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Non-Coding RNA, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Long Non-Coding RNAs Associated with Heterochromatin Function in Immune Cells in Psychosis
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040043
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Psychosis is associated with chronic immune dysregulation. Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) display abnormal expression during activation of immune responses, and play a role in heterochromatic regulation of gene promoters. We have measured lncRNAs MEG3, PINT and GAS5, selected for their previously described
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Psychosis is associated with chronic immune dysregulation. Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) display abnormal expression during activation of immune responses, and play a role in heterochromatic regulation of gene promoters. We have measured lncRNAs MEG3, PINT and GAS5, selected for their previously described association with heterochromatin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from blood samples collected from 86 participants with a diagnosis of psychosis and 44 control participants. Expression was assessed in relation to diagnosis, illness acuity status, and treatment with antipsychotic medication. We observed diagnostic differences with MEG3, PINT and GAS5, and symptom acuity effect with MEG3 and GAS5. Medication effects were evident in those currently on treatment with antipsychotics when compared to drug-naïve participants. We observed that clinical diagnosis and symptom acuity predict selected lncRNA expression. Particular noteworthy is the differential expression of MEG3 in drug naïve participants compared to those treated with risperidone. Additionally, an in vitro cell model using M2tol macrophages was used to test the effects of the antipsychotic drug risperidone on the expression of these lncRNAs using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Significant but differential effects of risperidone were observed in M2tol macrophages indicating a clear ability of antipsychotic medications to modify lncRNA expression. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Non-Coding RNAs to Aid in Neurological Prognosis after Cardiac Arrest
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040042
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease in general, and sudden cardiac death in particular, have an enormous socio-economic burden worldwide. Despite significant efforts to improve cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival rates remain low. Moreover, patients who survive to hospital discharge have a high risk of developing severe physical or
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Cardiovascular disease in general, and sudden cardiac death in particular, have an enormous socio-economic burden worldwide. Despite significant efforts to improve cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival rates remain low. Moreover, patients who survive to hospital discharge have a high risk of developing severe physical or neurological symptoms. Being able to predict outcomes after resuscitation from cardiac arrest would make it possible to tailor healthcare approaches, thereby maximising efforts for those who would mostly benefit from aggressive therapy. However, the identification of patients at risk of poor recovery after cardiac arrest is still a challenging task which could be facilitated by novel biomarkers. Recent investigations have recognised the potential of non-coding RNAs to aid in outcome prediction after cardiac arrest. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries and propose a handful of novel perspectives for the use of non-coding RNAs to predict outcome after cardiac arrest, discussing their use for precision medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulatory RNAs in Cardiovascular Development and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Non-Coding RNA in Pancreas and β-Cell Development
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040041
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of different classes of non-coding RNAs for islet and β-cell development, maturation and function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a prominent class of small RNAs, have been investigated for more than two
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In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of different classes of non-coding RNAs for islet and β-cell development, maturation and function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a prominent class of small RNAs, have been investigated for more than two decades and patterns of the roles of different miRNAs in pancreatic fetal development, islet and β-cell maturation and function are now emerging. Specific miRNAs are dynamically regulated throughout the period of pancreas development, during islet and β-cell differentiation as well as in the perinatal period, where a burst of β-cell replication takes place. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in islet and β-cells is less investigated than for miRNAs, but knowledge is increasing rapidly. The advent of ultra-deep RNA sequencing has enabled the identification of highly islet- or β-cell-selective lncRNA transcripts expressed at low levels. Their roles in islet cells are currently only characterized for a few of these lncRNAs, and these are often associated with β-cell super-enhancers and regulate neighboring gene activity. Moreover, ncRNAs present in imprinted regions are involved in pancreas development and β-cell function. Altogether, these observations support significant and important actions of ncRNAs in β-cell development and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Non-Coding RNAs in Breast Cancer: Intracellular and Intercellular Communication
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040040
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulators of intracellular and intercellular signaling in breast cancer. ncRNAs modulate intracellular signaling to control diverse cellular processes, including levels and activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα), proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and stemness. In addition, ncRNAs can be packaged
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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulators of intracellular and intercellular signaling in breast cancer. ncRNAs modulate intracellular signaling to control diverse cellular processes, including levels and activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα), proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and stemness. In addition, ncRNAs can be packaged into exosomes to provide intercellular communication by the transmission of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to cells locally or systemically. This review provides an overview of the biogenesis and roles of ncRNAs: small nucleolar RNA (snRNA), circular RNAs (circRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs in breast cancer. Since more is known about the miRNAs and lncRNAs that are expressed in breast tumors, their established targets as oncogenic drivers and tumor suppressors will be reviewed. The focus is on miRNAs and lncRNAs identified in breast tumors, since a number of ncRNAs identified in breast cancer cells are not dysregulated in breast tumors. The identity and putative function of selected lncRNAs increased: nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), steroid receptor RNA activator 1 (SRA1), colon cancer associated transcript 2 (CCAT2), colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE), myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), and long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, Regulator of Reprogramming (LINC-ROR); and decreased levels of maternally-expressed 3 (MEG3) in breast tumors have been observed as well. miRNAs and lncRNAs are considered targets of therapeutic intervention in breast cancer, but further work is needed to bring the promise of regulating their activities to clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA in Reproductive Organ Cancers)
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Open AccessCommunication Upregulation of Long Non-Coding RNA DRAIC Correlates with Adverse Features of Breast Cancer
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040039
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
DRAIC (also known as LOC145837 and RP11-279F6.1), is a long non-coding RNA associated with several types of cancer including prostate cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Its expression is elevated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent benign tissues in breast cancer patients
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DRAIC (also known as LOC145837 and RP11-279F6.1), is a long non-coding RNA associated with several types of cancer including prostate cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Its expression is elevated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent benign tissues in breast cancer patients and is regulated by estrogen treatment in breast cancer cells. In addition, expression analysis of DRAIC in more than 100 cell lines showed that DRAIC expression is high in luminal and basal subtypes compared to claudin low subtype, suggesting a prognostic value of DRAIC expression in breast cancer. In the present study, we analyzed DRAIC expression in 828 invasive breast carcinomas and 105 normal samples of RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found that DRAIC expression was correlated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and is increased in cancerous tissues. Additionally, higher DRAIC expression was associated with poorer survival of patients, especially in ER positive breast cancer. DRAIC was also investigated in the Oncomine database and we found that DRAIC expression predicted patients’ response to paclitaxel and FEC as well as lapatinib, which are commonly used therapy options for breast cancer. Finally, DRAIC expression in breast cancer was negatively correlated with immune cell infiltration. These results reinforce the importance of DRAIC in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA in Reproductive Organ Cancers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Cell Type-Selective Expression of Circular RNAs in Human Pancreatic Islets
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040038
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Understanding distinct cell-type specific gene expression in human pancreatic islets is important for developing islet regeneration strategies and therapies to improve β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D). While numerous transcriptome-wide studies on human islet cell-types have focused on protein-coding genes, the non-coding
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Understanding distinct cell-type specific gene expression in human pancreatic islets is important for developing islet regeneration strategies and therapies to improve β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D). While numerous transcriptome-wide studies on human islet cell-types have focused on protein-coding genes, the non-coding repertoire, such as long non-coding RNA, including circular RNAs, remains mostly unexplored. Here, we explored transcriptional landscape of human α-, β-, and exocrine cells from published total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) datasets to identify circular RNAs (circRNAs). Our analysis revealed that circRNAs are highly abundant in both α- and β-cells. We identified 10,830 high-confidence circRNAs expressed in human α-, β-, and exocrine cells. The most highly expressed candidates were MAN1A2, RMST, and HIPK3 across the three cell-types. Alternate circular isoforms were observed for circRNAs in the three cell-types, indicative of potential distinct functions. Highly selective α- and β-cell circRNAs were identified, which is suggestive of their potential role in regulating β-cell function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Levels of miR-148a and miR-21-5p Are Increased in Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Correlated with Markers of Bone Strength and Metabolism
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040037
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by bone loss and altered bone remodeling, resulting into reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. Identification of specific biomarkers and/or causative factors of diabetic bone fragility is of fundamental importance for an
