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Toxics, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2023) – 77 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Insect pollinators provide an important ecosystem service that supports global biodiversity and environmental health. The study investigates the effects of the environmental matrix on six oxidative stress biomarkers in the honey bee Apis mellifera. Thirty-five a-piaries located in urban, forested, and agricultural areas in Central Italy were sampled during the summer season. Enzyme activities in forager bees were analyzed using an artificial neural network, allowing the identification and representation of the apiary patterns in a Self-Organizing Map. The SOM nodes were correlated with the environmental parameters and tissue levels of eight heavy metals. The results indicated that the apiaries were not clustered according to their spatial distribution. View this paper
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17 pages, 4427 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Big Data Analysis of the Impact of Air Pollutants on Rhinitis-Related Hospital Visits
by Soyeon Lee, Changwan Hyun and Minhyeok Lee
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080719 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
This study seeks to elucidate the intricate relationship between various air pollutants and the incidence of rhinitis in Seoul, South Korea, wherein it leveraged a vast repository of data and machine learning techniques. The dataset comprised more than 93 million hospital visits ( [...] Read more.
This study seeks to elucidate the intricate relationship between various air pollutants and the incidence of rhinitis in Seoul, South Korea, wherein it leveraged a vast repository of data and machine learning techniques. The dataset comprised more than 93 million hospital visits (n = 93,530,064) by rhinitis patients between 2013 and 2017. Daily atmospheric measurements were captured for six major pollutants: PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, CO, and SO2. We employed traditional correlation analyses alongside machine learning models, including the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), random forest (RF), and gradient boosting machine (GBM), to dissect the effects of these pollutants and the potential time lag in their symptom manifestation. Our analyses revealed that CO showed the strongest positive correlation with hospital visits across all three categories, with a notable significance in the 4-day lag analysis. NO2 also exhibited a substantial positive association, particularly with outpatient visits and hospital admissions and especially in the 4-day lag analysis. Interestingly, O3 demonstrated mixed results. Both PM10 and PM2.5 showed significant correlations with the different types of hospital visits, thus underlining their potential to exacerbate rhinitis symptoms. This study thus underscores the deleterious impacts of air pollution on respiratory health, thereby highlighting the importance of reducing pollutant levels and developing strategies to minimize rhinitis-related hospital visits. Further research considering other environmental factors and individual patient characteristics will enhance our understanding of these intricate dynamics. Full article
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16 pages, 3366 KiB  
Article
TiO2-Photocatalyst-Induced Degradation of Dog and Cat Allergens under Wet and Dry Conditions Causes a Loss in Their Allergenicity
by Ryosuke Matsuura, Arisa Kawamura, Rizo Ota, Takashi Fukushima, Kazuhiro Fujimoto, Masato Kozaki, Misaki Yamashiro, Junichi Somei, Yasunobu Matsumoto and Yoko Aida
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080718 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Allergies to dogs and cats can cause enormous damage to human health and the economy. Dog and cat allergens are mainly found in dog and cat dander and are present in small particles in the air and in carpets in homes with dogs [...] Read more.
Allergies to dogs and cats can cause enormous damage to human health and the economy. Dog and cat allergens are mainly found in dog and cat dander and are present in small particles in the air and in carpets in homes with dogs and cats. Cleaning houses and washing pets are the main methods for reducing allergens in homes; however, it is difficult to eliminate them completely. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether a TiO2 photocatalyst could degrade dog and cat allergens. Under wet conditions, exposure to the TiO2 photocatalyst for 24 h degraded Can f1, which is a major dog allergen extracted from dog dander, by 98.3%, and Fel d1, which is a major cat allergen extracted from cat dander, by 93.6–94.4%. Furthermore, under dry conditions, the TiO2 photocatalyst degraded Can f1 and Fel d1 by 92.8% and 59.2–68.4%, respectively. The TiO2 photocatalyst abolished the binding of dog and cat allergens to human IgE by 104.6% and 108.6%, respectively. The results indicated that the TiO2 photocatalyst degraded dog and cat allergens, causing a loss in their allergenicity. Our results suggest that TiO2 photocatalysis can be useful for removing indoor pet allergens and improving the partnership between humans and pets. Full article
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14 pages, 1131 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Mercury Content in Fish for Human Consumption in Poland
by Barbara Brodziak-Dopierała and Agnieszka Fischer
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080717 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) is a metal with toxic effects on the environment, including living organisms. Organic Hg derivatives readily penetrate biological membranes and pose a particular health risk. Food of aquatic origin is the main source of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). In Poland, [...] Read more.
Mercury (Hg) is a metal with toxic effects on the environment, including living organisms. Organic Hg derivatives readily penetrate biological membranes and pose a particular health risk. Food of aquatic origin is the main source of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). In Poland, the consumption of fishery and aquaculture products has been gradually increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Hg in fish intended for human consumption and purchased in Poland. The total Hg content of the edible parts of different species of marine and freshwater fish was analysed. The range of Hg content in all fish was 0.004–0.827 mg/kg, with an arithmetic mean of 0.084 mg/kg. The concentration of Hg in marine fish (0.100 mg/kg) was higher than in freshwater fish (0.063 mg/kg). The highest concentration of Hg was found in tuna. The Estimated Hazard Quotient (EHQ) calculated for the tuna samples analysed was >1. This may represent a potential health risk for consumers. The consumption of the other fish analysed was considered safe on the basis of the EHQ. The Hg content of the analysed fish samples did not exceed the current limits for food. Full article
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18 pages, 2244 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Metal Toxicity on Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Hipersaline Zooplankter Artemia salina, and Jellyfish Aurelia aurita
by Borja Mercado, Nuria Valero, Luis Roca-Pérez, Elena Bernabeu-Berni and Oscar Andreu-Sánchez
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080716 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
The escalating global anthropogenic activities associated with industrial development have led to the increased introduction of heavy metals (HMs) into marine environments through effluents. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of three HMs (Cr, Cu, and Cd) on organisms spanning different trophic [...] Read more.
