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Dent. J., Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The clinical management of patients with atrophic–erosive lesions of oral lichen planus is complex. In these situations, the first therapeutic choice is usually topical corticosteroids, which are not exempt from side effects and, moreover, patients develop tolerance to them over time. In this sense, photobiomodulation represents an alternative that, according to some clinical trials, can have a similar effect to that of corticosteroids with fewer side effects. For this reason, we decided to carry out this systematic review with the aim of knowing the effects of photobiomodulation on the symptomatic lesions of oral lichen planus, in which we have obtained relevant results in favor of this technique and that position it as an effective tool in the therapy of the disease. View this paper
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Article
An In Vivo Study on the Development of Bacterial Microbiome on Clear Orthodontic Retainer
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120239 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Objectives: The objective of this study was to see how the bacterial composition changes on clear orthodontic retainer over a 14-day period. Methods: Saliva and plaque samples collected from a clear retainer surface were obtained from five healthy volunteers receiving retainer treatment. Prior [...] Read more.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to see how the bacterial composition changes on clear orthodontic retainer over a 14-day period. Methods: Saliva and plaque samples collected from a clear retainer surface were obtained from five healthy volunteers receiving retainer treatment. Prior to clear retainer delivery, patients had not been wearing any other appliances. Patients were instructed to wear their clear retainer for the 14-day period, taking them off to eat and to clean them with a soft-bristle toothbrush. The bacterial composition was determined via Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA. After bioinformatics processing using the QIIME pipeline, the intra- and intergroup biodiversity of the sample was analyzed. Results: The bacterial composition changed over a 14-day period in the saliva and on the clear retainer. When comparing the different phylum levels between saliva and clear retainer’ microbiota, the Firmicutes were significantly increased 1.26-fold (p = 0.0194) and 1.34-fold (p = 0.0123) after 7 and 14 days of retainer treatment when compared to saliva, respectively. The Campylobacteriota were significantly decreased 1.80-fold (p = 0.05) in the clear retainer when compared to saliva at 7 days. At the genus level, several microbiota were significantly increased in relative abundance in the clear retainer after the 14-day period. Conclusion: These findings reveal that the presence of a clear retainer in the mouth might lead to enamel changes or periodontal tissue destruction, especially after 14 days of use. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Laser–Assisted Treatment for Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120238 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Background: Smile aesthetics has a vital role to play in an individual’s life and one of the factors affecting the beauty of the smile is gingival color. A gingival color change or gingival hyperpigmentation causes an unesthetic smile line, especially in patients with [...] Read more.
Background: Smile aesthetics has a vital role to play in an individual’s life and one of the factors affecting the beauty of the smile is gingival color. A gingival color change or gingival hyperpigmentation causes an unesthetic smile line, especially in patients with a gummy smile, which is also known as a black gummy smile. Numerous gingival depigmentation methods have been performed successfully for ablating gingival melanin pigmented epithelium. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment efficacy of gingival hyperpigmentation by using a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out with 38 patients at a hospital in Vietnam. Ponnaiyan classification and the Hedin melanin index were used to assess the distribution and extent of gingival pigmentation in the study. Pain assessment was performed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to evaluate the intensity of pain during the laser treatment. In addition, clinical evaluation (i.e., wound healing) of each treatment procedure was conducted using the three level Dummett–Gupta Oral Pigmentation Index (DOPI) assessment. Results: This study showed that less pain was experienced by patients treated by CO2 laser; the rates of no pain, mild pain and moderate pain after treatment were, respectively, 21%, 76% and 2.6%; there was 100% complete epithelization after 1 week. The DOPI rates for turning from a DOPI score of 1, 2 or 3 to a DOPI score of 0 after a 12-week treatment were 87.5%, 76.9% and 24%, respectively. Conclusions: Using a CO2 laser for gingival melanin pigmentation treatment is a safe and effective procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Light and Laser Dentistry)
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Case Report
The Use of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as an Alternative Post and Core Material: Five-Year Follow-Up Report
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120237 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
This clinical report demonstrated the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for manufacturing of custom-made post and core in weakened endodontically treated central incisors. The PEEK structure was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The optimal fit of this custom-made endodontic post allowed a thinner [...] Read more.
