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Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040032

Diabetes in Pregnancy and MicroRNAs: Promises and Limitations in Their Clinical Application

1
Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas y Sanitarias (IUIBS), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
3
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [312 KB, uploaded 12 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of complications for the mother and her offspring. The latter have an increased risk of foetal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, preterm delivery, malformations and mortality but also of life-long development of obesity and diabetes. Epigenetics have been proposed as an explanation for this long-term risk, and microRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role, both in short- and long-term outcomes. Gestation is associated with increasing maternal insulin resistance, as well as β-cell expansion, to account for the increased insulin needs and studies performed in pregnant rats support a role of miRNAs in this expansion. Furthermore, several miRNAs are involved in pancreatic embryonic development. On the other hand, maternal diabetes is associated with changes in miRNA both in maternal and in foetal tissues. This review aims to summarise the existing knowledge on miRNAs in gestational and pre-gestational diabetes, both as diagnostic biomarkers and as mechanistic players, in the development of gestational diabetes itself and also of short- and long-term complications for the mother and her offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: intrauterine programming; pre-gestational diabetes; gestational diabetes; diabetic embryopathy; macrosomia intrauterine programming; pre-gestational diabetes; gestational diabetes; diabetic embryopathy; macrosomia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ibarra, A.; Vega-Guedes, B.; Brito-Casillas, Y.; Wägner, A.M. Diabetes in Pregnancy and MicroRNAs: Promises and Limitations in Their Clinical Application. Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4, 32.

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