The escalating global anthropogenic activities associated with industrial development have led to the increased introduction of heavy metals (HMs) into marine environments through effluents. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of three HMs (Cr, Cu, and Cd) on organisms spanning different trophic levels: Phaeodactylum tricornutum (a primary producer), Artemia salina (a primary consumer), and Aurelia aurita (a secondary consumer). The EC50 values obtained revealed varying relative toxicities for the tested organisms. Phaeodactylum tricornutum exhibited the highest sensitivity to Cu, followed by Cd and Cr, while Artemia salina displayed the highest sensitivity to Cr, followed by Cu and Cd. A. aurita, on the other hand, demonstrated the highest sensitivity to Cu, followed by Cr and Cd. This experimental investigation further supported previous studies that have suggested A. aurita as a suitable model organism for ecotoxicity testing. Our experiments encompassed sublethal endpoints, such as pulsation frequency, acute effects, and mortality, highlighting different levels of sensitivity among the organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 10th Anniversary of Toxics)
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18 pages, 2463 KiB  
Article
Distribution of Essential and Toxic Elements in Pelecus cultratus Tissues and Risk Assessment for Consumer Health
by Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Payuta, Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Flerova and Yulia Vladimirovna Zaitseva
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080715 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Nowadays, the problem of inland water pollution is acute. It is caused by vast industrial growth and agricultural intensification. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, and Kwere determined in the muscles, liver, and gonads sabrefish from Rybinsk Reservoir areas with [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the problem of inland water pollution is acute. It is caused by vast industrial growth and agricultural intensification. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, and Kwere determined in the muscles, liver, and gonads sabrefish from Rybinsk Reservoir areas with different anthropogenic loads. The tissue samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Heavy metals accumulated more intensively in the body of fish from more polluted areas of the reservoir. Among the analyzed elements, the maximum accumulation levels were found for K, Zn, and Fe and the minimum levels were observed for Cd and Pb. The gonads contained the largest concentration of Cd and Mn, the muscles contained the highest concentrations of Mg, and the other elements mainly accumulated in the liver of sabrefish. The THQ and HI values for all elements did not exceed 1, which suggests that there is no potential non-carcinogenic risk to human health. The target values of carcinogenic risk (TR) for cadmium ranged from 8.32 × 10−6 to 1.22 × 10−4 in the muscles. The increased content of cadmium in the gonads of sabrefish not only poses a risk to human health, but also to the reproduction of this species in the Rybinsk Reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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18 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Trace Element Levels and Steroidogenesis in the Maternal–Placental–Fetal Unit
by Martina Piasek, Lana Škrgatić, Antonija Sulimanec, Tatjana Orct, Ankica Sekovanić, Jelena Kovačić, Anja Katić, Karmen Branović Čakanić, Alica Pizent, Nataša Brajenović, Andreja Jurič, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Zorana Kljaković-Gašpić, Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Maja Lazarus, Sandra Stasenko, Iva Miškulin and Jasna Jurasović
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080714 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
This study evaluates the interaction of toxic elements cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) due to exposure from cigarette smoking, essential elements, and steroidogenesis in the maternal–placental–fetal unit. In a cohort of 155 healthy, postpartum women with vaginal term deliveries in clinical hospitals in [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the interaction of toxic elements cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) due to exposure from cigarette smoking, essential elements, and steroidogenesis in the maternal–placental–fetal unit. In a cohort of 155 healthy, postpartum women with vaginal term deliveries in clinical hospitals in Zagreb, Croatia, samples of maternal blood/serum and urine, placental tissue, and umbilical cord blood/serum were collected at childbirth. The biomarkers determined were concentrations of Cd, Pb, iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol in maternal and umbilical cord blood and the placenta. Three study groups were designated based on self-reported data on cigarette smoking habits and confirmed by urine cotinine levels: never smokers (n = 71), former smokers (n = 48), and active smokers (n = 36). Metal(loid)s, steroid hormones, urine cotinine, and creatinine levels were analyzed by ICP–MS, ELISA, GC–MS, and spectrophotometry. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased Cd levels in maternal, placental, and fetal compartments, Pb in the placenta, and with decreased Fe in the placenta. In active smokers, decreased progesterone and estradiol concentrations in cord blood serum were found, while sex steroid hormones did not change in either maternal serum or placenta. This study provides further evidence regarding toxic and essential metal(loid) interactions during prenatal life, and new data on sex steroid disruption in cord serum related to cigarette smoking. The results indicate that umbilical cord sex steroid levels may be a putative early marker of developmental origins of the future burden of disease related to harmful prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Environmental Epidemiology)
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21 pages, 4640 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Presence of Transformation Products of Certain Pharmaceutical Products (Psychotropic Family) by Suspect and Non-Targeted HRMS Screening in Wastewater Treatment Plants
by Solenne Reverbel, Marie-Hélène Dévier, Valentin Dupraz, Emmanuel Geneste and Hélène Budzinski
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080713 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Aquatic environments are the final receptors of human emissions and are therefore contaminated by molecules, such as pharmaceuticals. After use, these compounds and their metabolites are discharged to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). During wastewater treatment, compounds may be eliminated or degraded into transformation [...] Read more.