This clinical report demonstrated the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for manufacturing of custom-made post and core in weakened endodontically treated central incisors. The PEEK structure was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The optimal fit of this custom-made endodontic post allowed a thinner cement layer; and removed the need to manufacture a core build-up. While supplementary clinical trials and in vitro studies are needed to totally elucidate the advantages and limitations of PEEK as an option for post and core manufacturing, this case report showed that it can be promising for a predictable and simplified treatment with five years of success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials and Their Clinical Applications II)
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Systematic Review
A Scoping Review of Marginal and Internal Fit Accuracy of Lithium Disilicate Restorations
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120236 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Objective: To assess and compare the accuracy of the marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate crowns and onlays fabricated by conventional and digital methods. Sources: An electronic search was carried out on MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library between 2010 [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess and compare the accuracy of the marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate crowns and onlays fabricated by conventional and digital methods. Sources: An electronic search was carried out on MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library between 2010 and 2021. Study selection: Seventeen studies published between 2014 & 2021 were included, of which thirteen were in vitro laboratory-based studies; three were in vivo clinical studies and one randomised controlled trial. Data: Twelve studies focused on the marginal fit, five focused on the marginal and internal fit. Five studies found that the marginal and internal fit of crowns were more accurate using digital techniques. Five studies noted that there was no difference using either technique and two noted that conventional methods had a more accurate marginal fit. Conclusion: Digital techniques were comparable to conventional methods in terms of accuracy although there was insufficient evidence to indicate that one technique was more accurate than the other with respect to Lithium Disilicate restorations. Clinical significance: Digital impressions are reliable and viable alternatives for clinicians compared to conventional impression techniques when restoring teeth with lithium disilicate restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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Article
Golden Mean and Proportion in Dental Esthetics after Orthodontic Treatments: An In Vivo Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120235 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Purpose: The definition of the golden ratio was established around the sixth century BC; Levin and Snow developed specific theories applicable in dentistry, which apply the golden proportion rule with the intention of reproducing a perfect smile. This study analyzed the literature and [...] Read more.
Purpose: The definition of the golden ratio was established around the sixth century BC; Levin and Snow developed specific theories applicable in dentistry, which apply the golden proportion rule with the intention of reproducing a perfect smile. This study analyzed the literature and assessed whether these concepts remain valid and applicable in clinical practice, evaluating the theories with a group of patients followed by an experienced orthodontic team. Methods: This study was retrospectively performed on 400 patients (241 females and 159 males) who underwent orthodontic treatments. The analysis was conducted on intraoral frontal photos, both pre-treatment and post-orthodontic treatment, to observe if there was a statistically significant difference in the tooth display according to the golden mean and golden proportion theories. Results: The canine at the end of the orthodontic treatment had a greater visibility than that proposed by Levin and Snow. Conclusions: This study revealed how these theories could be considered in certain respects, but nowadays are not totally valid and applicable to the clinical reality. Snow’s theory appears to be more consistent with the clinical findings than Levin’s theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics and New Technologies)
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Review
Application of the Extracts of Punica granatum in Oral Cancer: Scoping Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120234 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit plant native to south-western Asia. It belongs to the Litraceae family and of its genus we have only one other Punica protopunic species. The fruit is rich in polyphenols, whose extract is consumed as a [...] Read more.
The Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit plant native to south-western Asia. It belongs to the Litraceae family and of its genus we have only one other Punica protopunic species. The fruit is rich in polyphenols, whose extract is consumed as a food and is considered safe. In medicine, it is used for its antioxidant properties; it has a rich component of tannic polyphenols among which the most bioactive are: punicalagin (flavonoids) and anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin), which are found mainly in the skins and in the pericarp; however, all the parts of the Punica granatum are used for therapeutic purposes as anti-inflammatories and analgesics and in diabetes and cardio-vascular disease. Punica granatum extracts also show interesting anticancer activities in influencing tumorgenesis and angiogenesis and cell transformation and proliferation. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize all the scientific evidence on the possible applications of Punica granatum extracts in the treatment and prevention of oral cavity tumors to investigate the anticancer properties of the active ingredients extracted from Punica granatum. Methods: The scoping review was carried out following the PRISMA-ScR checklist; the search was performed on three databases (Scopus, Science direct and PubMed) and one registry (Cochrane library). Results: The search produced a number of bibliographic sources equal to 11,403; with the removal of duplicates, 670 potentially admissible articles were obtained, from 24 of which only 7 in vitro studies on OSCC cell lines were included. Conclusions: From the preliminary data on the cellular lines of OSCC, it emerges that for oral cancer there are conditions for which the extracts of Punic granatum are effective at least from a prevention perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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Article
Effects of Protective Surface Coating on Fluoride Release and Recharge of Recent Uncoated High-Viscosity Glass Ionomer Cement
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120233 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The ability to release and recharge fluoride is a property of glass ionomer cement materials, which is an advantage for patients with a high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of released and recharged fluoride in recent [...] Read more.
The ability to release and recharge fluoride is a property of glass ionomer cement materials, which is an advantage for patients with a high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of released and recharged fluoride in recent uncoated high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Universal AplicapTM) with different surface coatings and at different time points. In total, 135 cylindrical-shaped specimens were equally divided into the following three groups: KetacTM Universal AplicapTM, KetacTM Molar AplicapTM, and KetacTM Fil Plus AplicapTM. The different coatings performed on each group were as follows: uncoated, coated with KetacTM Glaze, and coated with G-Coat PlusTM. The amounts of released and recharged fluoride were measured at 24 h and at weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4. The recharging agent was a 1.23% APF gel. KetacTM Universal AplicapTM showed the highest released fluoride at all time points and the highest recharged fluoride at weeks 1, 2, and 3. Both the KetacTM Glaze- and G-Coat PlusTM-coated specimens presented significantly lower released and recharged fluoride ions than the uncoated group at all time points (p < 0.001). Coating with G-Coat PlusTM significantly decreased the released and recharged fluoride compared to the coating with KetacTM Glaze at almost all time points (p < 0.05), except for weeks 1 and 2. The application of coating agents reduced the amount of released and recharged fluoride by the KetacTM Universal AplicapTM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials and Their Clinical Applications II)
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Case Report
Oral Side Effects in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Receiving the Antiangiogenic Agent Pazopanib—Report of Three Cases
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120232 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Pazopanib is a potent multi-kinase inhibitor that hinders angiogenesis and blocks tumor growth. It has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and advanced soft tissue sarcoma. There is emerging evidence that bleeding is a common adverse effect of [...] Read more.
Pazopanib is a potent multi-kinase inhibitor that hinders angiogenesis and blocks tumor growth. It has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and advanced soft tissue sarcoma. There is emerging evidence that bleeding is a common adverse effect of pazopanib and other targeted therapies in patients with mRCC. In addition, jaw osteonecrosis related to pazopanib was recently described in the literature. We report three cases of patients with mRCC who developed adverse oral events related to pazopanib. The first patient, treated with pazopanib as monotherapy, presented with gingival bleeding and oral burning sensation. The other two patients receiving pazopanib as monotherapy and pazopanib followed by sunitinib, respectively, presented complaining about mandibular pain; a diagnosis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) was rendered in both cases. Gingival bleeding and MRONJ may develop as oral side effects of pazopanib use. The cases presented here aim to alert and inform health care professionals about the risk of adverse oral events in patients with mRCC receiving the antiangiogenic agent pazopanib. Full article
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Article
Increased Oral Dryness and Negative Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Older People with Overweight or Obesity
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120231 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
This cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of older Thai people with obesity and oral health indicators. General and oral conditions were assessed. Oral dryness was determined using the Xerostomia Inventory-11 (XI-11) and clinical [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of older Thai people with obesity and oral health indicators. General and oral conditions were assessed. Oral dryness was determined using the Xerostomia Inventory-11 (XI-11) and clinical oral dryness score (CODS). OHRQoL was evaluated by the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14). Participants were aged 60–86 years; 73 (59.3%) were overweight or obese, and 50 (40.7%) were normal weight. Older patients with obesity had almost four times the rate of hypertension (OR = 3.59; 95%CI:1.34–9.60; p = 0.002), more missing teeth (p = 0.025), and higher CODS (p = 0.014) than those without obesity. The total XI-11 scores were positively associated with the total CODS, after adjusting for BMI (r = 0.267, p = 0.003). Those with obesity had almost three times the tendency for a negative OHRQoL compared with the non-obese (OR = 2.73; 95%CI:1.12–6.71; p = 0.04). After adjusting for all related factors, the chances of predicting an OHIP-14 score of four based on obesity and total XI-11 score were 4.42 (95%CI:1.57–12.47; p = 0.005) and 1.11 (95%CI:1.02–1.20; p = 0.013), respectively. Obesity had an increasingly undesirable negative impact on the OHRQoL of older Thai people and was influenced by BMI and oral dryness. Full article
Article
The Impact of a 1-Year COVID-19 Extension on Undergraduate Dentistry in Dundee: Final Year Students’ Perspectives of Their Training in Oral Surgery
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120230 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Background: The detrimental impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental education prompted the Scottish Government to fund an additional year to the dental course to ensure that the students had the necessary clinical experience. The aim of the study was to better understand [...] Read more.
Background: The detrimental impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental education prompted the Scottish Government to fund an additional year to the dental course to ensure that the students had the necessary clinical experience. The aim of the study was to better understand the final year student perceptions of this extension on their oral surgery experience at the University of Dundee. Methods: This mixed methods study consisted of an anonymous online questionnaire and a focus group. Results: Forty-one students (69.3%) completed the questionnaire and ten students participated in the focus group. Thirty-six (88.8%) students agreed that the oral surgery teaching provided sufficient knowledge to undertake independent practice. All of the students felt confident to carry out an extraction, and the majority of them (n = 40, 95%) felt confident to remove a retained root, however, their confidence with surgery was lower. Conclusion: The extension gave the students sufficient experience in oral surgery to gain confidence in clinical skills and an appropriate level of knowledge in preparation for the next phase of their career. Most of the students agreed that the extension was necessary and beneficial. This cohort graduated with more oral surgery experience than any of the students did in the previous 4 years from Dundee and with experience that was comparable with the students at other schools in the pre-COVID-19 era. Full article
Article
Predictability of Invisalign® Clear Aligners Using OrthoPulse®: A Retrospective Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120229 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
This preliminary retrospective study evaluates how effective the OrthoPulse® (Biolux Technology, Austria) is in increasing the predictability of orthodontic treatment in patients treated with Invisalign® clear aligners (Align Technology Inc., Tempe, AZ, USA). A group of 376 patients were treated with [...] Read more.
This preliminary retrospective study evaluates how effective the OrthoPulse® (Biolux Technology, Austria) is in increasing the predictability of orthodontic treatment in patients treated with Invisalign® clear aligners (Align Technology Inc., Tempe, AZ, USA). A group of 376 patients were treated with Invisalign® orthodontic clear aligners in association with an OrthoPulse®. The OrthoPulse® was prescribed for 10 min a day for the entire duration of the orthodontic treatment. The OrthoPulse® App remotely tracked the percentage compliance of each patient. The number of aligners planned with the ClinCheck software at the beginning of the treatment and the number of total aligners (including the adjunctive aligners) used to finish the treatment were then considered. After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 40 patients remained in the study and were compared with a control group of 40 patients with the same characteristics as the study group. A statistical analysis was carried out to investigate whether using OrthoPulse® led to a statistical reduction in the number of adjunctive aligners, thus leading to a more accurate prediction of the treatment. The statistical analysis showed that patients who used OrthoPulse® needed fewer finishing aligners and a greater predictability of the treatment was obtained. In fact, in the treated group the average number of additional aligners represented 66.5% of the initial aligners, whereas in the control group 103.4% of the initially planned aligners were needed. In conclusion, in patients treated with clear aligners, OrthoPulse® would appear to increase the predictability of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners, thus reducing the number of finishing phase requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics and New Technologies)
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Review
The Effect of Sound in the Dental Office: Practices and Recommendations for Quality Assurance—A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120228 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Sound is inextricably linked to the human senses and is therefore directly related to the general health of the individual. The aim of the present study is to collect data on the effect of two dimensions of sound, music, and noise from an [...] Read more.
