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Geriatrics, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2018) – 12 articles

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Review
Driving Outcomes among Older Adults: A Systematic Review on Racial and Ethnic Differences over 20 Years
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010012 - 20 Mar 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
The population of older adults (aged 65 years and older) in the United States will become more racially and ethnically diverse in the next three decades. Additionally, the growth of the aging population will come with an expansion in the number of older [...] Read more.
The population of older adults (aged 65 years and older) in the United States will become more racially and ethnically diverse in the next three decades. Additionally, the growth of the aging population will come with an expansion in the number of older drivers and an increased prevalence of chronic neurological conditions. A major gap in the aging literature is an almost exclusive focus on homogenous, non-Hispanic white samples of older adults. It is unclear if this extends to the driving literature. A systematic review of SCOPUS, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science examined articles on driving and racial/ethnic differences among older adults. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria and their results indicate that racial and ethnic minorities face a greater risk for driving reduction, mobility restriction, and driving cessation. The majority of studies compared African Americans to non-Hispanic whites but only examined race as a covariate. Only four studies explicitly examined racial/ethnic differences. Future research in aging and driving research needs to be more inclusive and actively involve different racial/ethnic groups in study design and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving)
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Article
General Cognitive Impairment as a Risk Factor for Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement: A Prospective Population-Based Study
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010011 - 06 Mar 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2603
Abstract
This study examined whether cognitive impairment and decline as assessed by a brief mental status screening test is associated with future crash risk in a cohort of older drivers. A three-year prospective study was conducted in a population-based sample of 2000 licensed drivers, [...] Read more.
This study examined whether cognitive impairment and decline as assessed by a brief mental status screening test is associated with future crash risk in a cohort of older drivers. A three-year prospective study was conducted in a population-based sample of 2000 licensed drivers, aged 70 years and older. At the baseline visit, cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). Decline was defined as those with a one-year change in MMSE scores in the lowest quartile (largest decrease). Motor vehicle collision involvement was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR). There were 278 crashes during the follow-up period. Rates of crash involvement were higher for those with cognitive impairment (crude RR = 2.33) compared to those without impairment at baseline; adjustment for potential confounders namely age and visual processing speed attenuated this relationship (adjusted RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–2.44). Drivers who experienced a pronounced decline in estimated MMSE scores in one year were 1.64 (95% CI 1.04–2.57) times more likely to have a future at-fault crash, as compared to those whose scores did not decline. Evaluation of MMSE over time may provide important insight in an older driver’s future risk of at-fault crash involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving)
Article
Relationship between Areas of Cognitive Functioning on the Mini-Mental State Examination and Crash Risk
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010010 - 06 Mar 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that the pattern of cognitive impairment in crash-involved older drivers is different from non-crash-involved older drivers. This study assessed the relationship between seven areas of cognitive functioning (orientation to time, orientation to place, registration, attention and calculation, recall, language, [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested that the pattern of cognitive impairment in crash-involved older drivers is different from non-crash-involved older drivers. This study assessed the relationship between seven areas of cognitive functioning (orientation to time, orientation to place, registration, attention and calculation, recall, language, and visual construction) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) collected at baseline and rates of future crash involvement in a prospective population-based sample of older drivers. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR). Older drivers having difficulties in place orientation were more than 6 times (95% CI 1.90–19.86) more likely to be involved in a future crash (adjusted RR = 6.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–19.86) and at-fault crash (adjusted RR = 6.39, 95% CI 1.51–27.10). Impairment in the other cognitive areas was not associated with higher rates of crash or at-fault crash involvement. The findings were validated in an independent sample of high-risk older drivers and a similar pattern of results was observed. Spatial orientation impairment can help identify older drivers who are more likely to crash in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving)
Article
One-Year Mortality Rates Before and After Implementing Quality-Improvement Initiatives to Prevent Inpatient Falls (2012–2016)
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010009 - 05 Mar 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
Single-room ward design has previously been associated with increased risk of inpatient falls and adverse outcomes. However, following quality initiatives, the incidence of inpatient falls has shown a sustained reduction. Benefits have also been observed in the reduction of hip fractures. However, one-year [...] Read more.
