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Cell Type-Selective Expression of Circular RNAs in Human Pancreatic Islets
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Non-Coding RNA in Pancreas and β-Cell Development

1
NHMRC Clinical Trials Center, University of Sydney, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
2
Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040041
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Diabetes)
In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of different classes of non-coding RNAs for islet and β-cell development, maturation and function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a prominent class of small RNAs, have been investigated for more than two decades and patterns of the roles of different miRNAs in pancreatic fetal development, islet and β-cell maturation and function are now emerging. Specific miRNAs are dynamically regulated throughout the period of pancreas development, during islet and β-cell differentiation as well as in the perinatal period, where a burst of β-cell replication takes place. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in islet and β-cells is less investigated than for miRNAs, but knowledge is increasing rapidly. The advent of ultra-deep RNA sequencing has enabled the identification of highly islet- or β-cell-selective lncRNA transcripts expressed at low levels. Their roles in islet cells are currently only characterized for a few of these lncRNAs, and these are often associated with β-cell super-enhancers and regulate neighboring gene activity. Moreover, ncRNAs present in imprinted regions are involved in pancreas development and β-cell function. Altogether, these observations support significant and important actions of ncRNAs in β-cell development and function. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-coding RNAs; long non-coding RNAs; long intergenic non-coding RNAs; microRNA; small nucleolar RNAs; piwi associated RNAs; circular RNAs; β-cell; α-cell; islets of Langerhans; pancreas; fetal development non-coding RNAs; long non-coding RNAs; long intergenic non-coding RNAs; microRNA; small nucleolar RNAs; piwi associated RNAs; circular RNAs; β-cell; α-cell; islets of Langerhans; pancreas; fetal development
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Wong, W.K.M.; Sørensen, A.E.; Joglekar, M.V.; Hardikar, A.A.; Dalgaard, L.T. Non-Coding RNA in Pancreas and β-Cell Development. Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4, 41.

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