Special Issue "Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease"

A special issue of Non-Coding RNA (ISSN 2311-553X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (26 March 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Gianpiero Di Leva

The University of Salford, Manchester, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microRNAs in cancer; microRNA editing
Guest Editor
Dr. Arijit Mukhopadhyay

The University of Salford, Manchester, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microRNAs in cancer; microRNA editing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The majority of the transcriptome in higher eukaryotes is not translated into functional proteins. Thus, non-coding RNA now holds a major regulatory role in shaping the phenotypic complexity. This Special Issue is focused on, but not limited to, the variations in expression, post-transcriptional modifications, structure, etc., of different classes of non-coding RNAs and their possible role in health and disease. Both reviews and original research articles are welcome.

Dr. Gianpiero Di Leva
Dr. Arijit Mukhopadhyay
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Non-Coding RNA is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Non-coding RNA
  • microRNA
  • lncRNA
  • RNA editing
  • Epigenetic modifications
  • RNA secondary structure

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Plasma MicroRNA Biomarkers of Early and Complicated Diabetes Mellitus in Israeli Arab and Jewish Patients
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020032
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
MicroRNAs play functional roles in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, and extracellular microRNAs have attracted interest as potential biomarkers of these conditions. We aimed to identify a set of plasma microRNAs, which could serve as biomarkers of T2DM [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs play functional roles in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications, and extracellular microRNAs have attracted interest as potential biomarkers of these conditions. We aimed to identify a set of plasma microRNAs, which could serve as biomarkers of T2DM and complications in a mixed Israeli Arab/Jewish patient sample. Subjects included 30 healthy volunteers, 29 early-stage T2DM patients, and 29 late-stage T2DM patients with renal and/or vascular complications. RNA was isolated from plasma, and the levels of 12 candidate microRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MicroRNA levels were compared between the groups and correlated to clinical measurements, followed by stepwise regression analysis and discriminant analysis. Plasma miR-486-3p and miR-423 were respectively up- and down-regulated in T2DM patients compared to healthy controls. MiR-28-3p and miR-423 were up-regulated in patients with complicated T2DM compared to early T2DM, while miR-486-3p was down-regulated. Combined, four microRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-16-2-3p, miR-126-5p, and miR-30d) could distinguish early from complicated T2DM with 77% accuracy and 79% sensitivity. In male patients only, the same microRNAs, with the addition of miR-423, could distinguish early from complicated T2DM with 83.3% accuracy. Furthermore, plasma microRNA levels showed significant correlations with clinical measurements, and these differed between men and women. Additionally, miR-183-5p levels differed significantly between the ethnic groups. Our study identified a panel of specific plasma microRNAs which can serve as biomarkers of T2DM and its complications and emphasizes the importance of sex differences in their clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Asymmetric Inheritance of Cell Fate Determinants: Focus on RNA
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5020038
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
During the last decade, and mainly primed by major developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalogue of RNA molecules harbouring regulatory functions has increased at a steady pace. Current evidence indicates that hundreds of mammalian RNAs have regulatory roles at several levels, including [...] Read more.
During the last decade, and mainly primed by major developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalogue of RNA molecules harbouring regulatory functions has increased at a steady pace. Current evidence indicates that hundreds of mammalian RNAs have regulatory roles at several levels, including transcription, translation/post-translation, chromatin structure, and nuclear architecture, thus suggesting that RNA molecules are indeed mighty controllers in the flow of biological information. Therefore, it is logical to suggest that there must exist a series of molecular systems that safeguard the faithful inheritance of RNA content throughout cell division and that those mechanisms must be tightly controlled to ensure the successful segregation of key molecules to the progeny. Interestingly, whilst a handful of integral components of mammalian cells seem to follow a general pattern of asymmetric inheritance throughout division, the fate of RNA molecules largely remains a mystery. Herein, we will discuss current concepts of asymmetric inheritance in a wide range of systems, including prions, proteins, and finally RNA molecules, to assess overall the biological impact of RNA inheritance in cellular plasticity and evolutionary fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Regulation of Gene Expression: Physiology and Disease
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5010017
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The identification of RNAs that are not translated into proteins was an important breakthrough, defining the diversity of molecules involved in eukaryotic regulation of gene expression. These non-coding RNAs can be divided into two main classes according to their length: short non-coding RNAs, [...] Read more.
The identification of RNAs that are not translated into proteins was an important breakthrough, defining the diversity of molecules involved in eukaryotic regulation of gene expression. These non-coding RNAs can be divided into two main classes according to their length: short non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The lncRNAs in association with other molecules can coordinate several physiological processes and their dysfunction may impact in several pathologies, including cancer and infectious diseases. They can control the flux of genetic information, such as chromosome structure modulation, transcription, splicing, messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, mRNA availability, and post-translational modifications. Long non-coding RNAs present interaction domains for DNA, mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins, depending on both sequence and secondary structure. The advent of new generation sequencing has provided evidences of putative lncRNAs existence; however, the analysis of transcriptomes for their functional characterization remains a challenge. Here, we review some important aspects of lncRNA biology, focusing on their role as regulatory elements in gene expression modulation during physiological and disease processes, with implications in host and pathogens physiology, and their role in immune response modulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs: Variations and Disease)
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