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by bone loss and altered bone remodeling, resulting into reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. Identification of specific biomarkers and/or causative factors of diabetic bone fragility is of fundamental importance for an early detection of such alterations and to envisage appropriate therapeutic interventions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which negatively regulate genes expression. Of note, miRNAs can be secreted in biological fluids through their association with different cellular components and, in such context, they may represent both candidate biomarkers and/or mediators of bone metabolism alterations. Here, we aimed at identifying miRNAs differentially expressed in serum of T1D patients and potentially involved in bone loss in type 1 diabetes. We selected six miRNAs previously associated with T1D and bone metabolism: miR-21; miR-24; miR-27a; miR-148a; miR-214; and miR-375. Selected miRNAs were analyzed in sera of 15 T1D patients (age: 33.57 ± 8.17; BMI: 21.4 ± 1.65) and 14 non-diabetic subjects (age: 31.7 ± 8.2; BMI: 24.6 ± 4.34). Calcium, osteocalcin, parathormone (PTH), bone ALkaline Phoshatase (bALP), and Vitamin D (VitD) as well as main parameters of bone health were measured in each patient. We observed an increased expression of miR-148a (p = 0.012) and miR-21-5p (p = 0.034) in sera of T1D patients vs. non-diabetic subjects. The correlation analysis between miRNAs expression and the main parameters of bone metabolism, showed a correlation between miR-148a and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) total body (TB) values (p = 0.042) and PTH circulating levels (p = 0.033) and the association of miR-21-5p to Bone Mineral Content-Femur (BMC-FEM). Finally, miR-148a and miR-21-5p target genes prediction analysis revealed several factors involved in bone development and remodeling, such as MAFB, WNT1, TGFB2, STAT3, or PDCD4, and the co-modulation of common pathways involved in bone homeostasis thus potentially assigning a role to both miR-148a and miR-21-5p in bone metabolism alterations. In conclusion, these results lead us to hypothesize a potential role for miR-148a and miR-21-5p in bone remodeling, thus representing potential biomarkers of bone fragility in T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Deregulation of Host MicroRNAs
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040036
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
Viruses utilize microRNAs (miRNAs) in a vast variety of possible interactions and mechanisms, apparently far beyond the classical understanding of gene repression in humans. Likewise, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses numerous miRNAs and deregulates the expression of host miRNAs. Several HSV-1 miRNAs
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Viruses utilize microRNAs (miRNAs) in a vast variety of possible interactions and mechanisms, apparently far beyond the classical understanding of gene repression in humans. Likewise, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses numerous miRNAs and deregulates the expression of host miRNAs. Several HSV-1 miRNAs are abundantly expressed in latency, some of which are encoded antisense to transcripts of important productive infection genes, indicating their roles in repressing the productive cycle and/or in maintenance/reactivation from latency. In addition, HSV-1 also exploits host miRNAs to advance its replication or repress its genes to facilitate latency. Here, we discuss what is known about the functional interplay between HSV-1 and the host miRNA machinery, potential targets, and the molecular mechanisms leading to an efficient virus replication and spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Disease Duration on Circulating Levels of miRNAs in Children and Adolescents with New Onset Type 1 Diabetes
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040035
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in several pathologies including type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to identify circulating miRNAs affected by disease duration in children with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Forty children and adolescents from the Danish Remission
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Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in several pathologies including type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to identify circulating miRNAs affected by disease duration in children with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Forty children and adolescents from the Danish Remission Phase Cohort were followed with blood samples drawn at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after diagnosis. Pancreatic autoantibodies were measured at each visit. Cytokines were measured only the first year. miRNA expression profiling was performed by RT-qPCR. The effect of disease duration was analyzed by mixed models for repeated measurements adjusted for sex and age. Eight miRNAs (hsa-miR-10b-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p, and hsa-miR-497-5p) were found to significantly change in expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) with disease progression. Three pancreatic autoantibodies, ICA, IA-2A, and GAD65A, and four cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, IL-21, and IL-22, were associated with the miRNAs at different time points. Pathway analysis revealed associations with various immune-mediated signaling pathways. Eight miRNAs that were involved in immunological pathways changed expression levels during the first five years after diagnosis and were associated with variations in cytokine and pancreatic antibodies, suggesting a possible effect on the immunological processes in the early phase of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Long Non-Coding RNA Modulation of VEGF-A during Hypoxia
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040034
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
The role and function of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in modulating gene expression is becoming apparent. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a key regulator of blood vessel formation and maintenance making it a promising therapeutic target for activation in ischemic diseases.
