammatory response. Under normal circumstances this response is tightly controlled, however uncontrolled neuroinflammation is a hallmark of many neurological disorders. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are important for regulating many cellular processes. The ability of microRNAs to modulate inflammatory signaling is an area of ongoing research, which has gained much attention in recent years. MicroRNAs may either promote or restrict inflammatory signaling, and either exacerbate or ameliorate the pathological consequences of excessive neuroinflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the mode of regulation for several important and well-studied microRNAs in the context of neuroinflammation, including miR-155, miR-146a, miR-124, miR-21 and let-7. Furthermore, the pathological consequences of miRNA deregulation during disorders that feature neuroinflammation are discussed, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Prion diseases, Japanese encephalitis, Herpes encephalitis, ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. There has also been considerable interest in the use of altered microRNA signatures as biomarkers for these disorders. The ability to modulate microRNA expression may even serve as the basis for future therapeutic strategies to help treat pathological neuroinflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and the Immune System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Long Non-Coding RNAs and the Innate Immune Response
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020034
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Innate immunity provides the initial defence against infection and it is now clear that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of this response. Following activation of the innate response, we commonly see rapid induction of these lncRNAs and this is often mediated [...] Read more.
Innate immunity provides the initial defence against infection and it is now clear that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of this response. Following activation of the innate response, we commonly see rapid induction of these lncRNAs and this is often mediated via the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Knockdown studies have shown that lncRNAs tend to act in trans to regulate the expression of multiple inflammatory mediators and other responses. Mechanistically, many lncRNAs have demonstrated acting through heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, complexes that are implicated chromatin re-modelling, transcription process and translation. In addition, these lncRNAs have also been shown to interact with multiple other proteins involved in the regulation of chromatin re-modelling, as well as those proteins involved in intracellular immune signalling, which include NF-κB. In this review, we will describe the evidence that supports this emerging role of lncRNA in the innate immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and the Immune System)
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Open AccessArticle
Long Non-Coding RNA Myoparr Regulates GDF5 Expression in Denervated Mouse Skeletal Muscle
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020033
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue and decreased skeletal muscle mass (muscle atrophy) results in deteriorated motor function and perturbed body homeostasis. Myogenin promoter-associated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Myoparr promotes skeletal muscle atrophy caused by surgical denervation; however, the precise molecular mechanism [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue and decreased skeletal muscle mass (muscle atrophy) results in deteriorated motor function and perturbed body homeostasis. Myogenin promoter-associated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Myoparr promotes skeletal muscle atrophy caused by surgical denervation; however, the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined the downstream genes of Myoparr during muscle atrophy following denervation of tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in C57BL/6J mice. Myoparr knockdown affected the expression of 848 genes. Sixty-five of the genes differentially regulated by Myoparr knockdown coded secretory proteins. Among these 65 genes identified in Myoparr-depleted skeletal muscles after denervation, we focused on the increased expression of growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), an inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Myoparr knockdown led to activated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in denervated muscles, as indicated by the increased levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. Our detailed evaluation of downstream genes of Myoparr also revealed that Myoparr regulated differential gene expression between myogenic differentiation and muscle atrophy. This is the first report demonstrating the in vivo role of Myoparr in regulating BMP signaling in denervated muscles. Therefore, lncRNAs that have inhibitory activity on BMP signaling may be putative therapeutic targets for skeletal muscle atrophy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Plasma MicroRNA Biomarkers of Early and Complicated Diabetes Mellitus in Israeli Arab and Jewish Patients
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020032
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
MicroRNAs play functional roles in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, and extracellular microRNAs have attracted interest as potential biomarkers of these conditions. We aimed to identify a set of plasma microRNAs, which could serve as biomarkers of T2DM [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs play functional roles in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, and extracellular microRNAs have attracted interest as potential biomarkers of these conditions. We aimed to identify a set of plasma microRNAs, which could serve as biomarkers of T2DM and complications in a mixed Israeli Arab/Jewish patient sample. Subjects included 30 healthy volunteers, 29 early-stage T2DM patients, and 29 late-stage T2DM patients with renal and/or vascular complications. RNA was isolated from plasma, and the levels of 12 candidate microRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MicroRNA levels were compared between the groups and correlated to clinical measurements, followed by stepwise regression analysis and discriminant analysis. Plasma miR-486-3p and miR-423 were respectively up- and down-regulated in T2DM patients compared to healthy controls. MiR-28-3p and miR-423 were up-regulated in patients with complicated T2DM compared to early T2DM, while miR-486-3p was down-regulated. Combined, four microRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-16-2-3p, miR-126-5p, and miR-30d) could distinguish early from complicated T2DM with 77% accuracy and 79% sensitivity. In male patients only, the same microRNAs, with the addition of miR-423, could distinguish early from complicated T2DM with 83.3% accuracy. Furthermore, plasma microRNA levels showed significant correlations with clinical measurements, and these differed between men and women. Additionally, miR-183-5p levels differed significantly between the ethnic groups. Our study identified a panel of specific plasma microRNAs which can serve as biomarkers of T2DM and its complications and emphasizes the importance of sex differences in their clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Open AccessProject Report
Catalyzing Transcriptomics Research in Cardiovascular Disease: The CardioRNA COST Action CA17129
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020031
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide and, despite continuous advances, better diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as therapy, are needed. The human transcriptome, which is the set of all RNA produced in a cell, is much more complex [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide and, despite continuous advances, better diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as therapy, are needed. The human transcriptome, which is the set of all RNA produced in a cell, is much more complex than previously thought and the lack of dialogue between researchers and industrials and consensus on guidelines to generate data make it harder to compare and reproduce results. This European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action aims to accelerate the understanding of transcriptomics in CVD and further the translation of experimental data into usable applications to improve personalized medicine in this field by creating an interdisciplinary network. It aims to provide opportunities for collaboration between stakeholders from complementary backgrounds, allowing the functions of different RNAs and their interactions to be more rapidly deciphered in the cardiovascular context for translation into the clinic, thus fostering personalized medicine and meeting a current public health challenge. Thus, this Action will advance studies on cardiovascular transcriptomics, generate innovative projects, and consolidate the leadership of European research groups in the field. COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is a funding organization for research and innovation networks (www.cost.eu). Full article
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