Aquatic environments are the final receptors of human emissions and are therefore contaminated by molecules, such as pharmaceuticals. After use, these compounds and their metabolites are discharged to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). During wastewater treatment, compounds may be eliminated or degraded into transformation products (TPs) or may be persistent. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the identification of six psychotropic drugs that are widely consumed in France and present in WWTPs, as well as their potential associated metabolites and TPs. Four out of six psychotropic drugs and between twenty-five and thirty-seven potential TPs were detected in wastewater, although this was based on full scan data. TPs not reported in the literature and specific to the study sites and therefore to the wastewater treatment processes were tentatively identified. For the selected drugs, most known and present TPs were identified, such as desmethylvenlafaxine or norcitalopram. Moreover, the short fragmentation study led rather to the identification of several TPs of carbamazepine as ubiquitous persistent TPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources and Removal of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater)
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10 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium Concentrations in Blood Products Transfused to Neonates: Elimination Not Just Mitigation
by Sanaa M. Aly, Samar Elfiky, Yasmine G. Mohamed, Radwa A. M. Soliman, Nancy Shalaby, Nicolas Beauval, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Delphine Allorge and Ahmed Omran
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080712 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are identified as potent developmental neurotoxicants. Neonates are the main group receiving multiple blood transfusions. The exposure of neonates to these heavy metals (HMs) can occur through blood transfusions. This study aimed to determine the concentrations [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are identified as potent developmental neurotoxicants. Neonates are the main group receiving multiple blood transfusions. The exposure of neonates to these heavy metals (HMs) can occur through blood transfusions. This study aimed to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) in various blood products (plasma, platelets, packed red blood cells (pRBCs), and whole blood (WB)) to explore the probability of concurrent exposure of these HMs and to identify the metal load per transfusion with risk assessment. Residual bloods from blood bank bags were collected after neonatal transfusion. Pb, Hg, and Cd concentrations were determined in 120 samples of blood products by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pb and Cd levels were over the normal levels in 19.2 and 5.9% of all blood units, respectively. In 35 and 0.8% of blood units, the Pb and Cd concentrations, respectively, were higher than that recommended for transfusions in premature neonates. The anticipated safe value was surpassed by 2.5% for Cd of all transfusions, primarily because of WB. However, Hg was detected only in 5.8% of all samples and their concentrations were within the normal range. The concurrent neonatal exposure to Pb, Hg, and Cd was statistically significant. Hazard quotients of Hg and Cr were >1 and Pb cancer risk was 2.41 × 10−4. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report examining Pb, Hg, and Cd in blood products other than WB and pRBCs using ICP-MS. This study demonstrated the exposure of neonates to Pb, Hg, and Cd during transfusion with a considerable amount of Pb. It confirms the significant concurrent exposure to the three HMs, which maximize their potential developmental neurotoxicity with a high probability of developing non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Overview of Forensic Toxicology, Yesterday, Today and in the Future)
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17 pages, 523 KiB  
Article
PFAS and Phthalate/DINCH Exposure in Association with Age at Menarche in Teenagers of the HBM4EU Aligned Studies
by Bianca Cox, Natasha Wauters, Andrea Rodríguez-Carrillo, Lützen Portengen, Antje Gerofke, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Sanna Lignell, Anna Karin Lindroos, Lucia Fabelova, Lubica Palkovicova Murinova, Anteneh Desalegn, Nina Iszatt, Tessa Schillemans, Agneta Åkesson, Ann Colles, Elly Den Hond, Gudrun Koppen, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts and Sylvie Remyadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080711 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
Early puberty has been found to be associated with adverse health outcomes such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and hormone-dependent cancers. The decrease in age at menarche observed during the past decades has been linked to an increased exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). [...] Read more.
Early puberty has been found to be associated with adverse health outcomes such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and hormone-dependent cancers. The decrease in age at menarche observed during the past decades has been linked to an increased exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Evidence for the association between PFAS and phthalate exposure and menarche onset, however, is inconsistent. We studied the association between PFAS and phthalate/DINCH exposure and age at menarche using data of 514 teenagers (12 to 18 years) from four aligned studies of the Human Biomonitoring for Europe initiative (HBM4EU): Riksmaten Adolescents 2016–2017 (Sweden), PCB cohort (follow-up; Slovakia), GerES V-sub (Germany), and FLEHS IV (Belgium). PFAS concentrations were measured in blood, and phthalate/DINCH concentrations in urine. We assessed the role of each individual pollutant within the context of the others, by using different multi-pollutant approaches, adjusting for age, age- and sex-standardized body mass index z-score and household educational level. Exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), especially mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), was associated with an earlier age at menarche, with estimates per interquartile fold change in 5OH-MEHP ranging from −0.34 to −0.12 years in the different models. Findings from this study indicated associations between age at menarche and some specific EDCs at concentrations detected in the general European population, but due to the study design (menarche onset preceded the chemical measurements), caution is needed in the interpretation of causality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity)
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18 pages, 18126 KiB  
Article
Network Toxicology and Molecular Docking to Investigate the Non-AChE Mechanisms of Organophosphate-Induced Neurodevelopmental Toxicity
by Juliana Alves da Costa Ribeiro Souza, Terezinha Souza, Isadora Louise Alves da Costa Ribeiro Quintans and Davi Farias
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080710 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are toxic substances that contaminate aquatic environments, interfere with the development of the nervous system, and induce Neurodevelopmental Toxicity (NDT) in animals and humans. The canonical mechanism of OP neurotoxicity involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but other mechanisms non-AChE [...] Read more.
Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are toxic substances that contaminate aquatic environments, interfere with the development of the nervous system, and induce Neurodevelopmental Toxicity (NDT) in animals and humans. The canonical mechanism of OP neurotoxicity involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but other mechanisms non-AChE are also involved and not fully understood. We used network toxicology and molecular docking to identify molecular targets and toxicity mechanisms common to OPs. Targets related to diazinon-oxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and paraoxon OPs were predicted using the Swiss Target Prediction and PharmMapper databases. Targets related to NDT were compiled from GeneCards and OMIM databases. In order to construct the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, the common targets between OPs and NDT were imported into the STRING. Network topological analyses identified EGFR, MET, HSP90AA1, and SRC as hub nodes common to the three OPs. Using the Reactome pathway and gene ontology, we found that signal transduction, axon guidance, cellular responses to stress, and glutamatergic signaling activation play key roles in OP-induced NDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecotoxicological Effects of Emerging Contaminants on Aquatic Species)
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14 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Predictive Modeling of Indoor Environmental Parameters for Assessing Comfort Conditions in a Kindergarten Setting
by Radostin Mitkov, Dessislava Petrova-Antonova and Petar O. Hristov
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080709 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
People tend to spend the majority of their time indoors. Indoor air properties can significantly affect humans’ comfort, health, and productivity. This study utilizes measurement data of indoor conditions in a kindergarten in Sofia, Bulgaria. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and long short-term [...] Read more.