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The role and function of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in modulating gene expression is becoming apparent. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a key regulator of blood vessel formation and maintenance making it a promising therapeutic target for activation in ischemic diseases. In this study, we uncover a functional role for two antisense VEGF-A lncRNAs, RP1-261G23.7 and EST AV731492, in transcriptional regulation of VEGF-A during hypoxia. We find here that both lncRNAs are polyadenylated, concordantly upregulated with VEGF-A, localize to the VEGF-A promoter and upstream elements in a hypoxia dependent manner either as a single-stranded RNA or DNA bound RNA, and are associated with enhancer marks H3K27ac and H3K9ac. Collectively, these data suggest that VEGF-A antisense lncRNAs, RP1-261G23.7 and EST AV731492, function as VEGF-A promoter enhancer-like elements, possibly by acting as a local scaffolding for proteins and also small RNAs to tether. Full article
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Open AccessArticle lncRNA Expression after Irradiation and Chemoexposure of HNSCC Cell Lines
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040033
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. To improve the quality of diagnostics and patients’ treatment, new and effective biomarkers are needed. Recent studies have shown that the expression level of
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. To improve the quality of diagnostics and patients’ treatment, new and effective biomarkers are needed. Recent studies have shown that the expression level of different types of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is dysregulated in HNSCC and correlates with many biological processes. In this study, the response of lncRNAs in HNSCC cell lines after exposure to irradiation and cytotoxic drugs was examined. The SCC-040, SCC-25, FaDu, and Cal27 cell lines were treated with different radiation doses as well as exposed to cisplatin and doxorubicin. The expression changes of lncRNAs after exposure to these agents were checked by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Target prediction was performed using available online tools and classified into specific biological processes and cellular pathways. The results indicated that the irradiation, as well as chemoexposure, causes changes in lncRNA expression and the effect depends on the cell line, type of agents as well as their dose. After irradiation using the dose of 5 Gy significant dysregulation of 4 lncRNAs, 10 Gy-5 lncRNAs, and 20 Gy-3 lncRNAs, respectively, were observed in all cell lines. Only lncRNAs Zfhx2as was down-regulated in all cell lines independently of the dose used. After cisplatin exposure, 14 lncRNAs showed lower and only two higher expressions. Doxorubicin resulted in lower expressions of eight and increased four of lncRNAs. Common effects of cytotoxic drugs were observed in the case of antiPEG11, BACE1AS, PCGEM1, and ST7OT. Analysis of the predicted targets for dysregulated lncRNAs indicated that they are involved in important biological processes, regulating cellular pathways connected with direct response to irradiation or chemoexposure, cellular phenotype, cancer initiating cells, and angiogenesis. Both irradiation and chemoexposure caused specific changes in lncRNAs expression. However, the common effect is potentially important for cellular response to the stress and survival. Further study will show if lncRNAs are useful tools in patients’ treatment monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessReview Diabetes in Pregnancy and MicroRNAs: Promises and Limitations in Their Clinical Application
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040032
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of complications for the mother and her offspring. The latter have an increased risk of foetal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, preterm delivery, malformations and mortality but also of life-long development of obesity and diabetes.
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Maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of complications for the mother and her offspring. The latter have an increased risk of foetal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, preterm delivery, malformations and mortality but also of life-long development of obesity and diabetes. Epigenetics have been proposed as an explanation for this long-term risk, and microRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role, both in short- and long-term outcomes. Gestation is associated with increasing maternal insulin resistance, as well as β-cell expansion, to account for the increased insulin needs and studies performed in pregnant rats support a role of miRNAs in this expansion. Furthermore, several miRNAs are involved in pancreatic embryonic development. On the other hand, maternal diabetes is associated with changes in miRNA both in maternal and in foetal tissues. This review aims to summarise the existing knowledge on miRNAs in gestational and pre-gestational diabetes, both as diagnostic biomarkers and as mechanistic players, in the development of gestational diabetes itself and also of short- and long-term complications for the mother and her offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Contemporary Ribonomics Methods for Viral microRNA Target Analysis
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040031
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Numerous cellular processes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), both cellular and viral. Elucidating the targets of miRNAs has become an active area of research. An important method in this field is cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), where cultured cells or tissues are UV-irradiated to
