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Beverages, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 8 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Brief History of Whiskey Adulteration and the Role of Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics in the Detection of Modern Whiskey Fraud
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030049 - 03 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Food fraud and adulteration is a major concern in terms of economic and public health. Multivariate methods combined with spectroscopic techniques have shown promise as a novel analytical strategy for addressing issues related to food fraud that cannot be solved by the analysis [...] Read more.
Food fraud and adulteration is a major concern in terms of economic and public health. Multivariate methods combined with spectroscopic techniques have shown promise as a novel analytical strategy for addressing issues related to food fraud that cannot be solved by the analysis of one variable, particularly in complex matrices such distilled beverages. This review describes and discusses different aspects of whisky production, and recent developments of laboratory, in field and high throughput analysis. In particular, recent applications detailing the use of vibrational spectroscopy techniques combined with data analytical methods used to not only distinguish between brand and origin of whisky but to also detect adulteration are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Copper Fungicide Use in Hop Production on the Total Metal Content and Stability of Wort and Dry-Hopped Beer
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030048 - 03 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Transition metals, including copper, iron, and manganese, are known to catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in beer leading to reduced product stability. Metals in beer are generally derived from raw ingredients. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of [...] Read more.
Transition metals, including copper, iron, and manganese, are known to catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in beer leading to reduced product stability. Metals in beer are generally derived from raw ingredients. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of brewing and dry-hopping using hops treated with copper-based fungicides (CBFs) on the final transition metal content of model buffer solutions and pilot-scale systems of wort and beer. Copper levels in model wort and beer solutions were elevated (105.6% and 230.4% increase, respectively) when CBF-treated hops were used. In laboratory-prepared wort, elevated copper concentrations were not observed when CBF-treated hops were used for boiling. Dry hopping of beer using CBF-treated hops led to significant increases in total copper content (ca. 75 µg/kg vs. ca. 40–50 µg/kg in the control-hopped beer) when yeast was absent from the treated beer, but not when yeast was present. It was observed that manganese levels were significantly elevated in all hopped beers (ca. 495–550 µg/kg vs. 90–125 µg/kg in the unhopped control), regardless of hop treatment. A hop varietal thiol, 4-Mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, was spiked into treated beers, and the rate of oxidative loss was monitored during aging. Rates of thiol loss in treated beer samples did not differ across CBF treatments but were significantly lower in unhopped controls in the absence of yeast (p < 0.0001) and correlated significantly with total manganese content of the beers (R2 = 0.4228, p = 0.0006). The rate of staling in hopped beers as measured by the rate of 1-hydroxyethyl radical generation did not differ among hop treatments, suggesting that excess copper content contributed from the hops does not negatively impact the oxidative stability of the beers. These findings suggest that brewers can use CBF-treated hops without any negative implications for the shelf stability of their beers and do not contraindicate the use of CBF in hops production when necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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Open AccessReview
Current Research Related to Wine Sensory Perception Since 2010
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030047 - 27 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Due to socioeconomic changes, the demand for and interest in alcoholic beverages have recently been increasing. Among various alcoholic drinks, consumer preference for wine could be varied. It might be related with its complexity, as wine is known to have characteristics that are [...] Read more.
Due to socioeconomic changes, the demand for and interest in alcoholic beverages have recently been increasing. Among various alcoholic drinks, consumer preference for wine could be varied. It might be related with its complexity, as wine is known to have characteristics that are difficult to understand. Several factors, such as intrinsic or extrinsic factors interact to influence wine complexity and consumer perception. Many studies have been conducted to understand the complexity of wine, allowing deeper insight into its perception by consumers. Studies over the last decade on wine sensory perception using descriptive analysis and consumer tests were reviewed. Additionally, chemical analysis studies were included because flavor constituents information would contribute to a better understanding of sensory perception. Descriptive sensory analysis of wine was reviewed considering panels and flavor characterization for better understanding wine-related research. Several consumer studies regarding liking/preference, emotion, context, and extrinsic factors to understand consumer preference or perception were reviewed. Research on chemical constituents may affect consumer perception and is thus presented in this review. However, most of the research was focused on a narrow range of wine, thus is missing overall wine category evaluations. Furthermore, evaluations were mainly in wine-producing countries, resulting in limited understanding of an emergent market. This review will help guide wine researchers and industry by providing information on factors influencing consumer wine perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Open AccessArticle
B-Vitamins Determination in Donkey Milk
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030046 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
Background: Donkey milk is used in infant nutrition for the treatment of children affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, thanks to its hypo-allergenicity, mainly due to its protein profile, which is very close to that of human milk. Furthermore, donkey milk is characterized [...] Read more.