Single-room ward design has previously been associated with increased risk of inpatient falls and adverse outcomes. However, following quality initiatives, the incidence of inpatient falls has shown a sustained reduction. Benefits have also been observed in the reduction of hip fractures. However, one-year mortality trends have not been reported. The aim of this observational study is to report the trends in one-year mortality rates before and after implementing quality-improvement initiatives to prevent inpatient falls over the last 5 years (2012–2016). This retrospective observational study was conducted for all patients who had sustained an inpatient fall between January 2012 and December 2016. All the incident reports in DATIX patient-safety software which were completed for each inpatient fall were studied, and the clinical information was extracted from Clinical Work Station software. Mortality data were collected on all patients for a minimum of one year following the discharge from the hospital. The results show that 95% patients were admitted from their own homes; 1704 patients had experienced 3408 incidents of an inpatient fall over 5 years. The mean age of females (82.61 ± 10.34 years) was significantly higher than males (79.36 ± 10.14 years). Mean falls/patient = 2.0 ± 2.16, range 1–33). Mean hospital stay was 45.43 ± 41.42 days. Mean hospital stay to the first fall was 14.5 ± 20.79 days, and mean days to first fall prior to discharge was 30.8 ± 34.33 days. The results showed a significant and sustained reduction in the incidence of inpatient falls. There was a downward trend in the incidence of hip fractures over the last two years. There was no significant difference in the inpatient and 30-day mortality rate over the last five years. However, mortality trends appear to show a significant downward trend in both six-month and one-year mortality rates over the last two years following the implementation of quality initiatives to prevent inpatient falls. A significant reduction in the incidence of inpatient falls following quality initiatives initially has been observed, followed by a downward trend in the incidence of hip fractures. We have just started to observe a significant reduction in the 6-month and one-year mortality. We propose prompt completion of multifactorial falls risk assessments, and every possible quality initiative should be taken to prevent a ‘first inpatient fall’, which should result in the sustained improvement of clinical outcomes. Full article
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Case Report
Teaching a Person with Memory Impairment Smartphone Use for Emergencies during Outdoors Walking: Case Report
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010008 - 20 Feb 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4187
Abstract
Safety issues arise during the performance of activities as dementia advances. Occupational therapists collaborate with dementia clients and their caregivers to find solutions and strategies to prolong safe activity participation. Additionally, occupational therapists teach through demonstration showing engagement in specific activities may no [...] Read more.
Safety issues arise during the performance of activities as dementia advances. Occupational therapists collaborate with dementia clients and their caregivers to find solutions and strategies to prolong safe activity participation. Additionally, occupational therapists teach through demonstration showing engagement in specific activities may no longer be safe. We present the case of a 70-year-old male with mild dementia. His caregiver believes he needs to use a smartphone for safety during outdoors walking; the client’s enjoyed and valued occupation. This case report illustrates smartphone use may be difficult to learn for a person with mild dementia. It highlights the need for the caregiver and person with dementia to receive education together for best understanding. New technologies for community mobility such as outdoors walking are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving)
Article
Estimate of the Costs Caused by Adverse Effects in Hospitalised Patients Due to Hip Fracture: Design of the Study and Preliminary Results
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010007 - 15 Feb 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3127
Abstract
Introduction: Hip fracture is a health problem that presents high morbidity and mortality, negatively influencing the patient’s quality of life and generating high costs. Structured analysis of quality indicators can facilitate decision-making, cost minimization, and improvement of the quality of care. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Introduction: Hip fracture is a health problem that presents high morbidity and mortality, negatively influencing the patient’s quality of life and generating high costs. Structured analysis of quality indicators can facilitate decision-making, cost minimization, and improvement of the quality of care. Methods: We studied 1571 patients aged 70 years and over with the diagnosis of hip fracture at Hospital Universitario de la Ribera in the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016. Demographic, clinical, functional, and quality indicator variables were studied. An indirect analysis of the costs associated with adverse events arising during hospital admission was made. A tool based on the “Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD)” was designed to monitor the influence of patient risk factors on the incidence of adverse effects (AE) and their associated costs. Results: The average age of the patients analysed was 84.15 years (SD 6.28), with a length of stay of 8.01 days (SD 3.32), a mean preoperative stay of 43.04 h (SD 30.81), and a mortality rate of 4.2%. Likewise, the percentage of patients with AE was 41.44%, and 11.01% of patients changed their cost as a consequence of these AEs suffered during hospital admission. The average cost of patients was €8752 (SD: 1,864) and the average cost increase in patients with adverse events was €2321 (SD: 3,164). Conclusions: Through the analysis of the main clinical characteristics and the indirect estimation of the complexity of the patients, a simple calculation of the average cost of the attention and its adverse events can be designed in patients who are admitted due to hip fracture. Additionally, this tool can fit the welfare quality indicators by severity and cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Basic Science)
