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Dent. J., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Open AccessReview
Immediate Implants: Clinical Guidelines for Esthetic Outcomes
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020021
Received: 2 April 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1956 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research has shown that tooth loss results in morphological changes in alveolar ridge that may influence the subsequent implant placement. Immediate implant placement was introduced as a possible means to limit bone resorption and reduce the number of surgical procedures following tooth extraction. [...] Read more.
Research has shown that tooth loss results in morphological changes in alveolar ridge that may influence the subsequent implant placement. Immediate implant placement was introduced as a possible means to limit bone resorption and reduce the number of surgical procedures following tooth extraction. Histological and clinical evidence from human clinical studies showing efficacy of immediate implants has come to light over the last decade or so. However, immediate implant placement is a challenging surgical procedure and requires proper case selection and surgical technique. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of clinical guidelines for immediate implant placement case selection. Therefore, the aim of this mini-review is to analyze critical evidence from human studies in order to establish clinical guidelines which may help clinicians in case selection when considering immediate implant placement protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
Open AccessReview
Public Health Aspects of Paediatric Dental Treatment under General Anaesthetic
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020020
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2233 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early childhood caries (ECC) has negative psychosocial effects on children, with chronic pain, changed eating habits, disrupted sleep and altered growth very common, and it disrupts the day-to-day lives of their families. The treatment of young children with ECC places a considerable burden [...] Read more.
Early childhood caries (ECC) has negative psychosocial effects on children, with chronic pain, changed eating habits, disrupted sleep and altered growth very common, and it disrupts the day-to-day lives of their families. The treatment of young children with ECC places a considerable burden on health systems, with a considerable amount having to be provided under general anaesthesia (GA), which is resource-intensive. Justifying its use requires evidence of the efficacy of treatment in improving the lives of affected children and their families. This paper discusses the available evidence and then makes some suggestions for a research agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Health Care in Pediatric Dentistry)
Open AccessReview
iPS Cells—The Triumphs and Tribulations
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020019
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2878 | PDF Full-text (2910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The year 2006 will be remembered monumentally in science, particularly in the stem cell biology field, for the first instance of generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse embryonic/adult fibroblasts being reported by Takahashi and Yamanaka. A year later, human iPSCs [...] Read more.
The year 2006 will be remembered monumentally in science, particularly in the stem cell biology field, for the first instance of generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse embryonic/adult fibroblasts being reported by Takahashi and Yamanaka. A year later, human iPSCs (hiPSCs) were generated from adult human skin fibroblasts by using quartet of genes, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. This revolutionary technology won Yamanaka Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 2012. Like human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), iPSCs are pluripotent and have the capability for self-renewal. Moreover, complications of immune rejection for therapeutic applications would be greatly eliminated by generating iPSCs from individual patients. This has enabled their use for drug screening/discovery and disease modelling in vitro; and for immunotherapy and regenerative cellular therapies in vivo, paving paths for new therapeutics. Although this breakthrough technology has a huge potential, generation of these unusual cells is still slow, ineffectual, fraught with pitfalls, and unsafe for human use. In this review, I describe how iPSCs are being triumphantly used to lay foundation for a fully functional discipline of regenerative dentistry and medicine, alongside discussing the challenges of translating therapies into clinics. I also discuss their future implications in regenerative dentistry field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Craniofacial Biology for Tooth Repair and Regeneration)
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Open AccessReview
Tooth Organ Bioengineering: Cell Sources and Innovative Approaches
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020018
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2479 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various treatment approaches for restoring missing teeth are being utilized nowadays by using artificial dental crowns/bridges or the use of dental implants. All aforementioned restorative modalities are considered to be the conventional way of treating such cases. Although these artificial therapies are commonly [...] Read more.
