Special Issue "Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease"

A special issue of Non-Coding RNA (ISSN 2311-553X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gianpiero Di Leva
Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Guy Hilton Research Facility, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
Interests: microRNAs in cancer; microRNA and cell cycle
Dr. Arijit Mukhopadhyay
Website
Guest Editor
The University of Salford, Manchester, UK
Interests: microRNAs in cancer; microRNA editing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The majority of the transcriptome in higher eukaryotes is not translated into functional proteins. Thus, non-coding RNA now holds a major regulatory role in shaping the phenotypic complexity. This Special Issue is focused on, but not limited to, the variations in expression, post-transcriptional modifications, structure, etc., of different classes of non-coding RNAs and their possible role in health and disease. Both reviews and original research articles are welcome.

Dr. Gianpiero Di Leva
Dr. Arijit Mukhopadhyay
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Non-Coding RNA is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Non-coding RNA
  • microRNA
  • lncRNA
  • RNA editing
  • Epigenetic modifications
  • RNA secondary structure

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Long Non-Coding RNAs as Molecular Signatures for Canine B-Cell Lymphoma Characterization
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5030047 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) are the most common B-cell lymphomas (BCL) in dogs. Recent investigations have demonstrated overlaps of these histotypes with the human counterparts, including clinical presentation, biologic behavior, tumor genetics, and [...] Read more.
Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) are the most common B-cell lymphomas (BCL) in dogs. Recent investigations have demonstrated overlaps of these histotypes with the human counterparts, including clinical presentation, biologic behavior, tumor genetics, and treatment response. The molecular mechanisms that underlie canine BCL are still unknown and new studies to improve diagnosis, therapy, and the utilization of canine species as spontaneous animal tumor models are undeniably needed. Recent work using human DLBCL transcriptomes has suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in lymphoma pathogenesis and pinpointed a restricted number of lncRNAs as potential targets for further studies. Results: To expand the knowledge of non-coding molecules involved in canine BCL, we used transcriptomes obtained from a cohort of 62 dogs with newly-diagnosed multicentric DLBCL, MZL and FL that had undergone complete staging work-up and were treated with chemotherapy or chemo-immunotherapy. We developed a customized R pipeline performing a transcriptome assembly by multiple algorithms to uncover novel lncRNAs, and delineate genome-wide expression of unannotated and annotated lncRNAs. Our pipeline also included a new package for high performance system biology analysis, which detects high-scoring network biological neighborhoods to identify functional modules. Moreover, our customized pipeline quantified the expression of novel and annotated lncRNAs, allowing us to subtype DLBCLs into two main groups. The DLBCL subtypes showed statistically different survivals, indicating the potential use of lncRNAs as prognostic biomarkers in future studies. Conclusions: In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used to identify lncRNAs that differentiate B-cell lymphoma subtypes and we interpreted the biological and clinical values of the results. We inferred the potential functions of lncRNAs to obtain a comprehensive and integrative insight that highlights their impact in this neoplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Plasma MicroRNA Biomarkers of Early and Complicated Diabetes Mellitus in Israeli Arab and Jewish Patients
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020032 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
MicroRNAs play functional roles in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, and extracellular microRNAs have attracted interest as potential biomarkers of these conditions. We aimed to identify a set of plasma microRNAs, which could serve as biomarkers of T2DM [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs play functional roles in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, and extracellular microRNAs have attracted interest as potential biomarkers of these conditions. We aimed to identify a set of plasma microRNAs, which could serve as biomarkers of T2DM and complications in a mixed Israeli Arab/Jewish patient sample. Subjects included 30 healthy volunteers, 29 early-stage T2DM patients, and 29 late-stage T2DM patients with renal and/or vascular complications. RNA was isolated from plasma, and the levels of 12 candidate microRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MicroRNA levels were compared between the groups and correlated to clinical measurements, followed by stepwise regression analysis and discriminant analysis. Plasma miR-486-3p and miR-423 were respectively up- and down-regulated in T2DM patients compared to healthy controls. MiR-28-3p and miR-423 were up-regulated in patients with complicated T2DM compared to early T2DM, while miR-486-3p was down-regulated. Combined, four microRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-16-2-3p, miR-126-5p, and miR-30d) could distinguish early from complicated T2DM with 77% accuracy and 79% sensitivity. In male patients only, the same microRNAs, with the addition of miR-423, could distinguish early from complicated T2DM with 83.3% accuracy. Furthermore, plasma microRNA levels showed significant correlations with clinical measurements, and these differed between men and women. Additionally, miR-183-5p levels differed significantly between the ethnic groups. Our study identified a panel of specific plasma microRNAs which can serve as biomarkers of T2DM and its complications and emphasizes the importance of sex differences in their clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
MiRNAs as Novel Adipokines: Obesity-Related Circulating MiRNAs Influence Chemosensitivity in Cancer Patients
