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Beverages, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Copper-based fungicides (CBFs) are used in agriculture for the mitigation of fungal pathogens. Previous research has found that the use of CBFs on hop plants significantly increases the total copper content of the harvested hops. Copper is a known catalyst in the generation of reactive oxygen species and can negatively impact the quality and stability of beer when present in sufficient quantities. In this study, we aim to evaluate the degree to which copper from CBF-treated hops adds to the total transition metal load of beer and the impact that excess copper may have on the stability of those beers. View this paper.
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Article
Fruit Spirit Production from Coffee Cherries—Process Analysis and Sensory Evaluation
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030057 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Coffee fruit production is an important agricultural sector in more than 70 tropical countries. However, the production of fruit spirits based on coffee fruits has not been investigated to date. This study evaluated, for the first time, its fermentation and distillation performance, ethanol [...] Read more.
Coffee fruit production is an important agricultural sector in more than 70 tropical countries. However, the production of fruit spirits based on coffee fruits has not been investigated to date. This study evaluated, for the first time, its fermentation and distillation performance, ethanol yield and sensorial attributes. A selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae L.) fermented coffee cherry mash within five days and produced ethanol concentrations of 31.0 g/L. The mash was distilled and distillate fractions were categorized for heads/hearts/tails by sensory evaluation, resulting in an ethanol mass ratio of 1.0:4.2:0.8 with a total yield of 1.8% (w/w) ethanol based on coffee cherry mash. Analysis of fermentative volatiles indicated comparatively high methanol contents of 26 ± 4 g/L ethanol in the hearts fraction. Sensory evaluation of the hearts fraction resulted in 15 spirit specific descriptors, with vegetal and nutty indicating the most important terms to describe the perception of coffee cherry spirit. The results suggested that there is a high potential to introduce a fruit spirit based on coffee fruits. Full article
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Review
Bottle Conditioning: Technology and Mechanisms Applied in Refermented Beers
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030056 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Bottle conditioning refers to a method of adding fermenting wort or yeast suspension in sugar solution into beer in its final package. Additionally denoted as bottle refermentation, this technique has been originally developed to assure beer carbonation, and has further significance related to [...] Read more.
Bottle conditioning refers to a method of adding fermenting wort or yeast suspension in sugar solution into beer in its final package. Additionally denoted as bottle refermentation, this technique has been originally developed to assure beer carbonation, and has further significance related to formation of distinctive sensory attributes and enhancement of sensory stability, which are the phenomena associated with ongoing yeast metabolic activities in the final package. This review covers historical development of the method, describes metabolic pathways applied during refermentation, and explains practical aspects of the refermentation process management. Furthermore, an overview of the traditional and novel approaches of bottle conditioning with mixed yeast bacterial cultures and its impact on the properties of final beer is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Article
A Comparison of Laboratory Analysis Methods for Total Phenolic Content of Cider
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030055 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Total phenolic content is widely accepted as a key measure of quality for cider. Apple juice and cider, made from six apple varieties including dessert and cider apples, were analysed for total phenolics using three different methods: (a) the Folin-Ciocalteu method, [...] Read more.
Total phenolic content is widely accepted as a key measure of quality for cider. Apple juice and cider, made from six apple varieties including dessert and cider apples, were analysed for total phenolics using three different methods: (a) the Folin-Ciocalteu method, (b) the Somers method (a spectrophotometric method developed specifically for wine), and (c) ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) as a benchmark test. Of these approaches, the Somers method had the strongest correlation with UPLC with an R2 value of 0.99, whilst the Folin-Ciocalteu correlated with UPLC with an R2 value of 0.89. The Folin-Ciocalteu method also had a strong positive correlation with the Somers approach with an R2 value of 0.91. Correlations between methods were strongest for apple varieties that were naturally high in phenolic content. These results highlight the potential of the Somers method to rapidly, inexpensively, and accurately report the total phenolic content of apple juice and ciders made from dessert and cider apple varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Technologies for Beverages Quality and Control)
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Article
Liquid Chromatographic Approach for the Discrimination and Classification of Cava Samples Based on the Phenolic Composition Using Chemometric Methods
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030054 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography with UV/vis detection were here exploited to classify cava samples from the protected designation of origin Cava. Wine samples belonging to various classes which differed in grape varieties, blends and fermentation processes were studied based on profiling [...] Read more.
Phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography with UV/vis detection were here exploited to classify cava samples from the protected designation of origin Cava. Wine samples belonging to various classes which differed in grape varieties, blends and fermentation processes were studied based on profiling and fingerprinting approaches. Hence, concentrations of relevant phenolic acids and chromatograms registered at 310 nm were preliminarily examined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract information on cava classes. It was found that various hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids such as gallic, gentisic, caffeic or caftaric acids were up- or down-expressed depending on the wine varieties. Additionally, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to classify the cava samples according to varietal origins and blends. The classification models were established using well-known wines as the calibration standards. Subsequently, models were applied to assign unknown samples to their corresponding classes. Excellent classification rates were obtained thus proving the potentiality of the proposed approach for characterization and authentication purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wine Quality and Safety)
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Review
Traditional and Artisanal Beverages in Nigeria: Microbial Diversity and Safety Issues
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030053 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
A review of up to 90 articles on the microorganisms associated with important artisanal or traditional beverages in Nigeria was carried out. This resulted in an overview of the prevalent microorganisms associated with soymilk, nono (fermented cow milk), tiger nut milk, yoghurt, kunu, [...] Read more.
A review of up to 90 articles on the microorganisms associated with important artisanal or traditional beverages in Nigeria was carried out. This resulted in an overview of the prevalent microorganisms associated with soymilk, nono (fermented cow milk), tiger nut milk, yoghurt, kunu, zobo, palm wine and the local beers pito and brukutu. The bacteria genera, namely Bacillus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, were detected in all nine beverages. On the contrary, this survey resulted in finding that the genera Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Candida, and Penicillium were the eukaryotic microorganisms isolated in all beverages. The occurrence of fungal isolates, which can be responsible for producing mycotoxins, is a concern and shows the need for post-production tests. Overall, there is a low prevalence of bacteria associated with hygiene, especially the Escherichia genus in alcoholic beverages such as palm wine, pito and burukutu, which may be due both to a low acidity and high ethanol content. However, the prevalence of hygiene indicator genera was higher in nonalcoholic drinks, probably because of incorrect practices during processing. The magnitude of the production and sales of unregulated local beverages in Nigeria has reached the stage where significant regulation and food safety standards are required to safeguard public health. An opportunity exists to monitor and characterize the microbial flora of the artisanal beverages using molecular methods at all stages of production and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process and Microbial Safety of Beverages)
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Review
Mycotoxins in Functional Beverages: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030052 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Consumer dietary habits have drastically changed in recent decades and functional beverages now have a strong position in the market. The majority of these beverages are produced using simple processes that use raw products, such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and nuts, among others, [...] Read more.
Consumer dietary habits have drastically changed in recent decades and functional beverages now have a strong position in the market. The majority of these beverages are produced using simple processes that use raw products, such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and nuts, among others, and these are known to be frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. This review is focused on the occurrence of these toxic compounds in plant-based milks, fruit juices, and herbal teas. The fate of the toxins during processing is discussed to establish the potential risk posed by the consumption of these kind of beverages regarding mycotoxin uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Review
Functional Beer—A Review on Possibilities
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030051 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
The expansion of the beer industry has enabled many possibilities for improvement regarding the taste, aroma and functionality of this drink. Health-related issues and a general wish for healthier lifestyles has resulted in increased demand for functional beers. The addition of different herbs [...] Read more.
