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Toxics, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 106 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Contaminants of emerging concern, such as different substances of anti-seizure medication (ASM), are increasingly being detected in surface waters in Germany with unknown consequences on the health of non-target aquatic wildlife. Eurasian otters are top predators and thus susceptible to the bioaccumulation of pollutants. Potential contamination with ASM was investigated in otter brain samples by using HPLC and MS. Histologically, brain sections were analyzed for the presence of potential associated neuropathology. The studied groups consisted of 20 deceased wild otters and 5 individuals in human care. None of the targeted ASMs were detected and no obvious pathology was observed histologically, whereas their presence in the otter samples and related adverse effects could not be excluded. View this paper
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13 pages, 5202 KiB  
Article
Tebuconazole Induces ER-Stress-Mediated Cell Death in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines
by Won-Young Lee, Ran Lee and Hyun-Jung Park
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040397 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
Tebuconazole (TEB) is a triazole fungicide used to increase crop production by controlling fungi, insects, and weeds. Despite their extensive use, people are concerned about the health risks associated with pesticides and fungicides. Numerous studies have defined the cellular toxicity of triazole groups [...] Read more.
Tebuconazole (TEB) is a triazole fungicide used to increase crop production by controlling fungi, insects, and weeds. Despite their extensive use, people are concerned about the health risks associated with pesticides and fungicides. Numerous studies have defined the cellular toxicity of triazole groups in pesticides, but the mechanisms of TEB toxicity in bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) have not yet been studied. Damage to the mammary glands of dairy cows directly affects milk production. This study investigated the toxicological effects of TEB on MAC-T cells. We found that TEB decreases both cell viability and proliferation and activates apoptotic cell death via the upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved caspases 3 and 8 and BAX. TEB also induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via the upregulation of Bip/GRP78; PDI; ATF4; CHOP; and ERO1-Lα. We found that TEB induced mitochondria-mediated apoptotic MAC-T cell death by activating ER stress. This cell damage eventually led to a dramatic reduction in the expression levels of the milk-protein-synthesis-related genes LGB; LALA; CSN1S1; CSN1S2; and CSNK in MAC-T cells. Our data suggest that the exposure of dairy cows to TEB may negatively affect milk production by damaging the mammary glands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agrochemicals and Food Toxicology)
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17 pages, 2396 KiB  
Article
Risk Evaluation of Pollutants Emission from Coal and Coal Waste Combustion Plants and Environmental Impact of Fly Ash Landfilling
by Jovana Z. Buha Marković, Ana D. Marinković, Jasmina Z. Savić, Milica R. Mladenović, Milić D. Erić, Zoran J. Marković and Mirjana Đ. Ristić
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040396 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Emission factors (EFs) of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, certain harmful trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three thermal power plants (TPPs) and semi-industrial fluidized bed boiler (FBB) were compared. EFs of particulate matter, trace elements (except Cd and Pb), benzo[a]pyrene, and [...] Read more.
Emission factors (EFs) of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, certain harmful trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three thermal power plants (TPPs) and semi-industrial fluidized bed boiler (FBB) were compared. EFs of particulate matter, trace elements (except Cd and Pb), benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene exceed the upper limits specified in the EMEP inventory guidebook for all combustion facilities. The comparison of trace elements and PAHs content in fly ashes (FAs) from lignite and coal waste combustion in TPPs and FBB, respectively, as well as the potential environmental impact of FAs disposal, was performed by employing a set of ecological indicators such as crustal enrichment factor, risk assessment code, risk indices for trace elements, and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration for PAHs. Sequential analysis shows that the trace elements portion is the lowest for water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. The highest enrichment levels in FAs are noticed for As and Hg. Based on toxic trace elements content, FAs from TPPs represent a very high ecological risk, whereas fly ash from FBB poses a moderate ecological risk but has the highest benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration, indicating its increased carcinogenic potential. Lead isotope ratios for Serbian coals and FAs can contribute to a lead pollution global database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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15 pages, 1638 KiB  
Review
Ferroptosis as a Potential Therapeutic Target of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Mycotoxicosis: A Review
by Wenli Ding, Luxi Lin, Ke Yue, Yanfeng He, Bowen Xu, Aftab Shaukat and Shucheng Huang
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040395 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Mycotoxin contamination has become one of the biggest hidden dangers of food safety, which seriously threatens human health. Understanding the mechanisms by which mycotoxins exert toxicity is key to detoxification. Ferroptosis is an adjustable cell death characterized by iron overload and lipid reactive [...] Read more.
Mycotoxin contamination has become one of the biggest hidden dangers of food safety, which seriously threatens human health. Understanding the mechanisms by which mycotoxins exert toxicity is key to detoxification. Ferroptosis is an adjustable cell death characterized by iron overload and lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and glutathione (GSH) depletion. More and more studies have shown that ferroptosis is involved in organ damage from mycotoxins exposure, and natural antioxidants can alleviate mycotoxicosis as well as effectively regulate ferroptosis. In recent years, research on the treatment of diseases by Chinese herbal medicine through ferroptosis has attracted more attention. This article reviews the mechanism of ferroptosis, discusses the role of ferroptosis in mycotoxicosis, and summarizes the current status of the regulation of various mycotoxicosis through ferroptosis by Chinese herbal interventions, providing a potential strategy for better involvement of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of mycotoxicosis in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxic Effects of Mycotoxins and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms)
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25 pages, 14169 KiB  
Article
Potential of Coupling Metaheuristics-Optimized-XGBoost and SHAP in Revealing PAHs Environmental Fate
by Gordana Jovanovic, Mirjana Perisic, Nebojsa Bacanin, Miodrag Zivkovic, Svetlana Stanisic, Ivana Strumberger, Filip Alimpic and Andreja Stojic
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040394 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a group of several hundred compounds, among which 16 are identified as priority pollutants, due to their adverse health effects, frequency of occurrence, and potential for human exposure. This study is focused on benzo(a)pyrene, being considered an [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a group of several hundred compounds, among which 16 are identified as priority pollutants, due to their adverse health effects, frequency of occurrence, and potential for human exposure. This study is focused on benzo(a)pyrene, being considered an indicator of exposure to a PAH carcinogenic mixture. For this purpose, we have applied the XGBoost model to a two-year database of pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, with the aim to identify the factors which were mostly associated with the observed benzo(a)pyrene concentrations and to describe types of environments that supported the interactions between benzo(a)pyrene and other polluting species. The pollutant data were collected at the energy industry center in Serbia, in the vicinity of coal mining areas and power stations, where the observed benzo(a)pyrene maximum concentration for a study period reached 43.7 ngm3. The metaheuristics algorithm has been used to optimize the XGBoost hyperparameters, and the results have been compared to the results of XGBoost models tuned by eight other cutting-edge metaheuristics algorithms. The best-produced model was later on interpreted by applying Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP). As indicated by mean absolute SHAP values, the temperature at the surface, arsenic, PM10, and total nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations appear to be the major factors affecting benzo(a)pyrene concentrations and its environmental fate. Full article
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17 pages, 3122 KiB  
Review
Nrf2: A Main Responsive Element of the Toxicity Effect Caused by Trichothecene (T-2) Mycotoxin
by Youshuang Wang, Yu Liu, Tingyu Huang, Yunhe Chen, Wenxi Song, Fengjuan Chen, Yibao Jiang, Cong Zhang and Xu Yang
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040393 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
T-2 toxin, the most toxic type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by Fusarium, and is widely found in contaminated feed and stored grains. T-2 toxin is physicochemically stable and is challenging to eradicate from contaminated feed and cereal, resulting in food contamination that [...] Read more.