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Numerous cellular processes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), both cellular and viral. Elucidating the targets of miRNAs has become an active area of research. An important method in this field is cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), where cultured cells or tissues are UV-irradiated to cross-link protein and nucleic acid, the RNA binding protein of interest is immunoprecipitated, and the RNAs pulled down with the protein are isolated, reverse-transcribed, and analyzed by sequencing. CLIP using antibody against Argonaute (Ago), which binds to both miRNA and mRNA as they interact in RISC, has allowed researchers to uncover a large number of miRNA targets. Coupled with high-throughput sequencing, CLIP has been useful for revealing miRNA targetomes for the γ-herpesviruses Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Variants on the CLIP protocol are described, with the benefits and drawbacks of each. In particular, the most recent methods involving RNA–RNA ligation to join the miRNA and its RNA target have aided in target identification. Lastly, data supporting biologically meaningful interactions between miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reviewed. In summary, ribonomics-based miRNA targetome analysis has expanded our understanding of miRNA targeting and has provided a rich resource for EBV and KSHV research with respect to pathogenesis and tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biogenesis, Stabilization, and Transport of microRNAs in Kidney Health and Disease
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040030
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
The kidneys play key roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, including fluid balance, blood filtration, erythropoiesis and hormone production. Disease-driven perturbation of renal function therefore has profound pathological effects, and chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Successive
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The kidneys play key roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, including fluid balance, blood filtration, erythropoiesis and hormone production. Disease-driven perturbation of renal function therefore has profound pathological effects, and chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Successive annual increases in global chronic kidney disease patient numbers in part reflect upward trends for predisposing factors, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and population age. Each kidney typically possesses more than one million functional units called nephrons, and each nephron is divided into several discrete domains with distinct cellular and functional characteristics. A number of recent analyses have suggested that signaling between these nephron regions may be mediated by microRNAs. For this to be the case, several conditions must be fulfilled: (i) microRNAs must be released by upstream cells into the ultrafiltrate; (ii) these microRNAs must be packaged protectively to reach downstream cells intact; (iii) these packaged microRNAs must be taken up by downstream recipient cells without functional inhibition. This review will examine the evidence for each of these hypotheses and discuss the possibility that this signaling process might mediate pathological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA, Fibrogenesis, and Fibrotic Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview HCMV miRNA Targets Reveal Important Cellular Pathways for Viral Replication, Latency, and Reactivation
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040029
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
It is now well appreciated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the lifecycles of many herpes viruses. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication cycle varies significantly depending on the cell type infected, with lytic replication occurring in fully-differentiated cells such as fibroblasts,
[...] Read more.
It is now well appreciated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the lifecycles of many herpes viruses. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication cycle varies significantly depending on the cell type infected, with lytic replication occurring in fully-differentiated cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, or macrophages, and latent infection occurring in less-differentiated CD14+ monocytes and CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells where viral gene expression is severely diminished and progeny virus is not produced. Given their non-immunogenic nature and their capacity to target numerous cellular and viral transcripts, miRNAs represent a particularly advantageous means for HCMV to manipulate viral gene expression and cellular signaling pathways during lytic and latent infection. This review will focus on our current knowledge of HCMV miRNA viral and cellular targets, and discuss their importance in lytic and latent infection, highlight the challenges of studying HCMV miRNAs, and describe how viral miRNAs can help us to better understand the cellular processes involved in HCMV latency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessReview Local Tandem Repeat Expansion in Xist RNA as a Model for the Functionalisation of ncRNA
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040028
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Xist, the master regulator of the X chromosome inactivation in mammals, is a 17 kb lncRNA that acts in cis to silence the majority of genes along the chromosome from which it is transcribed. The two key processes required for Xist RNA
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Xist, the master regulator of the X chromosome inactivation in mammals, is a 17 kb lncRNA that acts in cis to silence the majority of genes along the chromosome from which it is transcribed. The two key processes required for Xist RNA function, localisation in cis and recruitment of silencing factors, are genetically separable, at least in part. Recent studies have identified Xist RNA sequences and associated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that are important for these processes. Notably, several of the key Xist RNA elements correspond to local tandem repeats. In this review, I use examples to illustrate different modes whereby tandem repeat amplification has been exploited to allow orthodox RBPs to confer new functions for Xist-mediated chromosome inactivation. I further discuss the potential generality of tandem repeat expansion in the evolution of functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs, from an Evolutionary Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Copaifera langsdorffii Novel Putative Long Non-Coding RNAs: Interspecies Conservation Analysis in Adaptive Response to Different Biomes
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040027
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple regulatory pathways and its versatile form of action has disclosed a new layer in gene regulation. LncRNAs have their expression levels modulated during plant development, and in response to stresses with tissue-specific functions. In this
