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Beverages, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2015) , Pages 127-224

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Open AccessCommunication
Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 218-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030218 - 22 Sep 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Sports and energy (S/E) drinks are commonly used by high school (HS) athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks [...] Read more.
Sports and energy (S/E) drinks are commonly used by high school (HS) athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender) were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5%) of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3%) were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1%) and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%). Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Drinks)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Influence of the Multisensory Atmosphere on the Taste of Vodka
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 204-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030204 - 15 Sep 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
A preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the multisensory atmosphere (involving variations in lighting and music) on people’s rating of unflavoured and flavoured (citron and raspberry) vodkas is reported. The auditory and visual attributes of the environment were changed as people [...] Read more.
A preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the multisensory atmosphere (involving variations in lighting and music) on people’s rating of unflavoured and flavoured (citron and raspberry) vodkas is reported. The auditory and visual attributes of the environment were changed as people tasted, and then rated, four unlabelled glasses of vodka (two unflavoured samples, one sample of citron-flavoured and one sample of raspberry-flavoured vodka). Due to the public nature of the event, all participants experienced the same order of auditory and visual changes at the same time. For flavoured vodkas, we saw significant correlations between atmosphere-vodka matching and both liking and fruitiness, and this was reinforced by results showing that those participants who tasted the vodkas in congruent atmospheric conditions (raspberry vodka in red lighting and sweet music, citron vodka in green lighting and sour music) gave significantly higher ratings of liking and fruitiness than did those participants who tasted the vodkas in atmospheric conditions that were incongruent. Specifically, the participants liked the raspberry-flavoured vodka significantly more, and rated it as tasting significantly fruitier, under red lighting while listening to sweet music as compared to under green lighting and listening to sour music. Meanwhile, the unflavoured vodka was liked less under green lighting while listening to the putatively sour music than under white lighting and no music. These results demonstrate how the multisensory attributes of the environment impact on people’s experience of both unflavoured and flavoured vodkas, even when they are not given any information about what they are tasting. Some of the real-world implications for bars (i.e., the “on trade”), experiential events, and other beverage businesses are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Perception and Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Sustainability and Functional Aspects on Liquid Carton Board Packaging Materials versus Competing Materials for Juice Applications in Sweden
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 194-203; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030194 - 31 Aug 2015
Viewed by 2292
Abstract
This research explores the downstream perceptions of liquid carton board versus competing materials in packaging applications for juice. The methodology used is focus groups. The context is sustainability and functional performance, and related potential implications for the beverage industry value chain. The purpose [...] Read more.
This research explores the downstream perceptions of liquid carton board versus competing materials in packaging applications for juice. The methodology used is focus groups. The context is sustainability and functional performance, and related potential implications for the beverage industry value chain. The purpose is to get a deeper insight and understanding of functionality in relation to juice beverage packaging. The results confirm that there is no optimal packaging for every juice product, but a multitude, depending on the distribution channel, retail outlet, customer preferences, and context of consumption. There are some general packaging preferences, but the main deciding criteria for purchase seem to be the product characteristics in terms of quality, taste, brand, price and shelf life. For marketing reasons, packaging has to be adopted to the product and its positioning, liquid carton board packaging seem to have some functional advantages in distribution and is considered as sustainable and functional among many consumers. Major drawbacks seem to be shape limitations, lack of transparency, and lack of a “premium look”. To improve packaging performance and avoid sub-optimization, actors in the beverage industry value chain need to be integrated in development processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Aluminum Laminates in Beverage Packaging: Models and Experiences
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 183-193; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030183 - 07 Aug 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
Aluminum laminates are among the main components of beverage packaging. These layered material systems are coupled to paperboard plies except in the cap opening area, where the human force limit sets a requirement on the material properties to allow open-ability and the mechanical [...] Read more.
Aluminum laminates are among the main components of beverage packaging. These layered material systems are coupled to paperboard plies except in the cap opening area, where the human force limit sets a requirement on the material properties to allow open-ability and the mechanical characteristics are of particular interest. Experimental investigations have been carried out on this composite and on its components by either traditional or full-field measurement techniques. The interpretation of the collected data has been supported by the simulation of the performed tests considering either a homogenized material model or the individual laminate layers. However, different results may be recovered from similar samples due to physical factors like the material processing route and the embedded defectiveness. In turn, the conclusions may vary depending on the model assumptions. This contribution focuses on the physical effects and on the modeling of the large localized deformation induced by material singularities. This topic is discussed at the light of some experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 169-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030169 - 07 Aug 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3192
Abstract
The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala) and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera). It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more [...] Read more.
The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala) and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera). It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better) antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis), which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4%) when the leaves (1 g) were boiled in water (200 mL). For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Migration of Three Model Substances from Low Density Polyethylene into Food Simulant and Fruit Juices
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 159-168; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030159 - 04 Aug 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
In the present work, the migration of three chemicals, benzophenone, 1,4-diphenylbutadiene and Uvitex® OB from low-density polyethylene samples into the food simulant, 50% ethanol (v/v), was studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process, the partition and diffusion coefficients, were calculated by [...] Read more.