T-2 toxin, the most toxic type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by Fusarium, and is widely found in contaminated feed and stored grains. T-2 toxin is physicochemically stable and is challenging to eradicate from contaminated feed and cereal, resulting in food contamination that is inescapable and poses a major hazard to both human and animal health, according to the World Health Organization. Oxidative stress is the upstream cause of all pathogenic variables, and is the primary mechanism through which T-2 toxin causes poisoning. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) also plays a crucial part in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis. The major ideas and emerging trends in future study are comprehensively discussed in this review, along with research progress and the molecular mechanism of Nrf2’s involvement in the toxicity impact brought on by T-2 toxin. This paper could provide a theoretical foundation for elucidating how Nrf2 reduces oxidative damage caused by T-2 toxin, and a theoretical reference for exploring target drugs to alleviate T-2 toxin toxicity with Nrf2 molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxic Effects of Mycotoxins and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms)
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20 pages, 2608 KiB  
Review
The Skin Sensitisation of Cosmetic Ingredients: Review of Actual Regulatory Status
by Iwona Bialas, Sandra Zelent-Kraciuk and Kamil Jurowski
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040392 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
All cosmetics products must be safe under foreseeable conditions of use. Allergenic responses are one of the most frequent adverse reactions noted for cosmetics. Thus, the EU cosmetics legislation requires skin sensitisation assessment for all cosmetics ingredients, including the regulated ones (for which [...] Read more.
All cosmetics products must be safe under foreseeable conditions of use. Allergenic responses are one of the most frequent adverse reactions noted for cosmetics. Thus, the EU cosmetics legislation requires skin sensitisation assessment for all cosmetics ingredients, including the regulated ones (for which the full toxicological dossier needs to be analysed by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)) and those (perceived as less toxic) which are assessed by industrial safety assessors. Regardless of who performs the risk assessment, it should be carried out using scientifically and regulatory body-accepted methods. In the EU, reference methods for chemical toxicity testing are defined in the relevant Annexes (VII–X) of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation. Recommendations for Skin Sensitization (Skin Sens) testing are provided in Annex VII, and this particular endpoint information is required for all EU-registered chemicals. Historically, in vivo animal and human methods have been used. Both raise ethical doubts, and some of them cause practical problems in the objective analysis of skin sensitising potency. Previous decades of huge effort have resulted in the regulatory acceptance of the alternative Skin Sens IATA (Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment) and NGRA (Next Generation Risk Assessment). Regardless of the testing issues, a serious sociological problem are observed within the market: the consumer assumes the presence of strong sensitisers in cosmetics formulations and insufficient risk management tools used by the industry. The present review aims to provide an overview of methods for assessing skin sensitisation. Additionally, it aims to answer the following question: what are the most potent skin sensitisers used in cosmetics? The answer considers the mechanistic background along with the actual regulatory status of ingredients and practical examples of responsible industry solutions in the area of risk management. Full article
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18 pages, 5282 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of a Red Grape Juice Extract against Bisphenol A-Induced Toxicity in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
by Caterina Russo, Alessandro Maugeri, Ambrogina Albergamo, Giacomo Dugo, Michele Navarra and Santa Cirmi
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040391 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food and water, thus leading to endothelial dysfunction, the first signal of atherosclerosis. Vitis vinifera L. (grape) juice is well known for its health-promoting properties, due to its numerous bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food and water, thus leading to endothelial dysfunction, the first signal of atherosclerosis. Vitis vinifera L. (grape) juice is well known for its health-promoting properties, due to its numerous bioactive compounds among which are polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a red grape juice extract (RGJe) against the endothelial damage induced by BPA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model of endothelial dysfunction. Our results showed that RGJe treatment counteracted BPA-induced cell death and apoptosis in HUVECs, blocking caspase 3 and modulating p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. Moreover, RGJe demonstrated antioxidant properties in abiotic tests and in vitro, where it reduced BPA-induced reactive oxygen species as well as restored mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA integrity, and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, RGJe reduced the increase of chemokines (IL-8, IL-1β, and MCP-1) and adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin), caused by BPA exposure, involved in the primary phase of atheromatous plaque formation. Overall, our results suggest that RGJe prevents BPA-induced vascular damage modulating specific intracellular mechanisms, along with protecting cells, owing to its antioxidant capability. Full article
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14 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Cadmium-Induced Tubular Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
by Soisungwan Satarug, Supabhorn Yimthiang, Phisit Pouyfung, Tanaporn Khamphaya and David A. Vesey
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040390 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
The global prevalence of diabetes, and its major complication, diabetic nephropathy, have reached epidemic proportions. The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) also induces nephropathy, indicated by a sustained reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the excretion of β2-microglobulin (β [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of diabetes, and its major complication, diabetic nephropathy, have reached epidemic proportions. The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) also induces nephropathy, indicated by a sustained reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the excretion of β2-microglobulin (β2M) above 300 µg/day, which reflects kidney tubular dysfunction. However, little is known about the nephrotoxicity of Cd in the diabetic population. Here, we compared Cd exposure, eGFR, and tubular dysfunction in both diabetics (n = 81) and non-diabetics (n = 593) who were residents in low- and high-Cd exposure areas of Thailand. We normalized the Cd and β2M excretion rates (ECd and Eβ2M) to creatinine clearance (Ccr) as ECd/Ccr and Eβ2M/Ccr. Tubular dysfunction and a reduced eGFR were, respectively, 8.7-fold (p < 0.001) and 3-fold (p = 0.012) more prevalent in the diabetic than the non-diabetic groups. The doubling of ECd/Ccr increased the prevalence odds ratios for a reduced eGFR and tubular dysfunction by 50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.002), respectively. In a regression model analysis of diabetics from the low-exposure locality, Eβ2M/Ccr was associated with ECd/Ccr (β = 0.375, p = 0.001) and obesity (β = 0.273, p = 0.015). In the non-diabetic group, Eβ2M/Ccr was associated with age (β = 0.458, p < 0.001) and ECd/Ccr (β = 0.269, p < 0.001). However, after adjustment for age, and body mass index (BMI), Eβ2M/Ccr was higher in the diabetics than non-diabetics of similar ECd/Ccr ranges. Thus, tubular dysfunction was more severe in diabetics than non-diabetics of similar age, BMI, and Cd body burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Toxics: Women's Special Issue Series)
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12 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Exposure and Risk Assessment to Airborne dl-PCBs and Dioxins in the Population Living in the Neighborhood of a Cement Plant: A Pilot Study in the Valencian Region of Spain
by Pablo Ruiz, Iñaki Lacomba, Antonio López, Vicent Yusà and Clara Coscollà
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040389 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Emissions from cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations. For this reason, dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in PM10 samples were assessed in the vicinity of a cement manufacturing plant located in the [...] Read more.
Emissions from cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations. For this reason, dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in PM10 samples were assessed in the vicinity of a cement manufacturing plant located in the Valencian Region (eastern Spain). The total concentrations of the sum of dl-PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs ranged between 1.85 and 42.53 fg TEQ/m3 at the assessed stations. The average daily inhalation dose (DID) for the sum in adults ranged from 8.93 · 10−4 to 3.75 · 10−3 pg WHO TEQ kg−1 b.w. d−1, and, for children, the DID ranged from 2.01 · 10−3 to 8.44 · 10−3 pg WHO TEQ kg−1 b.w. d−1. Risk assessment for adults and children was performed using both daily and chronic exposure. The hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated considering 0.025 pg WHO TEQ kg−1 b.w. d−1 to be the acceptable maximum permitted inhalation exposure. The HQ obtained was slightly higher than 1 for PCDD/Fs at one of the stations (Chiva), indicating a possible health risk for the population under study due to inhalation exposure. In the case of chronic exposure, cancer risk (>10−6) was observed for some samples in one of the assessed sampling sites (Chiva). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Latest Advances in Air Pollution and Human Health)
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15 pages, 3993 KiB  
Article
Trans- and Multigenerational Effects of Isothiazolinone Biocide CMIT/MIT on Genotoxicity and Epigenotoxicity in Daphnia magna
by Jiwan Kim and Jinhee Choi
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040388 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
The mixture of 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one and 2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one, CMIT/MIT, is an isothiazolinone biocide that is consistently detected in aquatic environments because of its broad-spectrum usage in industrial fields. Despite concerns about ecotoxicological risks and possible multigenerational exposure, toxicological information on CMIT/MIT is very limited to [...] Read more.
The mixture of 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one and 2-methylisothiazol-3(2H)-one, CMIT/MIT, is an isothiazolinone biocide that is consistently detected in aquatic environments because of its broad-spectrum usage in industrial fields. Despite concerns about ecotoxicological risks and possible multigenerational exposure, toxicological information on CMIT/MIT is very limited to human health and within-generational toxicity. Furthermore, epigenetic markers altered by chemical exposure can be transmitted over generations, but the role of these changes in phenotypic responses and toxicity with respect to trans- and multigenerational effects is poorly understood. In this study, the toxicity of CMIT/MIT on Daphnia magna was evaluated by measuring various endpoints (mortality, reproduction, body size, swimming behavior, and proteomic expression), and its trans- and multigenerational effects were investigated over four consecutive generations. The genotoxicity and epigenotoxicity of CMIT/MIT were examined using a comet assay and global DNA methylation measurements. The results show deleterious effects on various endpoints and differences in response patterns according to different exposure histories. Parental effects were transgenerational or recovered after exposure termination, while multigenerational exposure led to acclimatory/defensive responses. Changes in DNA damage were closely associated with altered reproduction in daphnids, but their possible relationship with global DNA methylation was not found. Overall, this study provides ecotoxicological information on CMIT/MIT relative to multifaceted endpoints and aids in understanding multigenerational phenomena under CMIT/MIT exposure. It also emphasizes the consideration of exposure duration and multigenerational observations in evaluating ecotoxicity and the risk management of isothiazolinone biocides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Changes in Organisms Stressed by Environmental Pollution)
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16 pages, 5462 KiB  
Article
Parabens Increase Sulfamethoxazole-, Tetracycline- and Paraben-Resistant Bacteria and Reshape the Nitrogen/Sulfur Cycle-Associated Microbial Communities in Freshwater River Sediments
by Chu-Wen Yang and Wei-Chen Lee
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040387 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Backgrounds Parabens are pollutants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. Extensive studies regarding the occurrences, fates and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments have been reported. However, little is known about the effects of parabens on microbial communities in freshwater river sediments. This [...] Read more.
Backgrounds Parabens are pollutants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. Extensive studies regarding the occurrences, fates and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments have been reported. However, little is known about the effects of parabens on microbial communities in freshwater river sediments. This study reveals the effects of methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) on antimicrobial-resistant microbiomes, nitrogen/sulfur cycle-associated microbial communities and xenobiotic degrading microbial communities in freshwater river sediments. Methods The river water and sediments collected from the Wai-shuangh-si Stream in Taipei City, Taiwan were used to construct a model system in fish tanks to test the effects of parabens in laboratory. Results Tetracycline-, sulfamethoxazole- and paraben-resistant bacteria increased in all paraben treated river sediments. The order of the overall ability to produce an increment in sulfamethoxazole-, tetracycline- and paraben-resistant bacteria was MP > EP > PP > BP. The proportions of microbial communities associated with xenobiotic degradation also increased in all paraben-treated sediments. In contrast, penicillin-resistant bacteria in both the aerobic and anaerobic culture of paraben-treated sediments decreased drastically at the early stage of the experiments. The proportions of four microbial communities associated with the nitrogen cycle (anammox, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction) and sulfur cycle (thiosulfate oxidation) largely increased after the 11th week in all paraben-treated sediments. Moreover, methanogens and methanotrophic bacteria increased in all paraben-treated sediments. In contrast, the nitrification, assimilatory sulfate reduction and sulfate-sulfur assimilation associated to microbial communities in the sediments were decreased by the parabens. The results of this study uncover the potential effects and consequences of parabens on microbial communities in a freshwater river environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Contaminants)
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14 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Effects of COVID-19 Disease on DNA Damage, Oxidative Stress and Immune Responses
by M. Mert Basaran, Merve Hazar, Mehtap Aydın, Gülsüm Uzuğ, İlkima Özdoğan, Emin Pala, Sevtap Aydın Dilsiz and Nursen Basaran
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040386 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to public health and has caused concern due to its fatal consequences over the last few years. Most people with COVID-19 show mild-to-moderate symptoms and recover without the need for special treatment, while others [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to public health and has caused concern due to its fatal consequences over the last few years. Most people with COVID-19 show mild-to-moderate symptoms and recover without the need for special treatment, while others become seriously ill and need medical attention. Additionally, some serious outcomes, such as heart attacks and even stroke, have been later reported in patients who had recovered. There are limited studies on how SARS-CoV-2 infection affects some molecular pathways, including oxidative stress and DNA damage. In this study, we aimed to evaluate DNA damage, using the alkaline comet assay, and its relationship with oxidative stress and immune response parameters in COVID-19-positive patients. Our results show that DNA damage, oxidative stress parameters and cytokine levels significantly increased in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients when compared with healthy controls. The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on DNA damage, oxidative stress and immune responses may be crucial in the pathophysiology of the disease. It is suggested that the illumination of these pathways will contribute to the development of clinical treatments and to reduce adverse effects in the future. Full article
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19 pages, 7705 KiB  
Article
Concept Development and Field Testing of Wireless Outdoor Indicator System for Use in Monitoring Exposures at Work among Malaysian Traffic Police
by Putri Anis Syahira Mohamad Jamil, Nur Athirah Diyana Mohammad Yusof, Karmegam Karuppiah, Irniza Rasdi, Vivien How, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Muhammad Hasnolhadi Samsudin, Sivasankar Sambasivam and Nayef Shabbab Almutairi
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040385 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Real-time exposure air monitoring is essential to protect the respiratory health of the Malaysian traffic police. However, the data from monitoring stations have been inadequate to provide accurate information about their exposure. This report describes the conceptual design of a wireless exposure indicator [...] Read more.
Real-time exposure air monitoring is essential to protect the respiratory health of the Malaysian traffic police. However, the data from monitoring stations have been inadequate to provide accurate information about their exposure. This report describes the conceptual design of a wireless exposure indicator system, and then evaluates the field performance of the system by collocation. The study tested the accuracy of particulate matter size 2.5 (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by comparing the measurements from the prototype with the measurements from reference instruments. The field testing found that the data tested were significantly correlated with each other (PM2.5-rs = 0.207, p = 0.019; NO2-rs = 0.576, p = 0.02 and CO-rs = 0.545, p = 0.04). The prototype proved to be successful as it can compute and transmit real-time monitoring data on the level of exposure to harmful air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment)
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16 pages, 6608 KiB  
Review
Effect of Nanomaterials on Gut Microbiota
by Ying Ma, Jiahe Zhang, Nairui Yu, Jiaqi Shi, Yi Zhang, Zhangjian Chen and Guang Jia
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040384 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Nanomaterials are widely employed in everyday life, including food and engineering. Food additives on a nanoscale can enter the body via the digestive tract. The human gut microbiota is a dynamically balanced ecosystem composed of a multitude of microorganisms that play a crucial [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials are widely employed in everyday life, including food and engineering. Food additives on a nanoscale can enter the body via the digestive tract. The human gut microbiota is a dynamically balanced ecosystem composed of a multitude of microorganisms that play a crucial role in maintaining the proper physiological function of the digestive tract and the body’s endocrine coordination. While the antibacterial capabilities of nanomaterials have received much interest in recent years, their impacts on gut microbiota ought to be cautioned about and explored. Nanomaterials exhibit good antibacterial capabilities in vitro. Animal studies have revealed that oral exposure to nanomaterials inhibits probiotic reproduction, stimulates the inflammatory response of the gut immune system, increases opportunistic infections, and changes the composition and structure of the gut microbiota. This article provides an overview of the impacts of nanomaterials, particularly titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), on the gut microbiota. It advances nanomaterial safety research and offers a scientific foundation for the prevention, control, and treatment of illnesses associated with gut microbiota abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity and Mechanisms of Occupational and Environmental Pollutants)
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10 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
Reasons, Form of Ingestion and Side Effects Associated with Consumption of Amanita muscaria
by Michal Ordak, Aleksandra Galazka, Tadeusz Nasierowski, Elzbieta Muszynska and Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040383 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7388
Abstract
In recent months, there has been a new trend involving the consumption of Amanita muscaria. The aim of this article was to investigate the reasons for consumption, the form taken and the adverse symptoms that were indicated by those consuming Amanita muscaria [...] Read more.
In recent months, there has been a new trend involving the consumption of Amanita muscaria. The aim of this article was to investigate the reasons for consumption, the form taken and the adverse symptoms that were indicated by those consuming Amanita muscaria. After analysing 5600 comments, 684 people were included in the study, who, in social media groups such as Facebook, stated the purpose of consuming the mushroom (n = 250), the form of mushroom they were taking (n = 198) or the adverse symptoms they experienced (n = 236). The gender of the subjects differentiated the parameters analysed. In the study group of women, the main purpose of consuming Amanita muscaria was to reduce pain, as well as to reduce skin problems, while in men it was mainly to relieve stress, reduce the severity of depressive symptoms and reduce insomnia (p < 0.001). With regard to the form of mushroom ingested, tincture was predominant in the women’s study group, while dried was predominant in the men (p < 0.001). In terms of side effects, women reported primarily headaches, while men reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and drowsiness (p < 0.001). Advanced research on Amanita muscaria should be carried out to make the community aware of the toxicity of this fungus. Full article
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15 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in 15 Pharmaceutical Plants in the Pearl River Delta
by Yuanfei Liu, Xiaoxia Shi, Xiaoxia Chen, Ping Ding, Lijuan Zhang, Jian Yang, Jun Pan, Yunjiang Yu, Jinhua Wu and Guocheng Hu
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040382 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Pharmaceutical plants are an essential source of antibiotics emitted into the aqueous environment. The monitoring of target antibiotics in pharmaceutical plants through various regions is vital to optimize contaminant release. The occurrence, distribution, removal, and ecological risk of 30 kinds of selected antibiotics [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical plants are an essential source of antibiotics emitted into the aqueous environment. The monitoring of target antibiotics in pharmaceutical plants through various regions is vital to optimize contaminant release. The occurrence, distribution, removal, and ecological risk of 30 kinds of selected antibiotics in 15 pharmaceutical plants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were investigated in this study. Lincomycin (LIN) showed the highest concentration (up to 56,258.3 ng/L) in the pharmaceutical plant influents from Zhongshan city. Norfloxacin (NFX) showed a higher detection frequency than other antibiotics. In addition, the spatial distribution of antibiotics in pharmaceutical plants showed significant differences, with higher concentrations of total antibiotics found in pharmaceutical plant influents in Shenzhen City than those of different regions in PRD. The treatment processes adopted by pharmaceutical plants were commonly ineffective in removing antibiotics, with only 26.7% of antibiotics being effectively removed (average removal greater than 70%), while 55.6% of antibiotics had removal rates of below 60%. The anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) combined process exhibited better treatment performance than the single treatment process. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), ofloxacin (OFL), erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NFX), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in pharmaceutical plant effluents posed high or moderate ecological risk and deserve particular attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Contaminants)
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16 pages, 6579 KiB  
Article
Magnesium Supplementation Alleviates the Toxic Effects of Silica Nanoparticles on the Kidneys, Liver, and Adrenal Glands in Rats
by Mohamed Moharram Badawy, Mohamed Z. Sayed-Ahmed, Yosif Almoshari, Saad S. Alqahtani, Saeed Alshahrani, Heba Allah Ali Mabrouk, Marwa M. Abd-Elsalam, Khalid Alkashif, Sarfaraz Ahmad, Ahmed M. El-Sebaey, Mohamed G. Hamama and Dalia Alsaied Moustafa Ahmed
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040381 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Concerns regarding the possible hazards to human health have been raised by the growing usage of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in a variety of applications, including industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. This in vivo subchronic study was conducted to assess the following: (1) the [...] Read more.
Concerns regarding the possible hazards to human health have been raised by the growing usage of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in a variety of applications, including industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. This in vivo subchronic study was conducted to assess the following: (1) the toxicity of orally administered SiNPs on the liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands; (2) the relationship between SiNPs exposure and oxidative stress; and (3) the role of magnesium in mitigating these toxic effects. A total of 24 Sprague Dawley male adult rats were divided equally into four groups, as follows: control group, magnesium (Mg) group (50 mg/kg/d), SiNPs group (100 mg/kg/d), and SiNPs+ Mg group. Rats were treated with SiNPs by oral gavage for 90 days. The liver transaminases, serum creatinine, and cortisol levels were evaluated. The tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Additionally, the weight of the organs and the histopathological changes were examined. Our results demonstrated that SiNPs exposure caused increased weight in the kidneys and adrenal glands. Exposure to SiNPs was also associated with significant alterations in liver transaminases, serum creatinine, cortisol, MDA, and GSH. Additionally, histopathological changes were significantly reported in the liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands of SiNPs-treated rats. Notably, when we compared the control group with the treated groups with SiNPs and Mg, the results revealed that magnesium could mitigate SiNPs-induced biochemical and histopathologic changes, confirming its effective role as an antioxidant that reduced the accumulation of SiNPs in tissues, and that it returns the levels of liver transaminases, serum creatinine, cortisol, MDA, and GSH to almost normal values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Methods in Toxicology Research)
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17 pages, 1513 KiB  
Review
Advances in the Utilization of Zebrafish for Assessing and Understanding the Mechanisms of Nano-/Microparticles Toxicity in Water
by Pengyu Lei, Wenxia Zhang, Jiahui Ma, Yuping Xia, Haiyang Yu, Jiao Du, Yimeng Fang, Lei Wang, Kun Zhang, Libo Jin, Da Sun and Junbo Zhong
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040380 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
A large amount of nano-/microparticles (MNPs) are released into water, not only causing severe water pollution, but also negatively affecting organisms. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate MNP toxicity and mechanisms in water. There is a significant degree of similarity between the genes, [...] Read more.
A large amount of nano-/microparticles (MNPs) are released into water, not only causing severe water pollution, but also negatively affecting organisms. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate MNP toxicity and mechanisms in water. There is a significant degree of similarity between the genes, the central nervous system, the liver, the kidney, and the intestines of zebrafish and the human body. It has been shown that zebrafish are exceptionally suitable for evaluating the toxicity and action mechanisms of MNPs in water on reproduction, the central nervous system, and metabolism. Providing ideas and methods for studying MNP toxicity, this article discusses the toxicity and mechanisms of MNPs from zebrafish. Full article
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17 pages, 2565 KiB  
Article
Natural Polyphenols—Resveratrol, Quercetin, Magnolol, and β-Catechin—Block Certain Aspects of Heroin Addiction and Modulate Striatal IL-6 and TNF-α
by Shaimaa ElShebiney, Rania Elgohary, Marwa El-Shamarka, Noha Mowaad and Osama A. Abulseoud
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040379 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
We have examined the effects of four different polyphenols in attenuating heroin addiction using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received heroin (alternating with saline) in escalating doses starting from 10 mg/kg, i.p. up to 80 mg/kg/d for [...] Read more.
We have examined the effects of four different polyphenols in attenuating heroin addiction using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received heroin (alternating with saline) in escalating doses starting from 10 mg/kg, i.p. up to 80 mg/kg/d for 14 consecutive days. The rats were treated with distilled water (1 mL), quercetin (50 mg/kg/d), β-catechin (100 mg/kg/d), resveratrol (30 mg/kg/d), or magnolol (50 mg/kg/d) through oral gavage for 7 consecutive days, 30 min before heroin administration, starting on day 8. Heroin withdrawal manifestations were assessed 24 h post last heroin administration following the administration of naloxone (1 mg/kg i.p). Heroin CPP reinstatement was tested following a single dose of heroin (10 mg/kg i.p.) administration. Striatal interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified (ELISA) after naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. Compared to the vehicle, the heroin-administered rats spent significantly more time in the heroin-paired chamber (p < 0.0001). Concomitant administration of resveratrol and quercetin prevented the acquisition of heroin CPP, while resveratrol, quercetin, and magnolol blocked heroin-triggered reinstatement. Magnolol, quercetin, and β-catechin blocked naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal and increased striatal IL-6 concentration (p < 0.01). Resveratrol administration was associated with significantly higher withdrawal scores compared to those of the control animals (p < 0.0001). The results of this study show that different polyphenols target specific behavioral domains of heroin addiction in a CPP model and modulate the increase in striatal inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 observed during naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. Further research is needed to study the clinical utility of polyphenols and to investigate the intriguing finding that resveratrol enhances, rather than attenuates naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Drug Toxicity)
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15 pages, 1076 KiB  
Article
Quantitation and Stability of Nicotine in Canadian Vaping Liquids
by Ivana Kosarac, Guru P. Katuri, Cariton Kubwabo, Shabana Siddique and Trevor K. Mischki
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040378 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, vaping products) have become increasingly popular, with recent increases in use associated with closed systems delivering higher concentrations of nicotine. Most vaping products designed as an alternative to combustible cigarettes contain nicotine. A number of published studies have examined the [...] Read more.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, vaping products) have become increasingly popular, with recent increases in use associated with closed systems delivering higher concentrations of nicotine. Most vaping products designed as an alternative to combustible cigarettes contain nicotine. A number of published studies have examined the reported concentrations of nicotine in vaping liquids (e-liquids) and found discrepancies between labelled and measured levels. Some discrepancy can also be explained by the lack of stability of nicotine in these types of products. Recently, a chemical analysis method for the quantitative determination of low and high levels of nicotine in vaping liquids was developed. This method uses dilution with acetonitrile prior to analysis with gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in single ion monitoring mode (SIM). The developed method was validated using a laboratory-prepared vaping liquid as well as commercially available, nicotine-free products fortified with nicotine in the laboratory. The method detection limit (MDL) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for nicotine were calculated to be 0.002 mg/mL and 0.006 mg/mL, respectively. The newly developed method was applied to quantify nicotine in commercially available vaping liquids of various flavour profiles and across a wide range of nicotine concentrations, including those with nicotine salts. Furthermore, a subset of vaping liquids were analyzed to elucidate nicotine stability in various product subtypes. After a period of six months of accelerated storage to mimic one year, the overall mean percent of the original nicotine concentration remaining in the salt-based vaping products was 85% (minimum 64%, maximum 99%) while in the free-base nicotine products it was 74% (minimum 31%, maximum 106%). Nicotine stability in vaping liquids was found to be influenced by the nicotine form (pH) of formulation and its chemical composition. Non-targeted, qualitative analysis of chemical composition of vaping products showed that most constituents were identified and found to be remaining in the products following stability trials; however, three new compounds were tentatively identified in some vaping liquids at the end of the stability trials. Stability studies and the accurate quantitation of nicotine in vaping products can help inform product standards related to the safety, quality and utility of vaping products as a smoking cessation tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing Novel Tobacco Products)
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25 pages, 18091 KiB  
Article
Palliative Role of Zamzam Water against Cyclosporine-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Modulating Autophagy and Apoptosis Crosstalk
by Medhat Taha, Sara T. Elazab, Tourki A. S. Baokbah, Abdullah G. Al-Kushi, Mohamed Ezzat Mahmoud, Omer Abdelbagi, Naeem F. Qusty, Ibrahim El-Shenbaby, Omar Babateen, Alaa. M. Badawy and Mohie Mahmoud Ibrahim
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040377 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Cyclosporine (CsA) is considered one of the main components of treatment protocols for organ transplantation owing to its immunosuppressive effect. However, its use is very restricted due to its nephrotoxic effect. ZW is an alkaline fluid rich in various trace elements and has [...] Read more.
Cyclosporine (CsA) is considered one of the main components of treatment protocols for organ transplantation owing to its immunosuppressive effect. However, its use is very restricted due to its nephrotoxic effect. ZW is an alkaline fluid rich in various trace elements and has a great ability to stimulate antioxidant processes. This study aimed to investigate the possible mitigating effect of ZW on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Forty rats were allocated into four groups (n = 10): a control group, ZW group, cyclosporine A group (injected subcutaneously (SC) with CsA (20 mg/kg/day)), and cyclosporine A+ Zamzam water group (administered CsA (SC) and ZW as their only drinking water (100 mL/cage/day) for 21 days). Exposure to CsA significantly (p < 0.001) increased the serum creatinine level, lipid peroxidation marker level (malondialdehyde; MDA), and the expression of apoptotic markers procaspase-8, caspase-8, caspase- 9, calpain, cytochrome c, caspas-3, P62, and mTOR in renal tissues. Meanwhile, it markedly decreased (p< 0.001) the autophagic markers (AMPK, ULK-I, ATag5, LC3, and Beclin-1), antiapoptotic Bcl-2, and antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the administration of CsA caused histological alterations in renal tissues. ZW significantly (p < 0.001) reversed all the changes caused by CsA and conclusively achieved a positive outcome in restraining CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, as indicated by the restoration of the histological architecture, improvement of renal function, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment)
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13 pages, 2251 KiB  
Article
Spectral Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Farmland Soils around Urumqi, China
by Jianhua Zhu, Jia Duo, Zizhao Zhang, Liang Pei, Wenfeng Li and Rehemanjiang Wufuer
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040376 - 16 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the most sensitive indicators of changes in the soil environment, and it is the most mobile and active soil component that serves as an easily available source of nutrients and energy for microbes and other [...] Read more.
The dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the most sensitive indicators of changes in the soil environment, and it is the most mobile and active soil component that serves as an easily available source of nutrients and energy for microbes and other living organisms. In this paper, DOM structural characteristics and main properties were investigated by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) and UV–visible spectrum technology in the farmland soils around Urumqi of China, and its possible sources and pathways were analyzed by spectroscopic indices. The results showed that humic-like substances were the main composition of the soil DOM, and its autogenesis characteristics were not obvious. Main DOM properties such as aromatability, hydrophobicity, molecular weight, molecular size, and humification degree in the southern region of Urumqi were higher than those of the northern region of Urumqi and Fukang in China, and higher on the upper layers of the soil (0–0.1 and 0.2 m) than in the deeper layer (0.2–0.3 m).This may be because the tilled layer is more subjected to fertilization and conducive to microbial activities. The spectroscopic analysis showed that the source of DOM of these regions is mainly from microbial metabolites. These results provide basic scientific data for the further research on the environmental chemical behavior of pollutants and pollution control in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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16 pages, 4556 KiB  
Article
Antitumor Profile of Combined Matricaria recutita Flower Extract and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy in Sarcoma 180 In Vivo Model
by Sara A. Santos, Ricardo G. Amaral, Ariel S. Graça, Silvana V. F. Gomes, Fabrício P. Santana, Iza B. de Oliveira, Luciana N. Andrade, Patrícia Severino, Ricardo L. C. de Albuquerque-Júnior, Sandra L. Santos, Eliana B. Souto and Adriana A. Carvalho
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040375 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Medicinal plants have been commonly associated with chemotherapeutic treatments, as an approach to reduce the toxicological risks of classical anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combining the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with Matricaria recutita flowers extract [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants have been commonly associated with chemotherapeutic treatments, as an approach to reduce the toxicological risks of classical anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combining the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with Matricaria recutita flowers extract (MRFE) to treat mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. Tumor inhibition, body and visceral mass variation, biochemical, hematological, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. The isolated 5-FU, 5-FU+MRFE 100 mg/kg/day, and 5-FU+MRFE 200 mg/kg/day reduced tumor growth; however, 5-FU+MRFE 200 mg/kg/day showed a more significant tumor reduction when compared to 5-FU alone. These results corroborated with the analysis of the tumor histopathological and immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen. In the toxicological analysis of the association 5-FU+MRFE 200 mg/kg/day, an intense loss of body mass was observed, possibly as a result of diarrhea. In addition, spleen atrophy, with a reduction in white pulp, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, was observed in the 5-FU groups alone and associated with MRFE 200 mg/kg/day; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups. Therefore, the MRFE 200 mg/kg/day did not interfere in myelosuppressive action of 5-FU. In hematological analysis, body and visceral mass variation and biochemical parameters related to renal (urea and creatinine) and cardiac (CK-MB) function, no alteration was observed. In biochemical parameters related to liver function enzymes, there was a reduction in aspartate transaminase (AST) values in the 5-FU groups alone and associated with MRFE 200 mg/kg/day; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups. Therefore, the MRFE 200 mg/kg/day does not appear to influence enzyme reduction. The results of this study suggest that the association between the 5-FU+MRFE 200 can positively interfere with the antitumor activity, promoting the antineoplastic-induced reduction in body mass, while minimizing the toxicity of chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 10th Anniversary of Toxics)
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46 pages, 736 KiB  
Review
One Health Approach to Tackle Microbial Contamination on Poultries—A Systematic Review
by Bianca Gomes, Marta Dias, Renata Cervantes, Pedro Pena, Joana Santos, Marta Vasconcelos Pinto and Carla Viegas
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040374 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
This study reports the search of available data published regarding microbial occupational exposure assessment in poultries, following the PRISMA methodology. Air collection through filtration was the most frequently used. The most commonly used passive sampling method was material collection such as dust, cages, [...] Read more.
