One of modern biology’s great surprises is that the human genome encodes only ~20,000 protein-coding genes, which represents less than 2% of the total genome sequence, and the majority of them are transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Increasing evidence has shown that ncRNAs, including miRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), play important roles in regulating a wide range of biological processes of the human brain. They not only regulate the pathogenesis of brain tumors, but also the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. This review provides an integrated overview of the roles of ncRNAs in normal human brain function, brain tumor development, and neuropsychiatric disease. We discussed the functions and molecular mechanisms of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in normal brain function and glioma, respectively, including those in exosome vesicles that can act as a molecular information carrier. We also discussed the regulatory roles of ncRNAs in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. Lastly, we summarized the currently available platforms and tools that can be used for ncRNA identification and functional exploration in human diseases. This study will provide comprehensive insights for the roles of ncRNAs in human brain function and disease.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited