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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

MicroRNA-Attenuated Virus Vaccines

by Elizabeth J. Fay 1,2 and Ryan A. Langlois 1,2,3,*
Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4(4), 25;
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs in Viral Infections)
Live-attenuated vaccines are the most effective way to establish robust, long-lasting immunity against viruses. However, the possibility of reversion to wild type replication and pathogenicity raises concerns over the safety of these vaccines. The use of host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) to attenuate viruses has been accomplished in an array of biological contexts. The broad assortment of effective tissue- and species-specific miRNAs, and the ability to target a virus with multiple miRNAs, allow for targeting to be tailored to the virus of interest. While escape is always a concern, effective strategies have been developed to improve the safety and stability of miRNA-attenuated viruses. In this review, we discuss the various approaches that have been used to engineer miRNA-attenuated viruses, the steps that have been taken to improve their safety, and the potential use of these viruses as vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: live-attenuated vaccine; RNAi; siRNA live-attenuated vaccine; RNAi; siRNA
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Fay, E.J.; Langlois, R.A. MicroRNA-Attenuated Virus Vaccines. Non-Coding RNA 2018, 4, 25.

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