The expansion of the beer industry has enabled many possibilities for improvement regarding the taste, aroma and functionality of this drink. Health-related issues and a general wish for healthier lifestyles has resulted in increased demand for functional beers. The addition of different herbs or adjuncts in wort or beer has been known for centuries. However, today’s technologies provide easier ways to do this and offer additional functional properties for the health benefits and sensory adjustments of classical beer. Medicinal, religious or trendy reasons for avoiding certain compounds in beer or the need to involve new ones in the brewing recipe has broadened the market for the brewing industry and made beer more accessible to consumers who, till now, avoided beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
Article
Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin as a Green Co-Solvent in the Aqueous Extraction of Polyphenols from Waste Orange Peels
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030050 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
There is, to-date, an expanding interest concerning the use of cyclodextrins as green food-grade co-solvents in the aqueous extraction of polyphenols, however, data regarding polyphenol extraction from waste orange peels (WOP) are lacking. On this ground, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a highly water-soluble cyclodextrin, [...] Read more.
There is, to-date, an expanding interest concerning the use of cyclodextrins as green food-grade co-solvents in the aqueous extraction of polyphenols, however, data regarding polyphenol extraction from waste orange peels (WOP) are lacking. On this ground, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a highly water-soluble cyclodextrin, was used to develop a simple and straightforward methodology for the effective recovery of WOP polyphenols. Process optimization by response surface showed that maximum total polyphenol recovery (26.30 ± 1.49 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1 dry mass) could be accomplished with 15 mM HP-β-CD at 40 °C. On the other hand, integration of ultrasonication pretreatment was found unsuitable, as it resulted in reduced polyphenol yield. Examination of solvent acidity indicated that polyphenol extraction may be enhanced at pH 4, but the difference was non-significant (p > 0.05) compared to yields attained at pH 2, 3, and 5. Extraction of WOP polyphenols with HP-β-CD was shown to provide significantly higher hesperidin yield compared to 60% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, which suggested selectivity of HP-β-CD toward this polyphenolic metabolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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Review
A Brief History of Whiskey Adulteration and the Role of Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics in the Detection of Modern Whiskey Fraud
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030049 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
Food fraud and adulteration is a major concern in terms of economic and public health. Multivariate methods combined with spectroscopic techniques have shown promise as a novel analytical strategy for addressing issues related to food fraud that cannot be solved by the analysis [...] Read more.
Food fraud and adulteration is a major concern in terms of economic and public health. Multivariate methods combined with spectroscopic techniques have shown promise as a novel analytical strategy for addressing issues related to food fraud that cannot be solved by the analysis of one variable, particularly in complex matrices such distilled beverages. This review describes and discusses different aspects of whisky production, and recent developments of laboratory, in field and high throughput analysis. In particular, recent applications detailing the use of vibrational spectroscopy techniques combined with data analytical methods used to not only distinguish between brand and origin of whisky but to also detect adulteration are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
Article
Impact of Copper Fungicide Use in Hop Production on the Total Metal Content and Stability of Wort and Dry-Hopped Beer
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030048 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Transition metals, including copper, iron, and manganese, are known to catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in beer leading to reduced product stability. Metals in beer are generally derived from raw ingredients. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of [...] Read more.
Transition metals, including copper, iron, and manganese, are known to catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in beer leading to reduced product stability. Metals in beer are generally derived from raw ingredients. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of brewing and dry-hopping using hops treated with copper-based fungicides (CBFs) on the final transition metal content of model buffer solutions and pilot-scale systems of wort and beer. Copper levels in model wort and beer solutions were elevated (105.6% and 230.4% increase, respectively) when CBF-treated hops were used. In laboratory-prepared wort, elevated copper concentrations were not observed when CBF-treated hops were used for boiling. Dry hopping of beer using CBF-treated hops led to significant increases in total copper content (ca. 75 µg/kg vs. ca. 40–50 µg/kg in the control-hopped beer) when yeast was absent from the treated beer, but not when yeast was present. It was observed that manganese levels were significantly elevated in all hopped beers (ca. 495–550 µg/kg vs. 90–125 µg/kg in the unhopped control), regardless of hop treatment. A hop varietal thiol, 4-Mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, was spiked into treated beers, and the rate of oxidative loss was monitored during aging. Rates of thiol loss in treated beer samples did not differ across CBF treatments but were significantly lower in unhopped controls in the absence of yeast (p < 0.0001) and correlated significantly with total manganese content of the beers (R2 = 0.4228, p = 0.0006). The rate of staling in hopped beers as measured by the rate of 1-hydroxyethyl radical generation did not differ among hop treatments, suggesting that excess copper content contributed from the hops does not negatively impact the oxidative stability of the beers. These findings suggest that brewers can use CBF-treated hops without any negative implications for the shelf stability of their beers and do not contraindicate the use of CBF in hops production when necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Review
Current Research Related to Wine Sensory Perception Since 2010
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030047 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Due to socioeconomic changes, the demand for and interest in alcoholic beverages have recently been increasing. Among various alcoholic drinks, consumer preference for wine could be varied. It might be related with its complexity, as wine is known to have characteristics that are [...] Read more.