Various treatment approaches for restoring missing teeth are being utilized nowadays by using artificial dental crowns/bridges or the use of dental implants. All aforementioned restorative modalities are considered to be the conventional way of treating such cases. Although these artificial therapies are commonly used for tooth loss rehabilitation, they are still less conservative, show less biocompatibility and fail to restore the natural biological and physiological function. Adding to that, they are considered to be costly due to the risk of failure and they also require regular maintenance. Regenerative dentistry is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept with high potential for a complete recovery of the natural function and esthetics of teeth. Biological-cell based dental therapies would involve replacement of teeth by using stem cells that will ultimately grow a bioengineered tooth, thereby restoring both the biological and physiological functions of the natural tooth, and are considered to be the ultimate goal in regenerative dentistry. In this review, various stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for tooth organ bioengineering will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Craniofacial Biology for Tooth Repair and Regeneration)
Open AccessArticle
Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association to the Occurrence of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020017
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1570 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To date there is no consensus on the role of diabetes in the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MR-ONJ). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and pathological glucose metabolism in patients with MR-ONJ compared to the general [...] Read more.
To date there is no consensus on the role of diabetes in the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MR-ONJ). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and pathological glucose metabolism in patients with MR-ONJ compared to the general population. All maxillofacial surgery inpatients in one year at our department were investigated regarding diagnosis, anamnesis, medication, and blood glucose readings. 1374 records were analyzed. 35 patients with MR-ONJ were identified. Diabetics accounted for 14.3%. No significant difference in the prevalence of known diabetes was found, except for pathological glucose metabolism in patients with MR-ONJ (p < 0.001). Diabetes does not necessarily promote the onset of MR-ONJ. Therefore, diabetes should not be considered as a standalone risk factor. On the contrary, hyperglycemia as a possible indicator for poorly managed or yet undetected diabetes is associated with MR-ONJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
Open AccessReview
The Overall Survival, Complication-Free Survival, and Related Complications of Combined Tooth-Implant Fixed Partial Dentures: A Literature Review
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020015
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
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Abstract
This paper reviews the literature regarding possible complications, complication-free survival, and overall survival of fixed dental prostheses that use both implants and natural teeth as abutments. The paper also provides clinical guidelines for treatment based on this literature review. An electronic search utilizing [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the literature regarding possible complications, complication-free survival, and overall survival of fixed dental prostheses that use both implants and natural teeth as abutments. The paper also provides clinical guidelines for treatment based on this literature review. An electronic search utilizing the MEDLINE, BIOSIS Citation Index, and Web of Science™ Core Collection databases was undertaken, and a review of the 25 selected texts studying 22 different patient cohorts was carried out. From a total of 1610 implants reviewed, 40 were lost (33 due to loss of integration and 7 due to fracture), whereas, out of a total of 1301 teeth, 38 were lost, of which 16 were due to fracture. Seventy-three cases of tooth intrusion were detected. From a total of 676 frameworks reviewed (metal n = 645, Zirconia n = 31), 7 fractured, while veneer material fracture occurred in 70 out of 672 bridges. Overall, 502 out of 531 tooth-implant fixed prostheses (TIPFs) remained functional, and 336 out of 439 prostheses showed no technical or biological complications and remained functional. Rigid TIFPs permanently cemented to teeth with sufficient coronal structure and with limited use of prosthetic attachments offer a good long-term treatment option to patients with good oral hygiene following sound implant placement. This mode of treatment should be used when free-standing implant-supported options may not be possible. Larger randomized control studies and other clinical studies comparing tooth-to-implant-connected treatment with other forms of treatment are needed to better understand the place of TIFP treatment in oral rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue of Dental Implants: Facts and Fallacies
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020016
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2792 | PDF Full-text (1127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dental implants experience rare yet problematic mechanical failures such as fracture that are caused, most often, by (time-dependent) metal fatigue. This paper surveys basic evidence about fatigue failure, its identification and the implant’s fatigue performance during service. We first discuss the concept of [...] Read more.