In the present work, the migration of three chemicals, benzophenone, 1,4-diphenylbutadiene and Uvitex® OB from low-density polyethylene samples into the food simulant, 50% ethanol (v/v), was studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process, the partition and diffusion coefficients, were calculated by using a mathematical model based on Fick’s Second Law. As expected, the diffusion coefficients increased with temperature and the values obtained ranged between 3.87 × 10−11 and 1.00 × 10−8 cm2/s. Furthermore, the migration in different fruit juices was also evaluated and the results indicated that benzophenone migrated to a greater extent in comparison with the other two migrants in all beverages analyzed. To quantify the migrants, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used. The separation was performed on an Ace 3 C18-HL column (30 × 3 mm, 3 μm particle size) and using a gradient elution system consisting of Milli-Q water and acetonitrile. The total analysis time did not exceed 8 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Flexographic and Digital Printing of Fruit Drinks on Consumer Attention at the Point of Sale
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 149-158; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030149 - 24 Jul 2015
Viewed by 2333
Abstract
Package labels play a critical role in communicating product benefits to consumers. On a package, labels are used to provide useful information about the product as well branding for the company. Labels need to not only be eye catching to the consumer, but [...] Read more.
Package labels play a critical role in communicating product benefits to consumers. On a package, labels are used to provide useful information about the product as well branding for the company. Labels need to not only be eye catching to the consumer, but must also communicate information concerning what is being sold. This is possible through various printing technologies available in today’s market. With technology steadily advancing, companies need to determine an optimal print method for packaging that satisfies budgetary, environmental, demand and consumer requirements. Through the collection of quantitative data, consumer attention and purchase preference were evaluated. Two different printing methods (digital and flexographic) were tested on fruit drink labels. A total of 248 participants completed this study, which took place at Pack Expo 2014 in Chicago, Illinois. Three eye tracking metrics were evaluated using eye tracking technology to investigate if the different printing methods had an effect on the consumer when shopping. Statistical analysis yielded no significant difference for participant’s attention when shopping for fruit drinks with digital or flexographic labels. It was also concluded that the position on the shelf made no significant difference for either label type. This study illustrates that consumers cannot significantly determine a difference between the two printing methods tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging)
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Open AccessCommunication
Preliminary Evaluation of Enteric Viruses in Bottled Mineral Water Commercialized in Brazil
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 140-148; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030140 - 23 Jul 2015
Viewed by 2150
Abstract
In Brazil, mineral water is widely consumed and as of yet there have been no studies done in the country that aim to detect enteric viruses in this water source. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of the human [...] Read more.
In Brazil, mineral water is widely consumed and as of yet there have been no studies done in the country that aim to detect enteric viruses in this water source. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of the human adenovirus (HAdV), the human rotavirus genogroup A (GARV) and the human enterovirus (hEV) in mineral water samples from six different brands that are commercialized in southern Brazil, using molecular techniques and comparing the results with bacterial indicators. Samples of 1.5 L and 500 mL were analyzed for viruses through PCR and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Additionally, heterotrophic bacteria were assayed using a commercial kit. The most prevalent virus was adenovirus (32.5%) followed by rotavirus (25%) and enterovirus (17.5%). Total and thermotolerant coliforms were absent in all samples and only three samples out of the 60 analyzed presented heterotrophic bacteria contamination. We conclude that, following the example taken into consideration regarding the public supply of drinking water, stricter measures for microbiological control should also be applied to mineral water so that this actually becomes a safer alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water)
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Open AccessArticle
Discrimination between Arabica and Robusta Coffees Using Hydrosoluble Compounds: Is the Efficiency of the Parameters Dependent on the Roast Degree?
Beverages 2015, 1(3), 127-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1030127 - 30 Jun 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Coffea arabica (arabica) and Coffea canephora (robusta) are the most important coffee species. Arabica has higher commercial value and, in general, more favorable sensory characteristics. After roasting, analytical methods are required to differentiate species. Blends with different proportions of arabica/robusta coffees, roasted [...] Read more.
Coffea arabica (arabica) and Coffea canephora (robusta) are the most important coffee species. Arabica has higher commercial value and, in general, more favorable sensory characteristics. After roasting, analytical methods are required to differentiate species. Blends with different proportions of arabica/robusta coffees, roasted at three degrees were studied. Color parameters and the levels of chlorogenic (5-CQA) and nicotinic acids, caffeine, and trigonelline were evaluated. Hydrosoluble compounds were analyzed by their efficiency to discriminate coffee species, considering different roast degrees. Caffeine was a good discriminator, regardless of roast degree. The roast degree influenced the efficiency of discrimination of the other hydrosoluble compounds. A model using color parameters and the variables Ratio (5-CQA/caffeine contents ratio) and Sum (sum of nicotinic acid and trigonelline contents) was proposed to the estimation of roasting degree. Considering the use of heat-labile compounds, the discrimination among coffee species should be carried out in two steps: first, the characterization of roasting degree, and subsequently the appropriate parameters are defined for each roasting degree. Thus, the combined use of color parameters and hydrosoluble compounds could be useful to help the differentiation of coffee species in blends of roasted samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee Beverage)
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