Due to socioeconomic changes, the demand for and interest in alcoholic beverages have recently been increasing. Among various alcoholic drinks, consumer preference for wine could be varied. It might be related with its complexity, as wine is known to have characteristics that are difficult to understand. Several factors, such as intrinsic or extrinsic factors interact to influence wine complexity and consumer perception. Many studies have been conducted to understand the complexity of wine, allowing deeper insight into its perception by consumers. Studies over the last decade on wine sensory perception using descriptive analysis and consumer tests were reviewed. Additionally, chemical analysis studies were included because flavor constituents information would contribute to a better understanding of sensory perception. Descriptive sensory analysis of wine was reviewed considering panels and flavor characterization for better understanding wine-related research. Several consumer studies regarding liking/preference, emotion, context, and extrinsic factors to understand consumer preference or perception were reviewed. Research on chemical constituents may affect consumer perception and is thus presented in this review. However, most of the research was focused on a narrow range of wine, thus is missing overall wine category evaluations. Furthermore, evaluations were mainly in wine-producing countries, resulting in limited understanding of an emergent market. This review will help guide wine researchers and industry by providing information on factors influencing consumer wine perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Article
B-Vitamins Determination in Donkey Milk
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030046 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Background: Donkey milk is used in infant nutrition for the treatment of children affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, thanks to its hypo-allergenicity, mainly due to its protein profile, which is very close to that of human milk. Furthermore, donkey milk is characterized [...] Read more.
Background: Donkey milk is used in infant nutrition for the treatment of children affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, thanks to its hypo-allergenicity, mainly due to its protein profile, which is very close to that of human milk. Furthermore, donkey milk is characterized by the presence of a fair amount of bioactive proteins, that may have a positive impact on human health. Despite the presence of numerous articles that describe the chemical composition and nutraceutical properties of donkey milk, few works have been performed to determine its vitamin profile; therefore, the purpose of this work is to give further information on the B-vitamins profile of donkey milk. Methods: B-vitamins have been determined through a reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis. Results: The results indicated that donkey milk (DM) contains thiamine 0.661 ± 0.26 μM, riboflavin 0.168 ± 0.04 μM, nicotinic acid 18.75 ± 1.92 μM, pyridoxine 5.38 ± 3.3 5μM, and folic acid 0.83 ± 0.08 μM. Conclusions: Donkey milk contains a high quantity of nicotinic acid, known for its lipid-lowering effect, and a good amount of vitamin B6 and folic acid, the latter very important for children’s growth. To notice, vitamin B6 has been determined for the first time in donkey milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk)
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Review
Pulsed Light: Challenges of a Non-Thermal Sanitation Technology in the Winemaking Industry
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030045 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Pulsed light is an emerging non-thermal technology viable for foodstuff sanitation. The sanitation is produced through the use of high energy pulses during ultra-short periods of time (ns to µs). The pulsed light induces irreversible damages at the DNA level with the formation [...] Read more.
