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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

MicroRNA-Attenuated Virus Vaccines

by Elizabeth J. Fay 1,2 and Ryan A. Langlois 1,2,3,*
1
Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna4040025
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
Live-attenuated vaccines are the most effective way to establish robust, long-lasting immunity against viruses. However, the possibility of reversion to wild type replication and pathogenicity raises concerns over the safety of these vaccines. The use of host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) to attenuate viruses has been accomplished in an array of biological contexts. The broad assortment of effective tissue- and species-specific miRNAs, and the ability to target a virus with multiple miRNAs, allow for targeting to be tailored to the virus of interest. While escape is always a concern, effective strategies have been developed to improve the safety and stability of miRNA-attenuated viruses. In this review, we discuss the various approaches that have been used to engineer miRNA-attenuated viruses, the steps that have been taken to improve their safety, and the potential use of these viruses as vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: live-attenuated vaccine; RNAi; siRNA live-attenuated vaccine; RNAi; siRNA
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Fay, E.J.; Langlois, R.A. MicroRNA-Attenuated Virus Vaccines. Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4, 25.

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