Dental implants experience rare yet problematic mechanical failures such as fracture that are caused, most often, by (time-dependent) metal fatigue. This paper surveys basic evidence about fatigue failure, its identification and the implant’s fatigue performance during service. We first discuss the concept of dental implant fatigue, starting with a review of basic concepts related to this failure mechanism. The identification of fatigue failures using scanning electron microscopy follows, to show that this stage is fairly well defined. We reiterate that fatigue failure is related to the implant design and its surface condition, together with the widely varying service conditions. The latter are shown to vary to an extent that precludes devising average or representative conditions. The statistical nature of the fatigue test results is emphasized throughout the survey to illustrate the complexity in evaluating the fatigue behavior of dental implants from a design perspective. Today’s fatigue testing of dental implants is limited to ISO 14801 standard requirements, which ensures certification but does not provide any insight for design purposes due to its limited requirements. We introduce and discuss the random spectrum loading procedure as an alternative to evaluate the implant’s performance under more realistic conditions. The concept is illustrated by random fatigue testing in 0.9% saline solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simplified Technique for Implant-Abutment Level Impression after Soft Tissue Adaptation around Provisional Restoration
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020014
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
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Abstract
Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or [...] Read more.
Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or plastic impression copings, analogs, and laboratory components. Simplifying the dental implant restoration by reducing armamentarium through incorporating conventional techniques used daily for crowns and bridges will allow more general dentists to restore implants in their practices. The demonstrated technique is useful when modifications to implant abutments are required to correct the angulation of malpositioned implants. This technique utilizes conventional crown and bridge impression techniques. As an added benefit, it reduces costs by utilizing techniques used daily for crowns and bridges. The aim of this report is to describe a simplified conventional impression technique for custom abutments and modified prefabricated solid abutments for definitive restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
Hot Topics in Clinical Oral Implants Research: Recent Trends in Literature Coverage
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020013
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 15 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2476 | PDF Full-text (957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This systematic review looks at thematic trends in clinical research publications on dental implants. For this purpose, MEDLINE electronic searches as well as additional hand searches of six main journals in the field were conducted. A total of 2875 clinical studies published between [...] Read more.
This systematic review looks at thematic trends in clinical research publications on dental implants. For this purpose, MEDLINE electronic searches as well as additional hand searches of six main journals in the field were conducted. A total of 2875 clinical studies published between 2001 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to statistical analysis. Hot topics in dental implant literature included immediate loading (14.3%), bone substitutes (11.6%), cross-arch full bridges (8.0%), and immediate implant placement (7.5%). A significant increase in scientific interest for immediate loading (+6.3%, p = 0.001), platform switching (+2.9%, p = 0.001), guided implant surgery (+1.9%, p = 0.011), growth factors (p = 0.014, +1.4%), piezoelectric surgery (+1.3%, p = 0.015), and restorative materials (+0.7%, p = 0.011) was found. A declining scientific interest in onlay grafting (−0.3%, p = 0.042) was recorded. The findings regarding current clinical oral implants research tie in with better-informed consumers and increased patient demands. Our results demonstrate an increasing interest in techniques that avoid complicated procedures such as bone grafting and that reduce treatment duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes towards Prosthodontic Clinical Decision-Making for Edentulous Patients among South West Deanery Dental Foundation Year One Dentists
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020012
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe Dental Foundation year one dentists’ attitudes towards prosthodontic decision making for edentulous patients, and identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. All South West Deanery trainees were invited to take part in the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to describe Dental Foundation year one dentists’ attitudes towards prosthodontic decision making for edentulous patients, and identify whether there are gender differences in these attitudes. All South West Deanery trainees were invited to take part in the study between May and June 2011 and a previously piloted questionnaire was administered to the trainees by their training programme directors. The questionnaire posed questions based upon a clinical scenario of discussing treatment options with patients. Seventy-two questionnaires were used in the analysis (91% overall response rate). Trainees perceived their own values to be less important than the patient’s values (p < 0.001) in decision making, but similar to the patient’s friend’s/relative’s values (p = 0.1). In addition, the trainees perceived the patient’s values to be less important than their friend’s/relatives (p < 0.001). Sixty-six per cent of trainees acknowledged an influence from their own personal values on their presentation of material to patients who are in the process of choosing among different treatment options, and 87% thought their edentulous patients were satisfied with the decision making process when choosing among different treatment options. Fifty-eight per cent of trainees supported a strategy of negotiation between patients and clinicians (shared decision making). There was no strong evidence to suggest gender had an influence on the attitudes towards decision making. The finding of a consensus towards shared decision making in the attitudes of trainees, and no gender differences is encouraging and is supportive of UK dental schools’ ability to foster ethical and professional values among dentists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration and Repair in Endodontics)
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Open AccessReview
Contemporary Correction of Dentofacial Anomalies: A Clinical Assessment
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020011
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
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Abstract
Contemporary computer-assisted technologies can support the surgical team in the treatment of patients affected by dentofacial deformities. Based on own experiences of 350 patients that received orthognathic surgery by the same team from 2007 to 2015, this clinical review is intended to give [...] Read more.