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Article
“Sacred Work”: Reflections on the Professional and Personal Impact of an Interdisciplinary Palliative Oncology Clinical Experience by Social Work Learners
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010006 - 03 Feb 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
This study explored the impact of an oncology palliative care clinical experience with older adults on social work learners. A three-member research team conducted a qualitative content analysis of reflective writings. 27 Master of Science in Social Work students enrolled in an interprofessional [...] Read more.
This study explored the impact of an oncology palliative care clinical experience with older adults on social work learners. A three-member research team conducted a qualitative content analysis of reflective writings. 27 Master of Science in Social Work students enrolled in an interprofessional palliative oncology curriculum and completed a reflective writing assignment to summarize the clinical scenario, analyze the patient/family care provided, and describe the impact of the experience. Using a constant comparison approach based on grounded theory, the research team analyzed the reflections to come to consensus related to the overall impact of the experience. Two overarching themes (professional and personal impact) and 11 subthemes (appreciation of interdisciplinary teams, recognition of clinical skills of other disciplines, insight into clinical skills of the social worker, perception of palliative care, embracing palliative care principles, centrality of communication, importance of social support, family as the unit of care, countertransference, conflict between personal values and patient/family values, and emotional reactions) were identified. Experiential learning opportunities for social work learners in interprofessional palliative care build appreciation for and skills in applying palliative care principles including teamwork, symptom control, and advanced care planning along with a commitment to embrace these principles in future practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncology Care and Research in the Elderly)
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Article
Factors Influencing Global Health Related Quality of Life in Elderly Cancer Patients: Results of a Secondary Data Analysis
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010005 - 30 Jan 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4312
Abstract
Cancer treatment for elderly patients is often complicated by poor physical condition, impaired functioning and comorbidities. Patient reported health related quality of life (HRQOL) can contribute to decisions about treatment goals and supportive therapy. Knowledge about factors influencing HRQOL is therefore needed for [...] Read more.
Cancer treatment for elderly patients is often complicated by poor physical condition, impaired functioning and comorbidities. Patient reported health related quality of life (HRQOL) can contribute to decisions about treatment goals and supportive therapy. Knowledge about factors influencing HRQOL is therefore needed for the development of supportive measures and care pathways. An exploratory secondary data analysis on 518 assessments of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the elderly module (EORTC QLQ-ELD14) was performed to identify factors predictive for global HRQOL. Preliminary simple and multivariable regression analyses were conducted resulting in a final model comprising sociodemographic and disease specific variables and scales of the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-ELD14. Age, sex and disease related variables explained only part of the variance of global HRQOL (adjusted R2 = 0.203). In the final model (adjusted R2 = 0.504) fatigue, social function, burden of illness and joint stiffness showed possible influence on global HRQOL. Fatigue, social function and burden of illness seem to have the largest impact on global HRQOL of elderly cancer patients. Further prospective studies should examine these domains. Actionable symptoms should be given special attention to initiate targeted supportive measures aiming to maximize HRQOL of older cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncology Care and Research in the Elderly)
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Article
Risk Factor Assessment of Hospice Patients Readmitted within 7 Days of Acute Care Hospital Discharge
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010004 - 24 Jan 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
Factors surrounding readmission rates for hospice patients within seven days are still relatively unknown. The present study specifically investigates the seven-day readmission rate of patients newly discharged to hospice, and the predictive factors associated with readmission for this population. In a retrospective case-control [...] Read more.