People tend to spend the majority of their time indoors. Indoor air properties can significantly affect humans’ comfort, health, and productivity. This study utilizes measurement data of indoor conditions in a kindergarten in Sofia, Bulgaria. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) models were developed to predict CO2 levels in the educational facility over the next hour based on 2.5 h of past data and allow for near real-time decision-making. The better-performing model, LSTM, is also used for temperature and relative humidity forecasting. Global comfort is then estimated based on threshold values for temperature, humidity, and CO2. The predicted R2 values ranged between 0.938 and 0.981 for the three parameters, while the prediction of global comfort conditions achieved a 91/100 accuracy. Full article
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12 pages, 1743 KiB  
Article
Effects of Digestion, Cell Culture Media, and Mucous on the Physical Properties, Cellular Effects, and Translocation of Polystyrene and Polymethacrylate Nanoparticles
by Zainab Jabor and Steven C. Sutton
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080708 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
The discovery of plastic and metal nanoparticles in organisms, foods, and beverages has generated numerous studies on the effects of these particles on the barrier cells and their subsequent absorption into the body. Following ingestion, nanoparticles travel down the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and [...] Read more.
The discovery of plastic and metal nanoparticles in organisms, foods, and beverages has generated numerous studies on the effects of these particles on the barrier cells and their subsequent absorption into the body. Following ingestion, nanoparticles travel down the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their physicochemical characteristics change in response to the change in proteins and pH during their digestion. We measured the translocation of digested nanoparticles across a co-culture monolayer of Caco-2 and various combinations (1:9, 5:5, and 9:1) of HT29-MTX-E12. The in vitro model of the intestine was used to determine the translocation of digested 20 nm polymethacrylate (PMA) particles and the accompanying monolayer barrier effects after a 72 h exposure. The in vitro digestion increased the agglomeration and hydrodynamic diameters and decreased the surface charge of the nanoparticles. For NH2-functionalized polymethacrylate nanoparticles (PMA-NH2), the diameters increased from 57 nm (water) to 3800 nm (media), or 2660 nm (chyme). These nanoparticles compromised the integrity of the monolayer (trans-epithelial electrical resistance, Lucifer yellow translocation) and translocated across all the cell ratio configurations. Digestion can have a large effect on nanoparticle agglomeration and surface charge. Excess mucous was not seen as a barrier to the translocation of PMA-NH2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Toxic and Ecotoxic Potential of Nanoparticles)
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11 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
The Hematological and Biochemical Effects from Pesticide Exposure on Thai Vegetable Farmers
by Siriphan Bunsri, Nutnichawan Muenchamnan, Warangkana Naksen and Parichat Ong-Artborirak
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080707 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Pesticide-related health concerns are a global public health issue. Few studies in Thailand have explored the hematological and biochemical effects of occupational pesticide exposure. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of pesticides on the hematology, hepatic, and renal function [...] Read more.
Pesticide-related health concerns are a global public health issue. Few studies in Thailand have explored the hematological and biochemical effects of occupational pesticide exposure. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of pesticides on the hematology, hepatic, and renal function of Thai vegetable farmers. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. A total of 124 apparently healthy vegetable farmers were interviewed about their lifetime exposure to agricultural pesticides. Blood samples were collected via venipuncture to be tested for complete blood count (CBC), liver function, and kidney function. Approximately 46% of the farmers were pesticide users who reported a history of pesticide use for their crops, while 54% were non-pesticide users. In the male farmers, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly higher in the pesticide users compared to the non-pesticide users, while the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematocrit (HCT), and red blood cells (RBC) were significantly lower (p < 0.05). In the females, the pesticide users had significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and MCHC than the non-pesticide users (p < 0.05). Pesticide use among Thai vegetable farmers may cause hematological alterations and increase the risk of hepatic and renal dysfunction. Some hematological and biochemical parameters may be used for monitoring to protect them from the adverse health effects of occupational exposure to pesticides. Full article
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20 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
Rapid Assessment of Ocular Toxicity from Environmental Contaminants Based on Visually Mediated Zebrafish Behavior Studies
by Jia Yi, Yilei Ma, Jiahui Ma, Haiyang Yu, Kun Zhang, Libo Jin, Qinsi Yang, Da Sun and Dejun Wu
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080706 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
The presence of contaminants in the environment has increased in recent years, and studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have the ability to penetrate the blood–retinal barrier and directly affect the visual systems of organisms. Zebrafish are recognized as an ideal model for [...] Read more.
The presence of contaminants in the environment has increased in recent years, and studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have the ability to penetrate the blood–retinal barrier and directly affect the visual systems of organisms. Zebrafish are recognized as an ideal model for human eye diseases due to their anatomical and functional similarities to the human eye, making them an efficient and versatile organism for studying ocular toxicity caused by environmental contaminants in the field of environmental toxicology. Meanwhile, zebrafish exhibit a diverse repertoire of visually mediated behaviors, and their visual system undergoes complex changes in behavioral responses when exposed to environmental contaminants, enabling rapid assessment of the ocular toxicity induced by such pollutants. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the effectiveness of zebrafish as a model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on ocular development. Special attention is given to the visually mediated behavior of zebrafish, which allows for a rapid assessment of ocular toxicity resulting from exposure to environmental contaminants. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which environmental contaminants may induce ocular toxicity are briefly outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollutants Exposure and Human Eye Health)
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15 pages, 1269 KiB  
Article
Gourmet Table Salts: The Mineral Composition Showdown
by Eleonora Di Salvo, Roberta Tardugno, Vincenzo Nava, Clara Naccari, Antonio Virga, Andrea Salvo, Filomena Corbo, Maria Lisa Clodoveo and Nicola Cicero
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080705 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Table salts with their specialty flake size, textures, flavors, and colors can be considered a gastronomy niche food already increasing in demand worldwide. Being unrefined, they can contain trace elements potentially both healthy and toxic. In this study, 12 mineral elements (Al, Ca, [...] Read more.