Non-Coding RNA 2020, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna6010005 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, capable of regulating distant physiological processes in other tissues via the release of adipokines into the bloodstream. Recently, circulating adipose-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as a novel class of adipokine, due to their capacity to regulate [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, capable of regulating distant physiological processes in other tissues via the release of adipokines into the bloodstream. Recently, circulating adipose-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as a novel class of adipokine, due to their capacity to regulate gene expression in tissues other than fat. Circulating levels of adipokines are known to be altered in obese individuals compared with typical weight individuals and are linked to poorer health outcomes. For example, obese individuals are known to be more prone to the development of some cancers, and less likely to achieve event-free survival following chemotherapy. The purpose of this review was twofold; first to identify circulating miRNAs which are reproducibly altered in obesity, and secondly to identify mechanisms by which these obesity-linked miRNAs might influence the sensitivity of tumors to treatment. We identified 8 candidate circulating miRNAs with altered levels in obese individuals (6 increased, 2 decreased). A second literature review was then performed to investigate if these candidates might have a role in mediating resistance to cancer treatment. All of the circulating miRNAs identified were capable of mediating responses to cancer treatment at the cellular level, and so this review provides novel insights which can be used by future studies which aim to improve obese patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020038 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
During the last decade, and mainly primed by major developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalogue of RNA molecules harbouring regulatory functions has increased at a steady pace. Current evidence indicates that hundreds of mammalian RNAs have regulatory roles at several levels, including [...] Read more.
During the last decade, and mainly primed by major developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalogue of RNA molecules harbouring regulatory functions has increased at a steady pace. Current evidence indicates that hundreds of mammalian RNAs have regulatory roles at several levels, including transcription, translation/post-translation, chromatin structure, and nuclear architecture, thus suggesting that RNA molecules are indeed mighty controllers in the flow of biological information. Therefore, it is logical to suggest that there must exist a series of molecular systems that safeguard the faithful inheritance of RNA content throughout cell division and that those mechanisms must be tightly controlled to ensure the successful segregation of key molecules to the progeny. Interestingly, whilst a handful of integral components of mammalian cells seem to follow a general pattern of asymmetric inheritance throughout division, the fate of RNA molecules largely remains a mystery. Herein, we will discuss current concepts of asymmetric inheritance in a wide range of systems, including prions, proteins, and finally RNA molecules, to assess overall the biological impact of RNA inheritance in cellular plasticity and evolutionary fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Regulation of Gene Expression: Physiology and Disease
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5010017 - 17 Feb 2019
Cited by 76
Abstract
The identification of RNAs that are not translated into proteins was an important breakthrough, defining the diversity of molecules involved in eukaryotic regulation of gene expression. These non-coding RNAs can be divided into two main classes according to their length: short non-coding RNAs, [...] Read more.
The identification of RNAs that are not translated into proteins was an important breakthrough, defining the diversity of molecules involved in eukaryotic regulation of gene expression. These non-coding RNAs can be divided into two main classes according to their length: short non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The lncRNAs in association with other molecules can coordinate several physiological processes and their dysfunction may impact in several pathologies, including cancer and infectious diseases. They can control the flux of genetic information, such as chromosome structure modulation, transcription, splicing, messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, mRNA availability, and post-translational modifications. Long non-coding RNAs present interaction domains for DNA, mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins, depending on both sequence and secondary structure. The advent of new generation sequencing has provided evidences of putative lncRNAs existence; however, the analysis of transcriptomes for their functional characterization remains a challenge. Here, we review some important aspects of lncRNA biology, focusing on their role as regulatory elements in gene expression modulation during physiological and disease processes, with implications in host and pathogens physiology, and their role in immune response modulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Human Brain Shows Recurrent Non-Canonical MicroRNA Editing Events Enriched for Seed Sequence with Possible Functional Consequence
Non-Coding RNA 2020, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna6020021 - 02 Jun 2020
Abstract
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification, which can provide tissue-specific functions not encoded in DNA. Adenosine-to-inosine is the predominant editing event and, along with cytosine-to-uracil changes, constitutes canonical editing. The rest is non-canonical editing. In this study, we have analysed non-canonical editing of [...] Read more.
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification, which can provide tissue-specific functions not encoded in DNA. Adenosine-to-inosine is the predominant editing event and, along with cytosine-to-uracil changes, constitutes canonical editing. The rest is non-canonical editing. In this study, we have analysed non-canonical editing of microRNAs in the human brain. We have performed massively parallel small RNA sequencing of frontal cortex (FC) and corpus callosum (CC) pairs from nine normal individuals (post-mortem). We found 113 and 90 unique non-canonical editing events in FC and CC samples, respectively. More than 70% of events were in the miRNA seed sequence—implicating an altered set of target mRNAs and possibly resulting in a functional consequence. Up to 15% of these events were recurring and found in at least three samples, also supporting the biological relevance of such variations. Two specific sequence variations, C-to-A and G-to-U, accounted for over 80% of non-canonical miRNA editing events—and revealed preferred sequence motifs. Our study is one of the first reporting non-canonical editing in miRNAs in the human brain. Our results implicate miRNA non-canonical editing as one of the contributing factors towards transcriptomic diversity in the human brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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