Factors surrounding readmission rates for hospice patients within seven days are still relatively unknown. The present study specifically investigates the seven-day readmission rate of patients newly discharged to hospice, and the predictive factors associated with readmission for this population. In a retrospective case-control study, we seek to identify potential predictors by comparing the characteristics of patients discharged to hospice and readmitted within one week to patients who were not readmitted. Cases (n = 46) were patients discharged to home hospice and readmitted to the hospital within seven days. Controls (n = 117) were patients discharged to home hospice and not readmitted to the hospital within seven days. Significant risk factors for readmission within seven days were found to be: age (p < 0.01), race (p < 0.001), language (p < 0.001), and insurance (p < 0.001). Further study of these predictors may identify opportunities for interventions that address patient and family concerns that may lead to readmission. Full article
Article
Successful Aging: Illness and Social Connections
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010003 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4264
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the role of social determinants of health: gender, income, education, housing, and social connections in successful aging in older adults aging with illness. Participants were 50 adults aged 65–90 years, all aging in place in [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the role of social determinants of health: gender, income, education, housing, and social connections in successful aging in older adults aging with illness. Participants were 50 adults aged 65–90 years, all aging in place in their own home, and reporting at least one illness. This pilot study used non-probability sampling and employed both online and in-person interviews. The majority (82%) were aging “successfully” or “somewhat successfully” as reported on the single item successful aging scale and demonstrated by their scores on the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI). Correlations were not significant between SAI and gender, income, education, or housing. A significant negative correlation was found between SAI and community activity. However, there were significant positive correlations between SAI and religious activity and relationships. The regression model was a linear combination of participants’ community and religious activity and relationships. The majority of older adults aging with illness consider themselves to be aging successfully, but their scores are influenced by relationships with others as well as religious and community activity. Frequent community activity had a suppressor effect on successful aging. Full article
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Geriatrics in 2017
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010002 - 15 Jan 2018
Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Geriatrics maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
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Article
A Pilot Study to Determine the Consistency of Simultaneous Sleep Actigraphy Measurements Comparing All Four Limbs of Patients with Parkinson Disease
Geriatrics 2018, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3010001 - 27 Dec 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3459
Abstract
Wrist actigraphy is a form of objective sleep measurement that has gained a central role in sleep research and clinical settings. Guidelines for actigraphy recommend placing the monitor on the non-dominant wrist, however, this potentially will be the most involved limb for someone [...] Read more.
Wrist actigraphy is a form of objective sleep measurement that has gained a central role in sleep research and clinical settings. Guidelines for actigraphy recommend placing the monitor on the non-dominant wrist, however, this potentially will be the most involved limb for someone with Parkinson disease, and so alternative placement would be preferred. To-date, there is little published about sleep actigraphy use in Parkinson disease (PD). This study examines the degree of sleep actigraphy score variation in persons with PD when monitors are placed simultaneously on all four limbs. In this study, four participants wore a sleep actigraph on each limb for seven nights. Data from the four actigraphs was compared within each participant to determine the degree of consistency. We found that all of the participants’ sleep efficiency and total sleep time scores were higher in the lower limb than upper limb. There was no notable difference in sleep variables between the dominant arm and non-dominant arm. We concluded that simultaneous actigraphy measurement did not notably vary between dominant and non-dominant arms. However, a discrepancy was seen between upper limbs and lower limbs actigraph scores. Further study is warranted to develop guidelines for sleep actigraphy use in this population. Full article
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