Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a crucial mediator in tissue fibrosis that promotes accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), myofibroblasts to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), and apoptosis via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. In the past decades, a number of microRNAs have been reported to participate in TGF-β-mediated tissue scarring; however, the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in fibrogenesis remain largely unknown. Recently, emerging evidence has shown that lncRNAs are involved in the development of different diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and fibrotic diseases. In this review, we summarize the current updates of lncRNAs in TGF-β1-driven tissue fibrosis and discuss their therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic fibrotic diseases.
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