This study reports the search of available data published regarding microbial occupational exposure assessment in poultries, following the PRISMA methodology. Air collection through filtration was the most frequently used. The most commonly used passive sampling method was material collection such as dust, cages, soils, sediment, and wastewater. Regarding assays applied, the majority of studies comprised culture-based methods, but molecular tools were also frequently used. Screening for antimicrobial susceptibility was performed only for bacteria; cytotoxicity, virological and serological assays were also performed. Most of the selected studies focused on bacteria, although fungi, endotoxins, and β-glucans were also assessed. The only study concerning fungi and mycotoxins reported the carcinogenic mycotoxin AFB1. This study gives a comprehensive overview of microbial contamination in the poultry industry, emphasizing this setting as a potential reservoir of microbial pathogens threatening human, animal, and environmental health. Additionally, this research helps to provide a sampling and analysis protocol proposal to evaluate the microbiological contamination in these facilities. Few articles were found reporting fungal contamination in poultry farms worldwide. In addition, information concerning fungal resistance profile and mycotoxin contamination remain scarce. Overall, a One Health approach should be incorporated in exposure assessments and the knowledge gaps identified in this paper should be addressed in further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposures for Better Health)
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15 pages, 4981 KiB  
Article
Effects of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on Premature Kidney Aging: Biochemical and Histological Analysis
by Ji-Eun Kim and Myung-Haing Cho
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040373 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have gained much attention due to their superb properties, which make them promising options for the reinforcing composite materials with desirable mechanical properties. However, little is known about the linkage between lung exposure to nanomaterials and kidney disease. In this [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have gained much attention due to their superb properties, which make them promising options for the reinforcing composite materials with desirable mechanical properties. However, little is known about the linkage between lung exposure to nanomaterials and kidney disease. In this study, we compared the effects on the kidneys and aging for two different types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs): pristine MWCNTs (PMWCNTs) and acid-treated MWCNTs (TMWCNTs), with TMWCNTs being the preferred form for use as a composite material due to its superior dispersion properties. We used tracheal instillation and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for both types of CNTs. MTD was determined as a 10% weight loss dose in a 3-month subchronic study, and the appropriate dosage for 1-year exposure was 0.1 mg/mouse. Serum and kidney samples were analyzed using ELISA, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry after 6 months and 1 year of treatment. PMWCNT-administered mice showed the activation of pathways for inflammation, apoptosis, and insufficient autophagy, as well as decreased serum Klotho levels and increased serum levels of DKK-1, FGF-23, and sclerostin, while TMWCNTs did not. Our study suggests that lung exposure to PMWCNTs can induce premature kidney aging and highlights a possible toxic effect of using MWCNTs on the kidneys in the industrial field, further highlighting that dispersibility can affect the toxicity of the nanotubes. Full article
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10 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Human Poisoning with Methomyl and Cypermethrin Pesticide Mixture
by Chi-Ang Liang, Shu-Sen Chang, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kai-Fan Tsai, Wen-Chin Lee, I-Kuan Wang, Chao-Yu Chen, Shou-Hsuan Liu, Cheng-Hao Weng, Wen-Hung Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu and Tzung-Hai Yen
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040372 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
There is limited literature analyzing the outcome of human poisoning with methomyl and cypermethrin pesticide mixture. Between 2002 and 2018, a total of 63 patients intoxicated with methomyl, cypermethrin, or their pesticide mixture were treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The patients were [...] Read more.
There is limited literature analyzing the outcome of human poisoning with methomyl and cypermethrin pesticide mixture. Between 2002 and 2018, a total of 63 patients intoxicated with methomyl, cypermethrin, or their pesticide mixture were treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The patients were categorized into three groups based on the type of pesticide, as methomyl (n = 10), cypermethrin (n = 31), or methomyl and cypermethrin (n = 22). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. The patients were aged 54.9 ± 18.9 years. Following ingestion, the patients experienced a wide range of clinical symptoms, including aspiration pneumonia (50.8%), acute respiratory failure (41.3%), acute kidney injury (33.3%), multiple organ failure (19.0%), emesis (19.0%), acute hepatitis (12.7%), diarrhea (7.9%), seizures (4.8%), lacrimation (4.8%), etc. After analysis, it was found that patients with methomyl and cypermethrin poisoning suffered higher incidences of acute respiratory failure (p < 0.001), aspiration pneumonia (p = 0.004), acute kidney injury (p = 0.011), and multiple organ failure (p < 0.001) than the other groups. Laboratory analyses revealed that patients with methomyl and cypermethrin poisoning had a higher creatinine level (p = 0.011), white blood cell count (p < 0.001), and neutrophil count (p = 0.019) than the other groups. A total of seven (11.1%) patients died. The average duration of hospitalization was 9.8 ± 10.0 days. In a multivariate logistic regression model, it was revealed that methomyl pesticide (p = 0.045) or methomyl and cypermethrin pesticide mixture (p = 0.013) were significant risk factors for acute respiratory failure. Nevertheless, no mortality risk factor could be identified. Therefore, the analytical results suggest that methomyl pesticide is the major contributor to the toxicity of methomyl and cypermethrin pesticide mixture poisoning. More research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Effects of Pesticides on Human Health)
20 pages, 3434 KiB  
Article
The Difference between Rhizosphere and Endophytic Bacteria on the Safe Cultivation of Lettuce in Cr-Contaminated Farmland
by Zheyu Wen, Qizhen Liu, Chao Yu, Lukuan Huang, Yaru Liu, Shun’an Xu, Zhesi Li, Chanjuan Liu and Ying Feng
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040371 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Chromium (Cr) is a major pollutant affecting the environment and human health and microbial remediation is considered to be the most promising technology for the restoration of the heavily metal-polluted soil. However, the difference between rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria on the potential of [...] Read more.