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple regulatory pathways and its versatile form of action has disclosed a new layer in gene regulation. LncRNAs have their expression levels modulated during plant development, and in response to stresses with tissue-specific functions. In this study, we analyzed lncRNA from leaf samples collected from the legume Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (copaíba) present in two divergent ecosystems: Cerrado (CER; Ecological Station of Botanical Garden in Brasília, Brazil) and Atlantic Rain Forest (ARF; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We identified 8020 novel lncRNAs, and they were compared to seven Fabaceae genomes and transcriptomes, to which 1747 and 2194 copaíba lncRNAs were mapped, respectively, to at least one species. The secondary structures of the lncRNAs that were conserved and differentially expressed between the populations were predicted using in silico methods. A few selected lncRNA were confirmed by RT-qPCR in the samples from both biomes; Additionally, the analysis of the lncRNA sequences predicted that some might act as microRNA (miRNA) targets or decoys. The emerging studies involving lncRNAs function and conservation have shown their involvement in several types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, the conservation of lncRNAs among Fabaceae species considering their rapid turnover, suggests they are likely to have been under functional conservation pressure. Our results indicate the potential involvement of lncRNAs in the adaptation of C. langsdorffii in two different biomes. Full article
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Open AccessReview LncRNAs in TGF-β-Driven Tissue Fibrosis
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040026
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a crucial mediator in tissue fibrosis that promotes accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), myofibroblasts to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), and apoptosis via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. In the past decades, a number of microRNAs have
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Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a crucial mediator in tissue fibrosis that promotes accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), myofibroblasts to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), and apoptosis via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. In the past decades, a number of microRNAs have been reported to participate in TGF-β-mediated tissue scarring; however, the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in fibrogenesis remain largely unknown. Recently, emerging evidence has shown that lncRNAs are involved in the development of different diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and fibrotic diseases. In this review, we summarize the current updates of lncRNAs in TGF-β1-driven tissue fibrosis and discuss their therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic fibrotic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA, Fibrogenesis, and Fibrotic Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview MicroRNA-Attenuated Virus Vaccines
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040025
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
Live-attenuated vaccines are the most effective way to establish robust, long-lasting immunity against viruses. However, the possibility of reversion to wild type replication and pathogenicity raises concerns over the safety of these vaccines. The use of host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) to attenuate viruses has
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Live-attenuated vaccines are the most effective way to establish robust, long-lasting immunity against viruses. However, the possibility of reversion to wild type replication and pathogenicity raises concerns over the safety of these vaccines. The use of host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) to attenuate viruses has been accomplished in an array of biological contexts. The broad assortment of effective tissue- and species-specific miRNAs, and the ability to target a virus with multiple miRNAs, allow for targeting to be tailored to the virus of interest. While escape is always a concern, effective strategies have been developed to improve the safety and stability of miRNA-attenuated viruses. In this review, we discuss the various approaches that have been used to engineer miRNA-attenuated viruses, the steps that have been taken to improve their safety, and the potential use of these viruses as vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Structure-To-Function Relationships of Gammaherpesvirus-Encoded Long Non-Coding RNAs and Their Contributions to Viral Pathogenesis
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040024
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
Advances in next-generation sequencing have facilitated the discovery of a multitude of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with pleiotropic functions in cellular processes, disease, and viral pathogenesis. It came as no surprise when viruses were also revealed to transcribe their own lncRNAs. Among them,
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Advances in next-generation sequencing have facilitated the discovery of a multitude of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with pleiotropic functions in cellular processes, disease, and viral pathogenesis. It came as no surprise when viruses were also revealed to transcribe their own lncRNAs. Among them, gammaherpesviruses, one of the three subfamilies of the Herpesviridae, code their largest number. These structurally and functionally intricate non-coding (nc) transcripts modulate cellular and viral gene expression to maintain viral latency or prompt lytic reactivation. These lncRNAs allow for the virus to escape cytosolic surveillance, sequester, and re-localize essential cellular factors and modulate the cell cycle and proliferation. Some viral lncRNAs act as “messenger molecules”, transferring information about viral infection to neighboring cells. This broad range of lncRNA functions is achieved through lncRNA structure-mediated interactions with effector molecules of viral and host origin, including other RNAs, proteins and DNAs. In this review, we discuss examples of gammaherpesvirus-encoded lncRNAs, emphasize their unique structural attributes, and link them to viral life cycle, pathogenesis, and disease progression. We will address their potential as novel targets for drug discovery and propose future directions to explore lncRNA structure and function relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
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