Contemporary computer-assisted technologies can support the surgical team in the treatment of patients affected by dentofacial deformities. Based on own experiences of 350 patients that received orthognathic surgery by the same team from 2007 to 2015, this clinical review is intended to give an overview of the results and risks related to the surgical correction of dentofacial anomalies. Different clinical and technological innovations that can contribute to improve the planning and transfer of corrective dentofacial surgery are discussed as well. However, despite the presence of modern technologies, a patient-specific approach and solid craftsmanship remain the key factors in this elective surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medically Compromised Patients in Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
Regenerative Perspective in Modern Dentistry
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020010
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 16 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
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Abstract
This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and [...] Read more.
This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone) and soft (salivary glands) related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Craniofacial Biology for Tooth Repair and Regeneration)
Open AccessCase Report
‘Autoreconstruction’ of the Mandible—Report of a Case
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020009
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
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Abstract
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) was first mentioned in the literature in 2003. Since then, several reports have been published referring to this disease. The etiology of BRONJ still remains unclear. The treatment of BRONJ also remains a topic of discussion between [...] Read more.
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) was first mentioned in the literature in 2003. Since then, several reports have been published referring to this disease. The etiology of BRONJ still remains unclear. The treatment of BRONJ also remains a topic of discussion between those who are in favor of a conservative treatment and those who are convinced that surgical treatment gives the best results. In this case report, a patient is presented with BRONJ in the mandible which has been treated surgically in combination with antibiotic treatment. During surgery it appeared that a large part of the jaw was sequestrated full-thickness with, at the same time, formation of a substantial amount of subperiosteal bone that was formed around the BRONJ, supporting the sequestrated part of the mandible and, after sequestrectomy, serving as a neo-mandible. This case shows the capacity of the jawbone despite bisphosphonate use to regenerate itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
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Open AccessReview
Dental Pulp Stem Cell Recruitment Signals within Injured Dental Pulp Tissue
Dent. J. 2016, 4(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4020008
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2794 | PDF Full-text (3628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recruitment of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) is a prerequisite for the regeneration of dentin damaged by severe caries and/or mechanical injury. Understanding the complex process of DPSC recruitment will benefit future in situ tissue engineering applications based on the stimulation of [...] Read more.
The recruitment of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) is a prerequisite for the regeneration of dentin damaged by severe caries and/or mechanical injury. Understanding the complex process of DPSC recruitment will benefit future in situ tissue engineering applications based on the stimulation of endogenous DPSC for dentin pulp regeneration. The current known mobilization signals and subsequent migration of DPSC towards the lesion site, which is influenced by the pulp inflammatory state and the application of pulp capping materials, are reviewed. The research outcome of migration studies may be affected by the applied methodology, which should thus be chosen with care. Both the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used assays for investigating DPSC migration are discussed. This review highlights the fact that DPSC recruitment is dependent not only on the soluble chemotactic signals, but also on their interaction with neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix, which can be modified under pathological conditions. These are discussed to explain how these modifications lead to the stimulation of DPSC recruitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration and Repair in Endodontics)
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Dent. J. EISSN 2304-6767 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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