Background: Donkey milk is used in infant nutrition for the treatment of children affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, thanks to its hypo-allergenicity, mainly due to its protein profile, which is very close to that of human milk. Furthermore, donkey milk is characterized by the presence of a fair amount of bioactive proteins, that may have a positive impact on human health. Despite the presence of numerous articles that describe the chemical composition and nutraceutical properties of donkey milk, few works have been performed to determine its vitamin profile; therefore, the purpose of this work is to give further information on the B-vitamins profile of donkey milk. Methods: B-vitamins have been determined through a reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis. Results: The results indicated that donkey milk (DM) contains thiamine 0.661 ± 0.26 μM, riboflavin 0.168 ± 0.04 μM, nicotinic acid 18.75 ± 1.92 μM, pyridoxine 5.38 ± 3.3 5μM, and folic acid 0.83 ± 0.08 μM. Conclusions: Donkey milk contains a high quantity of nicotinic acid, known for its lipid-lowering effect, and a good amount of vitamin B6 and folic acid, the latter very important for children’s growth. To notice, vitamin B6 has been determined for the first time in donkey milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Pulsed Light: Challenges of a Non-Thermal Sanitation Technology in the Winemaking Industry
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030045 - 14 Jul 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Pulsed light is an emerging non-thermal technology viable for foodstuff sanitation. The sanitation is produced through the use of high energy pulses during ultra-short periods of time (ns to µs). The pulsed light induces irreversible damages at the DNA level with the formation [...] Read more.
Pulsed light is an emerging non-thermal technology viable for foodstuff sanitation. The sanitation is produced through the use of high energy pulses during ultra-short periods of time (ns to µs). The pulsed light induces irreversible damages at the DNA level with the formation of pyrimidine dimers, but also produces photo-thermal and photo-physical effects on the microbial membranes that lead to a reduction in the microbial populations. The reduction caused in the microbial populations can reach several fold, up to 4 log CFU/mL decrement. A slight increase of 3 to 4 °C in temperature is observed in treated food; nonetheless, this increase does not modify either the nutritional properties of the product or its sensory profile. The advantages of using pulsed light could be used to a greater extent in the winemaking industry. Experimental trials have shown a positive effect of reducing native yeast and bacteria in grapes to populations below 1–2 log CFU/mL. In this way, pulsed light, a non-thermal technology currently available for the sanitation of foodstuffs, is an alternative for the reduction in native microbiota and the later control of the fermentative process in winemaking. This certainly would allow the use of fermentation biotechnologies such as the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed and sequential fermentations to preserve freshness in wines through the production of aroma volatile compounds and organic acids, and the production of wines with less utilization of SO2 in accordance with the consumers’ demand in the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Beverage Processing)
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Open AccessReview
Coffee Flavor: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030044 - 08 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and [...] Read more.
Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and aspects such as environment, processing, and preparation that influence flavor. This summary of research studies employed sensory analysis (either descriptive and discrimination testing and or consumer testing) and chemical analysis to determine the impact aspects on coffee flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Pasteurization and Shelf Life on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, Antioxidant, and Sensory Properties of Rose Apple Cider during Cold Storage
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030043 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Rose apple fruits (Syzygium agueum Alston cv. Taaptimjan) were used to produce cider to overcome their limitation of short shelf life. Following fermentation, alternative pasteurization conditions at 63 °C for 15 s and at 71 °C for 6 s were compared. The [...] Read more.
Rose apple fruits (Syzygium agueum Alston cv. Taaptimjan) were used to produce cider to overcome their limitation of short shelf life. Following fermentation, alternative pasteurization conditions at 63 °C for 15 s and at 71 °C for 6 s were compared. The effects of pasteurization conditions on physicochemical properties, microbial safety, antioxidant capacity, and sensory properties of the cider were investigated during storage for 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The unpasteurized cider had 5.9% ethanol content with TSS of 4.1 °Brix. Alcohol content of this treatment group increased while TSS decreased during storage, as effects of continuing fermentation. Pasteurization at 63 or 71 °C effectively prolonged cider shelf life to 3 and 6 months, respectively. Nonetheless, the processing significantly decreased contents of ascorbic acid and antioxidants and affected sensory profile of the cider. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated storage time as the dominant factor determining cider quality. Trained panelists in the sensory study perceived more intense sweetness, less sourness, and less flavor in the pasteurized samples compared to the control group. The pasteurization conditions 71 °C for 6 s achieved microbiological safety and resulted in desirable sensory quality for up to 6 months of shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability and Shelf Life of Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Xiaoqu Liquor and Their Contributions to the Sensory Flavor
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030042 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 260
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the aroma profile and major flavor compounds in Xiaoqu liquor by a combination of sensory profiling, GC-O/GC-MS analysis, and SBSE-GC-MS. A total of 57 important volatile compounds (FD ≥ 2) were screened based on the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the aroma profile and major flavor compounds in Xiaoqu liquor by a combination of sensory profiling, GC-O/GC-MS analysis, and SBSE-GC-MS. A total of 57 important volatile compounds (FD ≥ 2) were screened based on the retention indices, aromatic characteristics, standard comparison, and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). By calculating the odor activity values (OAVs), 32 aroma active compounds were identified in Xiaoqu liquor. In the aroma recombination experiments, these active compounds were dissolved in 46% ethanol water at their natural concentrations, resulting in successful simulations of the typical aromas of Xiaoqu liquor, including fruity aroma, sweet aroma, and grain aroma. Omission experiments showed that the critical compounds that contribute to the characteristic flavor of Xiaoqu liquor include ethyl octanoate, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxyethane, isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, valeric acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and ethyl isovalerate. The results provide some guidance for upgrading the fermentation and microbial strain in the production of Xiaoqu liquor. Full article
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