Pulsed light is an emerging non-thermal technology viable for foodstuff sanitation. The sanitation is produced through the use of high energy pulses during ultra-short periods of time (ns to µs). The pulsed light induces irreversible damages at the DNA level with the formation of pyrimidine dimers, but also produces photo-thermal and photo-physical effects on the microbial membranes that lead to a reduction in the microbial populations. The reduction caused in the microbial populations can reach several fold, up to 4 log CFU/mL decrement. A slight increase of 3 to 4 °C in temperature is observed in treated food; nonetheless, this increase does not modify either the nutritional properties of the product or its sensory profile. The advantages of using pulsed light could be used to a greater extent in the winemaking industry. Experimental trials have shown a positive effect of reducing native yeast and bacteria in grapes to populations below 1–2 log CFU/mL. In this way, pulsed light, a non-thermal technology currently available for the sanitation of foodstuffs, is an alternative for the reduction in native microbiota and the later control of the fermentative process in winemaking. This certainly would allow the use of fermentation biotechnologies such as the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed and sequential fermentations to preserve freshness in wines through the production of aroma volatile compounds and organic acids, and the production of wines with less utilization of SO2 in accordance with the consumers’ demand in the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Review
Coffee Flavor: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030044 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5331
Abstract
Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and [...] Read more.
Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and aspects such as environment, processing, and preparation that influence flavor. This summary of research studies employed sensory analysis (either descriptive and discrimination testing and or consumer testing) and chemical analysis to determine the impact aspects on coffee flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Article
The Effect of Pasteurization and Shelf Life on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, Antioxidant, and Sensory Properties of Rose Apple Cider during Cold Storage
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030043 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Rose apple fruits (Syzygium agueum Alston cv. Taaptimjan) were used to produce cider to overcome their limitation of short shelf life. Following fermentation, alternative pasteurization conditions at 63 °C for 15 s and at 71 °C for 6 s were compared. The [...] Read more.
Rose apple fruits (Syzygium agueum Alston cv. Taaptimjan) were used to produce cider to overcome their limitation of short shelf life. Following fermentation, alternative pasteurization conditions at 63 °C for 15 s and at 71 °C for 6 s were compared. The effects of pasteurization conditions on physicochemical properties, microbial safety, antioxidant capacity, and sensory properties of the cider were investigated during storage for 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The unpasteurized cider had 5.9% ethanol content with TSS of 4.1 °Brix. Alcohol content of this treatment group increased while TSS decreased during storage, as effects of continuing fermentation. Pasteurization at 63 or 71 °C effectively prolonged cider shelf life to 3 and 6 months, respectively. Nonetheless, the processing significantly decreased contents of ascorbic acid and antioxidants and affected sensory profile of the cider. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated storage time as the dominant factor determining cider quality. Trained panelists in the sensory study perceived more intense sweetness, less sourness, and less flavor in the pasteurized samples compared to the control group. The pasteurization conditions 71 °C for 6 s achieved microbiological safety and resulted in desirable sensory quality for up to 6 months of shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Shelf Life of Beverages)
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Article
Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Xiaoqu Liquor and Their Contributions to the Sensory Flavor
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030042 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the aroma profile and major flavor compounds in Xiaoqu liquor by a combination of sensory profiling, GC-O/GC-MS analysis, and SBSE-GC-MS. A total of 57 important volatile compounds (FD ≥ 2) were screened based on the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the aroma profile and major flavor compounds in Xiaoqu liquor by a combination of sensory profiling, GC-O/GC-MS analysis, and SBSE-GC-MS. A total of 57 important volatile compounds (FD ≥ 2) were screened based on the retention indices, aromatic characteristics, standard comparison, and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). By calculating the odor activity values (OAVs), 32 aroma active compounds were identified in Xiaoqu liquor. In the aroma recombination experiments, these active compounds were dissolved in 46% ethanol water at their natural concentrations, resulting in successful simulations of the typical aromas of Xiaoqu liquor, including fruity aroma, sweet aroma, and grain aroma. Omission experiments showed that the critical compounds that contribute to the characteristic flavor of Xiaoqu liquor include ethyl octanoate, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxyethane, isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, valeric acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and ethyl isovalerate. The results provide some guidance for upgrading the fermentation and microbial strain in the production of Xiaoqu liquor. Full article
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