Sound is inextricably linked to the human senses and is therefore directly related to the general health of the individual. The aim of the present study is to collect data on the effect of two dimensions of sound, music, and noise from an emotional and functional point of view in the dental office and to perform a thorough review of the relevant literature. We collected articles from the databases PubMed and Google Scholar through keywords that were related to noise and music in healthcare. Important information was also extracted from articles on the web and official websites. Screening of the relevant literature was performed according to accuracy and reliability of the methodology tested. A total of 261 articles were associated to sound and music in healthcare. Ninety-six of them were the most well documented and were thus included in our article. Most of the articles associate noise with negative emotions and a negative impact on performance, while music is associated with positive emotions ranging from emotional state to therapeutic approaches. Few results were found regarding ways to reduce noise in a health facility. If there is a difficulty to find effective methods of reducing the daily noise-inducing sounds in the dental office, we must focus on ways to incorporate music into it as a means of relaxation and therapy. Full article
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Article
Students’ Awareness of the Role of Phonetics in Construction of Removable Dental Prostheses: A Questionnaire-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120227 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Phonetics plays a major role in the fabrication of prostheses. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of students regarding the role of phonetics in denture fabrication and to improve the educational process and the clinical application. The study was conducted at the [...] Read more.
Phonetics plays a major role in the fabrication of prostheses. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of students regarding the role of phonetics in denture fabrication and to improve the educational process and the clinical application. The study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, and involved a survey of 344 dental students and interns. The questionnaire contained 20 questions and was divided into three sections: general knowledge, clinical correlations, and clinical evaluations. The data were collected and analyzed statistically using independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The response rate was 100%. Male and female students only differed significantly in terms of their scores for answers to general knowledge questions, with females achieving better results (p = 0.023). General knowledge varied significantly between fourth-year students and all other levels (p < 0.001), and fifth-year students and interns (p = 0.027). The clinical correlations varied significantly between fourth-year students and interns (p = 0.01), whereas the clinical evaluations varied between all the academic years and interns (fourth-year, p < 0.001; fifth-year, p = 0.003; and sixth-year, p = 0.017). The interns obtained the highest scores in all sections. There was a lack of awareness among dental students of some aspects of the role of phonetics in denture fabrication. The study highlights the deficiencies that need to be addressed and the need for adjustments to the curriculum related to removable prosthodontics in order to improve the knowledge of students regarding the role of speech in denture fabrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Dental Education)
Article
Daytime Sleepiness and Quality of Life in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Patients before and after Long-Term Mandibular Advancement Device Treatment
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120226 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
This study compared daytime sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients with healthy controls and compared sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients before and after long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). A total of 27 OSA patients (18 [...] Read more.