Table salts with their specialty flake size, textures, flavors, and colors can be considered a gastronomy niche food already increasing in demand worldwide. Being unrefined, they can contain trace elements potentially both healthy and toxic. In this study, 12 mineral elements (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in 10 different salts commercially available in southern Italy namely, Atlantic grey, Baule volante, Guerande, Hawaiian pink, Hawaiian black, Himalayan pink, Maldon, Mozia, Persian blue, and smoked salts were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (TDA-AAS). The concentration of mineral elements was variable according to the type of salt and its geographical origin. Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Se levels were tolerable and Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn ranged significantly among the samples. Persian Blue and Atlantic Grey salts showed elevated levels of Fe and Zn; their intake can be helpful in some specific conditions. Nevertheless, Ni levels were high in Persian Blue and Smoked salts. Pb exceeded the maximum level in all samples. Additional monitoring analyses of mineral contents in table salts are recommended for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agrochemicals and Food Toxicology)
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23 pages, 7254 KiB  
Article
Distribution, Site-Specific Water Quality Criteria, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water in Fen River, China
by Huixian Li, Yue Li, Guanghui Guo, Yang Li, Ruiqing Zhang, Chenglian Feng and Yahui Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080704 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Due to a lack of toxicity reference values that match the regional environmental characteristics, the ecological risk of metals in water bodies cannot be accurately assessed. The Fen River is the second-largest tributary of the Yellow River in China, and the sustainability of [...] Read more.
Due to a lack of toxicity reference values that match the regional environmental characteristics, the ecological risk of metals in water bodies cannot be accurately assessed. The Fen River is the second-largest tributary of the Yellow River in China, and the sustainability of this area is threatened by heavy metal pollution caused by intensive industrial and agricultural activities. In this study, site-specific water quality criteria (WQCs) for heavy metals in the Fen River were derived considering toxicity data from native aquatic organisms and regional water quality factors (e.g., water hardness). Short-term WQCs for Mn, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Ni were 2026.15, 98.62, 10.02, 63.07, 6.06, 166.74, and 132.73 μg/L, respectively, and long-term WQCs were 166.53, 29.71, 2.18, 19.29, 4.15, 6.38, and 14.76 μg/L, respectively. The distribution characteristics of these metals during the wet season in 2020 were explored, and their average concentrations in the river water did not exceed the environmental quality standards for surface water in China but were higher than the world average levels. Cr was the main pollutant in the sampling sites of Yaodu region, Hongdong Shitan, Xiao River, and Duanchun River, as was Pb in Duanchun River. Based on the site-specific WQCs, using hazardous quotient (HQ) and margin of safety (MOS10) approaches, a high risk of Pb was identified in the Duanchun River, and a medium risk of Cr might occur at midstream and downstream of Yaodu and Xiaodian. The results will provide a reference basis for heavy metal pollution control and water quality management in the Fen River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Heavy Metal Pollution for Environmental Health and Safety)
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10 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Availability of Using Honeybees as Bioindicators of Pesticide Exposure in the Vicinity of Agricultural Environments in Taiwan
by Chien-Che Hung and Lih-Ming Yiin
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080703 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
While pollinating, honeybees are subject to exposure to a variety of pesticides; with their characteristics of certain foraging distances, they could serve as bioindicators of pesticide exposure in a neighborhood. We conducted a study to assess availability by collecting and analyzing bee samples [...] Read more.
While pollinating, honeybees are subject to exposure to a variety of pesticides; with their characteristics of certain foraging distances, they could serve as bioindicators of pesticide exposure in a neighborhood. We conducted a study to assess availability by collecting and analyzing bee samples from 15 apiaries located in East Taiwan and dust samples from the adjacent environment, and by finding relations between both samples. Seventeen pesticides were selected for the analysis using gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and eight (three insecticides, two herbicides, and three fungicides) were more frequently detected from bee or dust samples; the levels of these pesticides were mostly under 1000 ng/g. Significant correlation results (r ≅ 0.8) between residue concentrations in bees and in dust suggest that honeybees could be a good bioindicator for exposure to herbicides and fungicides within certain ranges. The pesticide contents of sick/dead bees were much higher than those of healthy counterparts regarding any pesticide type, with the mean total concentrations of 635 ng/g and 176 ng/g, respectively. We conclude that honeybees could be used as bioindicators of pesticide exposure; sick/dead bees could serve as a warning sign of the severity of pesticide pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Pesticide Exposure and Toxicity: Honeybee as Indicator)
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13 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Using a Battery of Bioassays to Assess the Toxicity of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents in Industrial Parks
by Bin Yang, Haiyan Cui, Jie Gao, Jing Cao, Göran Klobučar and Mei Li
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080702 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Bioassays, as an addition to physico-chemical water quality evaluation, can provide information on the toxic effects of pollutants present in the water. In this study, a broad evaluation of environmental health risks from industrial wastewater along the Yangtze River, China, was conducted using [...] Read more.
Bioassays, as an addition to physico-chemical water quality evaluation, can provide information on the toxic effects of pollutants present in the water. In this study, a broad evaluation of environmental health risks from industrial wastewater along the Yangtze River, China, was conducted using a battery of bioassays. Toxicity tests showed that the wastewater treatment processes were effective at lowering acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, HepG2 cells’ cytotoxicity, the estrogenic effect in T47D-Kbluc cells, DNA damage of Euglena gracilis and the mutagenicity of Salmonella typhimurium in the analyzed wastewater samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified as potential major toxic chemicals of concern in the wastewater samples of W, J and T wastewater treatment plants; thus, the potential harm of PAHs to aquatic organisms has been investigated. Based on the health risk assessment model, the risk index of wastewater from the industrial parks along the Yangtze River was below one, indicating that the PAHs were less harmful to human health through skin contact or respiratory exposure. Overall, the biological toxicity tests used in this study provide a good basis for the health risk assessment of industrial wastewater and a scientific reference for the optimization and operation of the treatment process. Full article
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14 pages, 1132 KiB  
Article
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ): A Comparison between TOPSIS- and PROMETHEE-Based Approaches for Indirect Eliciting of Category Weights
by Francesco Lolli, Antonio Maria Coruzzolo and Elia Balugani
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080701 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to the relationship between worker comfort and productivity. Many academics have studied IEQ from both a building design and an IEQ assessment perspective. This latter line of research [...] Read more.