Chromium (Cr) is a major pollutant affecting the environment and human health and microbial remediation is considered to be the most promising technology for the restoration of the heavily metal-polluted soil. However, the difference between rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria on the potential of crop safety production in Cr-contaminated farmland is not clearly elucidated. Therefore, eight Cr-tolerant endophytic strains of three species: Serratia (SR-1~2), Lysinebacillus (LB-1~5) and Pseudomonas (PA-1) were isolated from rice and maize. Additionally, one Cr-tolerant strain of Alcaligenes faecalis (AF-1) was isolated from the rhizosphere of maize. A randomized group pot experiment with heavily Cr-contaminated (a total Cr concentration of 1020.18 mg kg−1) paddy clay soil was conducted and the effects of different bacteria on plant growth, absorption and accumulation of Cr in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Hort) were compared. The results show that: (i) the addition of SR-2, PA-1 and LB-5 could promote the accumulation of plant fresh weight by 10.3%, 13.5% and 14.2%, respectively; (ii) most of the bacteria could significantly increase the activities of rhizosphere soil catalase and sucrase, among which LB-1 promotes catalase activity by 224.60% and PA-1 increases sucrase activity by 247%; (iii) AF-1, SR-1, LB-1, SR-2, LB-2, LB-3, LB-4 and LB-5 strains could significantly decrease shoot the Cr concentration by 19.2–83.6%. The results reveal that Cr-tolerant bacteria have good potential to reduce shoot Cr concentration at the heavily contaminated soil and endophytic bacteria have the same or even better effects than rhizosphere bacteria; this suggests that bacteria in plants are more ecological friendly than bacteria in soil, thus aiming to safely produce crops in Cr-polluted farmland and alleviate Cr contamination from the food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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13 pages, 4050 KiB  
Article
Acute Toxicity of the Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae on Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
by Xiao Yang, Zhi Yan, Jingjing Chen, Derui Wang and Ke Li
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040370 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Dinoflagellates of the genus Amphidinium can produce a variety of polyketides, such as amphidinols (AMs), amphidinoketides, and amphidinin, that have hemolytic, cytotoxic, and fish mortality properties. AMs pose a significant threat to ecological function due to their membrane-disrupting and permeabilizing properties, as well [...] Read more.
Dinoflagellates of the genus Amphidinium can produce a variety of polyketides, such as amphidinols (AMs), amphidinoketides, and amphidinin, that have hemolytic, cytotoxic, and fish mortality properties. AMs pose a significant threat to ecological function due to their membrane-disrupting and permeabilizing properties, as well as their hydrophobicity. Our research aims to investigate the disparate distribution of AMs between intracellular and extracellular environments, as well as the threat that AMs pose to aquatic organisms. As a result, AMs containing sulphate groups such as AM19 with lower bioactivity comprised the majority of A. carterae strain GY-H35, while AMs without sulphate groups such as AM18 with higher bioactivity displayed a higher proportion and hemolytic activity in the extracellular environment, suggesting that AMs may serve as allelochemicals. When the concentration of extracellular crude extracts of AMs reached 0.81 µg/mL in the solution, significant differences in zebrafish embryonic mortality and malformation were observed. Over 96 hpf, 0.25 μL/mL of AMs could cause significant pericardial edema, heart rate decrease, pectoral fin deformation, and spinal deformation in zebrafish larvae. Our findings emphasized the necessity of conducting systematic research on the differences between the intracellular and extracellular distribution of toxins to gain a more accurate understanding of their effects on humans and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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16 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
The Adsorption Behaviors and Mechanisms of Humic Substances by Thermally Oxidized Graphitic Carbon Nitride
by Hongxin Li, Jianlong Wang, Dongbei Yue, Jianchao Wang, Chu Tang and Lingyue Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040369 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Thermal oxidation is efficient for enhancing the photocatalysis performance of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), while its effect on adsorption performance has not been fully studied, which is crucial to the application of g-C3N4 as adsorbents and [...] Read more.
Thermal oxidation is efficient for enhancing the photocatalysis performance of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), while its effect on adsorption performance has not been fully studied, which is crucial to the application of g-C3N4 as adsorbents and photocatalysts. In this study, thermal oxidation was used to prepare sheet-like g-C3N4 (TCN), and its application for adsorption of humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) was evaluated. The results showed that thermal oxidation clearly affected the properties of TCN. After thermal oxidation, the adsorption performance of TCN was enhanced significantly, and the adsorption amount of HA increased from 63.23 (the bulk g-C3N4) to 145.35 mg/g [TCN prepared at 600 °C (TCN-600)]. Based on fitting results using the Sips model, the maximum adsorption amounts of TCN-600 for HA and FA were 327.88 and 213.58 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption for HA and FA was markedly affected by pH, alkaline, and alkaline earth metals due to electrostatic interactions. The major adsorption mechanisms included electrostatic interactions, π-π interactions, hydrogen bonding, along with a special pH-dependent conformation (for HA). These findings implied that TCN prepared from environmental-friendly thermal oxidation showed promising prospects for humic substances (HSs) adsorption in natural water and wastewater. Full article
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Article
The Role of Vitamin E in Protecting against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and the Neurotoxic Effects of Acute Paracetamol in Pregnant Female Rats
by Alaa M. Hammad, Baraa Shawaqfeh, Suhair Hikmat, Tariq Al-Qirim, Lama Hamadneh, Sameer Al-Kouz, Mariam M. Awad and Frank S. Hall
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040368 - 12 Apr 2023
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Abstract
Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is the most common non-prescription analgesic drug used during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on acute APAP toxicity in pregnant rats. Toxicity in the liver, kidney, and brain (hippocampus, cerebellum, and [...] Read more.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is the most common non-prescription analgesic drug used during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on acute APAP toxicity in pregnant rats. Toxicity in the liver, kidney, and brain (hippocampus, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb) was examined. Twenty pregnant female Wistar rats at gestational day 18 were used. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups: Control, APAP, E + APAP, and APAP + E. The Control group was treated with 0.5 mL p.o. corn oil. The APAP group received 3000 mg/kg p.o. APAP. The E + APAP group received 300 mg/kg p.o. vitamin E one hour before 3000 mg/kg APAP. The APAP + E group received 3000 mg/kg paracetamol one hour before 300 mg/kg p.o. vitamin E. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment administration, rats were euthanized and blood, brain, liver, and kidney samples were collected. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, uric acid (UA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, as well as the relative mRNA expression of Cyp1a4, Cyp2d6, and Nat2, were determined. Acute APAP treatment upregulated ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine levels. APAP treatment downregulated UA and SOD levels. APAP treatment upregulated the relative mRNA expression of Cyp1a4 and Cyp2d6, but downregulated Nat2 expression. Vitamin E treatment, either before or after APAP administration, attenuated the toxic effects of APAP. In conclusion, the results showed that an acute toxic APAP dose in late pregnancy can cause oxidative stress and dysregulation in Cyp isoform expression, and that vitamin E treatment attenuates these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Drug Toxicity)
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