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to the relationship between worker comfort and productivity. Many academics have studied IEQ from both a building design and an IEQ assessment perspective. This latter line of research has mostly used direct eliciting to obtain weights assigned to IEQ categories such as thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, and indoor air quality. We found only one application of indirect eliciting in the literature. Such indirect eliciting operates without the need for imprecise direct weighing and requires only comfort evaluations, which is in line with the Industry 5.0 paradigm of individual, dynamic, and integrated IEQ evaluation. In this paper, we use a case study to compare the only indirect eliciting model already applied to IEQ, based on TOPSIS, to an indirect eliciting method based on PROMETHEE and to a classical direct eliciting method (AHP). The results demonstrate the superiority of indirect eliciting in reconstructing individual preferences related to perceived global comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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15 pages, 6143 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Sodium Acetate by Catalytic Ozonation Coupled with a Mn-Functionalized Fly Ash: Reaction Parameters and Mechanism
by Yaoji Chen, Ruifu Chen, Xinglan Chang, Jingying Yan, Yajie Gu, Shuang Xi, Pengfei Sun and Xiaoping Dong
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080700 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Supported ozone catalysts usually take alumina, activated carbon, mesoporous molecular sieve, graphene, etc. as the carrier for loading metal oxide via the impregnation method, sol–gel method and precipitation method. In this work, a Mn-modified fly ash catalyst was synthesized to reduce the consumption [...] Read more.
Supported ozone catalysts usually take alumina, activated carbon, mesoporous molecular sieve, graphene, etc. as the carrier for loading metal oxide via the impregnation method, sol–gel method and precipitation method. In this work, a Mn-modified fly ash catalyst was synthesized to reduce the consumption and high unit price of traditional catalyst carriers like alumina. As a solid waste discharged from coal-fired power plants fueled by coal, fly ash also has porous spherical fine particles with constant surface area and activity, abd is expected to be applied as the main component in the synthesis of ozone catalyst. After the pretreatment process and modification with MnOx, the obtained Mn-modified fly ash exhibited stronger specific surface area and porosity combined with considerable ozone catalytic performance. We used sodium acetate as the contaminant probe, which is difficult to directly decompose with ozone as the end product of ozone oxidation, to evaluate the performance of this Mn-modified fly. It was found that ozone molecules can be transformed to generate ·OH, ·O2 and 1O2 for the further oxidation of sodium acetate. The oxygen vacancy produced via Mn modification plays a crucial role in the adsorption and excitation of ozone. This work demonstrates that fly ash, as an industrial waste, can be synthesized as a potential industrial catalyst with stable physical and chemical properties, a simple preparation method and low costs. Full article
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15 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Chlorine Series from the Treatment Plant of Drinking Water in Constanta, Romania
by Alina Bărbulescu and Lucica Barbeș
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080699 - 13 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Ensuring good drinking water quality, which does not damage the population’s health, should be a priority of decision factors. Therefore, water treatment must be carried out to remove the contaminants. Chlorination is one of the most used treatment procedures. Modeling the free chlorine [...] Read more.
Ensuring good drinking water quality, which does not damage the population’s health, should be a priority of decision factors. Therefore, water treatment must be carried out to remove the contaminants. Chlorination is one of the most used treatment procedures. Modeling the free chlorine residual concentration series in the water distribution network provides the water supply managers with a tool for predicting residual chlorine concentration in the networks. With regard to this idea, this article proposes alternative models for the monthly free chlorine residual concentration series collected at the Palas Constanta Water Treatment Plant, in Romania, from January 2013 to December 2018. The forecasts based on the determined models are provided, and the best results are highlighted. Full article
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13 pages, 3080 KiB  
Communication
Synthesis and Biodegradation Test of a New Polyether Polyurethane Foam Produced from PEG 400, L-Lysine Ethyl Ester Diisocyanate (L-LDI) and Bis-hydroxymethyl Furan (BHMF)
by Fabrizio Olivito, Pravin Jagdale and Goldie Oza
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080698 - 13 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
In this paper we produced a bio-based polyether-polyurethane foam PU1 through the prepolymer method. The prepolymer was obtained by the reaction of PEG 400 with L-Lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (L-LDI). The freshly prepared prepolymer was extended with 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF) to produce the [...] Read more.
In this paper we produced a bio-based polyether-polyurethane foam PU1 through the prepolymer method. The prepolymer was obtained by the reaction of PEG 400 with L-Lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (L-LDI). The freshly prepared prepolymer was extended with 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF) to produce the final polyurethane. The renewable chemical BHMF was produced through the chemical reduction of HMF by sodium borohydride. HMF was produced by a previously reported procedure from fructose using choline chloride and ytterbium triflate. To evaluate the degradation rate of the foam PU1, we tested the chemical stability by soaking it in a 10% sodium hydroxide solution. The weight loss was only 12% after 30 days. After that, we proved that enzymatic hydrolysis after 30 days using cholesterol esterase was more favoured than hydrolysis with NaOH, with a weight loss of 24%, probably due to the hydrophobic character of the PU1 and a better adhesion of the enzyme on the surface with respect to water. BHMF was proved to be of crucial importance for the enzymatic degradation assay at 37 °C in phosphate buffer solution, because it represents the breaking point inside the polyurethane chain. Soil burial degradation test was monitored for three months to evaluate whether the joint activity of sunlight, climate changes and microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, could further increase the biodegradation. The unexpected weight loss after soil burial degradation test was 45% after three months. This paper highlights the potential of using sustainable resources to produce new biodegradable materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies to Decompose Pollutants)
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18 pages, 2398 KiB  
Article
Assessing Lifetime Cancer Risk Associated with Population Exposure to PM-Bound PAHs and Carcinogenic Metals in Three Mid-Latitude Metropolitan Cities
by Mohammad Aldekheel, Vahid Jalali Farahani and Constantinos Sioutas
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080697 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Lifetime cancer risk characterization of ambient PM-bound carcinogenic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the cities of Los Angeles (USA), Thessaloniki (Greece) and Milan (Italy), which share similar Mediterranean climates but are different in their urban emission sources and governing [...] Read more.
Lifetime cancer risk characterization of ambient PM-bound carcinogenic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the cities of Los Angeles (USA), Thessaloniki (Greece) and Milan (Italy), which share similar Mediterranean climates but are different in their urban emission sources and governing air quality regulations. The samples in Milan and Thessaloniki were mostly dominated by biomass burning activities whereas the particles collected in Los Angeles were primary impacted by traffic emissions. We analyzed the ambient PM2.5 mass concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), as well as 13 PAH compounds in the PM samples, collected during both cold and warm periods at each location. Pb exhibited the highest annual average concentration in all three cities, followed by Ni, As, Cr(VI), Cd and PAHs, respectively. The cancer risk assessment based on outdoor pollutants was performed based on three different scenarios, with each scenario corresponding to a different level of infiltration of outdoor pollutants into the indoor environment. Thessaloniki exhibited a high risk associated with lifetime inhalation of As, Cr(VI), and PAHs, with values in the range of (0.97–1.57) × 10−6, (1.80–2.91) × 10−6, and (0.77–1.25) × 10−6, respectively. The highest cancer risk values were calculated in Milan, exceeding the US EPA standard by a considerable margin, where the lifetime risk values of exposure to As, Cr(VI), and PAHs were in the range of (1.29–2.08) × 10−6, (6.08–9.82) × 10−6, and (1.10–1.77) × 10−6, respectively. In contrast, the estimated risks associated with PAHs and metals, except Cr(VI), in Los Angeles were extremely lower than the guideline value, even when the infiltration factor was assumed to be at peak. The lifetime cancer risk values associated with As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and PAHs in Los Angeles were in the range of (0.04–0.33) × 10−6. This observation highlights the impact of local air quality measures in improving the air quality and lowering the cancer risks in Los Angeles compared to the other two cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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17 pages, 1954 KiB  
Review
Environmental Health and Toxicology: Immunomodulation Promoted by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Tributyltin
by Ricardo Correia da Silva, Mariana Pires Teixeira, Luciana Souza de Paiva and Leandro Miranda-Alves
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080696 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Tributyltin (TBT) is an environmental contaminant present on all continents, including Antarctica, with a potent biocidal action. Its use began to be intensified during the 1960s. It was effectively banned in 2003 but remains in the environment to this day due to several [...] Read more.
Tributyltin (TBT) is an environmental contaminant present on all continents, including Antarctica, with a potent biocidal action. Its use began to be intensified during the 1960s. It was effectively banned in 2003 but remains in the environment to this day due to several factors that increase its half-life and its misuse despite the bans. In addition to the endocrine-disrupting effect of TBT, which may lead to imposex induction in some invertebrate species, there are several studies that demonstrate that TBT also has an immunotoxic effect. The immunotoxic effects that have been observed experimentally in vertebrates using in vitro and in vivo models involve different mechanisms; mainly, there are alterations in the expression and/or secretion of cytokines. In this review, we summarize and update the literature on the impacts of TBT on the immune system, and we discuss issues that still need to be explored to fill the knowledge gaps regarding the impact of this endocrine-disrupting chemical on immune system homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
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16 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
Occurrence, Sources, and Health Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Road Environments from Harbin, a Megacity of China
by Jin-Nong Li, Ye Zhang, Jian-Xin Wang, Hang Xiao, Anatoly Nikolaev, Yi-Fan Li, Zi-Feng Zhang and Zhong-Hua Tang
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080695 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
To obtain a comprehensive understanding about that occurrence, sources, and effects on human health of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road environmental samples from Harbin, concentrations of 32 PAHs in road dust, green belt soil, and parking lot dust samples were quantified. The [...] Read more.
To obtain a comprehensive understanding about that occurrence, sources, and effects on human health of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road environmental samples from Harbin, concentrations of 32 PAHs in road dust, green belt soil, and parking lot dust samples were quantified. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.95 to 40.7 μg/g and 0.39 to 43.9 μg/g in road dust and green belt soil, respectively, and were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). Despite the content of PAHs in arterial roads being higher, the composition profile of PAHs was hardly influenced by road types. For parking lot dust, the range of total PAH concentrations was 0.81–190 μg/g, and three-ring to five-ring PAHs produced the maximum contribution. Compared with surface parking lots (mean: 6.12 μg/g), higher total PAH concentrations were detected in underground parking lots (mean: 33.1 μg/g). The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that petroleum, petroleum combustion, and biomass/coal combustion were major sources of PAHs in the samples. Furthermore, according to the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk model, the cancer risks of three kinds of samples for adults and children were above the threshold (10−6). Overall, this study demonstrated that PAHs in the road environment of Harbin have a certain health impact on local citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Editorial Board Members' Collection Series: Aerosol Particles)
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14 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
Neurotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Development in Adult Atya lanipes Shrimp Exposed to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
by Stefani Cruz-Rosa and Omar Pérez-Reyes
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080694 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Titanium dioxide is a type of nanoparticle that is composed of one titanium atom and two oxygen atoms. One of its physicochemical activities is photolysis, which produces different reactive oxygen species (ROS). Atya lanipes shrimp affect detrital processing and illustrate the potential importance [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide is a type of nanoparticle that is composed of one titanium atom and two oxygen atoms. One of its physicochemical activities is photolysis, which produces different reactive oxygen species (ROS). Atya lanipes shrimp affect detrital processing and illustrate the potential importance of diversity and nutrient availability to the rest of the food web. It is essential in removing sediments, which have an important role in preventing eutrophication. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of changes in behavior and levels of oxidative stress due to exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Atya lanipes and to determine the effective concentration (EC50) for behavioral variables. The concentrations of TiO2 NPs tested were 0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg/L with the positive controls given 100 µg/L of titanium and 3.0 mg/L of TiO2 NPs ± 100 µg/L of titanium. After 24 h of exposure, significant hypoactivity was documented. The EC50 was determined to be a concentration of 0.14 mg/L. After the exposure to 10 mg/L of TiO2 NPs, oxidative stress in gastrointestinal and nervous tissues was documented. The toxic effects of this emerging aquatic pollutant in acute exposure conditions were characterized by sublethal effects such as behavior changes and oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Nanoparticles on Freshwater Ecosystem)
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16 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
Saxitoxin-Producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) Constrains Daphnia Fitness and Feeding Rate despite High Nutritious Food Availability
by Gabriele Costa dos Reis, Gustavo Henrique A. de Carvalho, Mauro Cesar Palmeira Vilar, Sandra Maria Feliciano de Oliveira e Azevedo and Aloysio da Silva Ferrão-Filho
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080693 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Changes in food quality can dramatically impair zooplankton fitness, especially in eutrophic water bodies where cyanobacteria are usually predominant. Cyanobacteria are considered a food with low nutritional value, and some species can produce bioactive secondary metabolites reported as toxic to zooplankton. Considering that [...] Read more.
Changes in food quality can dramatically impair zooplankton fitness, especially in eutrophic water bodies where cyanobacteria are usually predominant. Cyanobacteria are considered a food with low nutritional value, and some species can produce bioactive secondary metabolites reported as toxic to zooplankton. Considering that cyanobacteria can limit the survival, growth and reproduction of zooplankton, we hypothesized that the dietary exposure of neotropical Daphnia species (D. laevis and D. gessneri) to saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria impairs Daphnia feeding rates and fitness regardless of a high availability of nutritious algae. Life table and grazing assays were conducted with different diets: (1) without nutritional restriction, where neonates were fed with diets at a constant green algae biomass (as a nutritious food source), and an increasing cyanobacterial concentration (toxic and poor food source), and (2) with diets consisting of different proportions of green algae (nutritious) and cyanobacteria (poor food) at a total biomass 1.0 mg C L−1. In general, the presence of high proportions of cyanobacteria promoted a decrease in Daphnia somatic growth, reproduction and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) in both diets with more pronounced effects in the nutritionally restricted diet (90% R. raciborskii). A two-way ANOVA revealed the significant effects of species/clone and treatments in both assays, with significant interaction between those factors only in the second assay. Regarding the grazing assay, only D. laevis was negatively affected by increased cyanobacterial proportions in the diet. In the life table assay with constant nutritious food, a reduction in the reproduction and the intrinsic rate of the population increase (r) of all species were observed. In conclusion, we found adverse effects of the toxic cyanobacterial strain R. raciborskii on Daphnia fitness, regardless of the constant amount of nutritious food available, proving the toxic effect of R. raciborskii and that the nutritional quality of the food has a greater influence on the fitness of these animals. Full article
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20 pages, 6611 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in Semiconductor-Based Photocatalytic Degradation of Antiviral Drug Pollutants
by Zhaocheng Zhang, Dongyang He, Siyu Zhao and Jiao Qu
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080692 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The prevalence of antiviral drugs (ATVs) has seen a substantial increase in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to heightened concentrations of these pharmaceuticals in wastewater systems. The hydrophilic nature of ATVs has been identified as a significant factor contributing to the low [...] Read more.
The prevalence of antiviral drugs (ATVs) has seen a substantial increase in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to heightened concentrations of these pharmaceuticals in wastewater systems. The hydrophilic nature of ATVs has been identified as a significant factor contributing to the low degradation efficiency observed in wastewater treatment plants. This characteristic often necessitates the implementation of additional treatment steps to achieve the complete degradation of ATVs. Semiconductor-based photocatalysis has garnered considerable attention due to its promising potential in achieving efficient degradation rates and subsequent mineralization of pollutants, leveraging the inexhaustible energy of sunlight. However, in recent years, there have been few comprehensive reports that have thoroughly summarized and analyzed the application of photocatalysis for the removal of ATVs. This review commences by summarizing the types and occurrence of ATVs. Furthermore, it places a significant emphasis on delivering a comprehensive summary and analysis of the characteristics pertaining to the photocatalytic elimination of ATVs, utilizing semiconductor photocatalysts such as metal oxides, doped metal oxides, and heterojunctions. Ultimately, the review sheds light on the identified research gaps and key concerns, offering invaluable insights to steer future investigations in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photocatalytic Degradation of Emerging Contaminants)
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2 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Detoxification Mechanisms in Insects”
by Ahmed A. A. Aioub and Mohamed-Bassem Ali Ashour
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080691 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Insects are faced with numerous toxins (xenobiotics) as they go through life, some produced naturally by plants (sometimes called allelochemicals) and some produced by humans (insecticides) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detoxification Mechanisms in Insects)
13 pages, 6824 KiB  
Article
Disinfection By-Products Formation from Chlor(am)ination of Algal Organic Matter of Chlorella sorokiniana
by Luan de Souza Leite, Danilo Vitorino dos Santos, Cristina Filomena Pereira Rosa Paschoalato, Tom Bond and Luiz Antonio Daniel
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080690 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Eutrophication in water reservoirs releases algal organic matter (AOM), which is an important precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed during water treatment. Chlorella sorokiniana is a microalgae which flourishes under conditions of high light intensity and temperature, thus its prevalence in algal blooms [...] Read more.
Eutrophication in water reservoirs releases algal organic matter (AOM), which is an important precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed during water treatment. Chlorella sorokiniana is a microalgae which flourishes under conditions of high light intensity and temperature, thus its prevalence in algal blooms is expected to increase with climate change. However, Chlorella sorokiniana AOM has not been previously investigated as a DBP precursor. In this context, this study evaluated the effect of AOM concentration, humic acid (HA), and pH on DBP formation from chlor(am)ination of AOM Chlorella sorokiniana. DBP yields determined by linear regression for trichloromethane (TCM) and chloral hydrate (CH) were 57.9 and 46.0 µg·mg DOC−1 in chlorination, while the TCM, CH, dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP), and chloropicrin (CPN) concentrations were 33.6, 29.8, 16.7, 2.1, and 1.2 µg·mg DOC−1 in chloramination. Chloramination reduced the formation of TCM and CH but increased CPN, DCAN, and 1,1,1-TCP yields. AOM Chlorella sorokiniana showed a higher DBP formation than 9 of 11 algae species previously investigated in the literature. At basic pH, the concentration of TCM increased while the concentration of other DBP classes decreased. Bromide was effectively incorporated into the AOM structure and high values of bromine incorporation factor were found for THM (1.81–1.89) and HAN (1.32) at 1.5 mg Br·L−1. Empirical models predicted successfully the formation of THM and HAN (R2 > 0.86). The bromide concentration had more impact in the model on the DBP formation than AOM and HA. These results provide the first insights into the DBP formation from AOM chlor(am)ination of Chlorella sorokiniana. Full article
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