This study compared daytime sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients with healthy controls and compared sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients before and after long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). A total of 27 OSA patients (18 men, 9 women, mean age 52.3 years) and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (20 men, 12 women, mean age 51.1 years) were included. At baseline and after MAD treatment, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were recorded by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Short Form-36 questionnaires (SF-36). Daytime sleepiness occurred significantly more often in OSA patients compared to controls at baseline (p = 0.01). The quality of life domains Energy and vitality (p < 0.0001), General perception of health (p = 0.0002), Mental health (p = 0.0031), Social functioning (p = 0.0119), Role limitations due to emotional problems (p = 0.0173) and Physical functioning (p = 0.0226) were significantly poorer in OSA patients compared to controls at baseline. After long-term MAD treatment, daytime sleepiness decreased (p < 0.01) and the quality of life domain Energy and Vitality increased (p < 0.01) in OSA patients compared to baseline. The results of the present study support the relevance of MAD treatment as an effective tool for decreasing daytime sleepiness and increasing the quality of life in OSA patients—also in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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Systematic Review
Periodontal Disease in Obese Patients; Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein Study: A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120225 - 29 Nov 2022
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Periodontal disease (PD) and obesity are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory state. Both conditions trigger inflammatory and immune responses with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the release of inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals with [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease (PD) and obesity are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory state. Both conditions trigger inflammatory and immune responses with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the release of inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) present a chronic inflammatory state. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of inflammatory markers (IL-6 and CRP) in obese patients with PD and their possible relationship by analyzing the levels of these markers. A digital literature search was performed in three databases—PubMed, SciElo and Medigraphic—through an advanced search for original articles, employing IL-6 and CRP in obese patients with PD, within a publication period from 2010 to 2021. PRISMA guidelines, the JADAD scale and a qualitative analysis of scientific evidence were performed using the Cochrane collaboration method and the RoB 2 assessment tool. Ten articles were included in this analysis with the variables recorded and associated with subjects with obesity and PD. Of the ten articles included, three analyzed IL-6 and CRP, four analyzed IL-6 and three analyzed CRP. In conclusion, and based on the available evidence, the aforementioned markers of inflammation demonstrate that there is a relationship between PD and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal Health: Disease Prevention and Treatment)
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Article
The Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Pediatric Patients Living with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120224 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Background: The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of children with ASD and to explore the differences in risk factors and oral health care status and the risk factors for treatment under GA. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of children with ASD and to explore the differences in risk factors and oral health care status and the risk factors for treatment under GA. Methods: Dental charts of children between 6 and 14 years of age who were examined at a dental facility associated with the College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan between 2016 to 2019 were assessed. Children who were identified as having ASD, as well as an age- and gender-matched control group consisting of otherwise healthy children were included in the study. Results: The sample included 346 dental records, with 173 children having a diagnosis of ASD. Children diagnosed with ASD had significantly higher experience with caries (91.3% vs. 65.9%, p = 0.003) and severity (mean DMFT/dmft = 8.18 ± 1.62 vs. 4.93 ± 0.58 p = 0.007). Children with ASD were also older when visiting the dentist for the first time (age of 5.97 ± 1.18 vs. 2.79 ± 1.09, p = 0.02)). Children with ASD were less likely to brush once a day (66.5% vs. 88.4%, p = 0.02), were more likely to have bruxism (35.8% vs. 10.4%, p = 0.003) and were less likely to have class I occlusion (64.7% vs. 80.9%, p = 0.03). Findings from the logistic regression analysis revealed that children with ASD were also 2.13 times more likely to receive a referral for general anesthesia when all other variables were held constant (p = 0.03). Conclusions: This research demonstrates that children diagnosed with ASD may face more barriers with access to oral health care, leading to poorer outcomes and greater treatment dental needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Care in Paediatric Dentistry Volume 2)
Project Report
Streptococcus mutans Proteases Degrade Dentinal Collagen
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120223 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Here, we explored the role of S. mutans’s whole cell and discrete fractions in the degradation of type I collagen and dentinal collagen. Type I collagen gels and human demineralized dentin slabs (DS) were incubated in media alone or with one of [...] Read more.
Here, we explored the role of S. mutans’s whole cell and discrete fractions in the degradation of type I collagen and dentinal collagen. Type I collagen gels and human demineralized dentin slabs (DS) were incubated in media alone or with one of the following: overnight (O/N) or newly inoculated (NEW) cultures of S. mutans UA159; intracellular proteins, supernatant or bacterial membranes of O/N cultures. Media from all groups were analyzed for protease-mediated release of the collagen-specific imino acid hydroxyproline. Images of type I collagen and DS were analyzed, respectively. Type I collagen degradation was highest for the supernatant (p < 0.05) fractions, followed by intracellular components and O/N cultures. Collagen degradation for DS samples was highest for O/N samples, followed by supernatant, and intracellular components (p < 0.05). There was lower detectable degradation for both type I collagen and DS from NEW culture samples (p < 0.05), and there was no type I collagen or DS degradation detected for bacterial membrane samples. Structural changes to type I collagen gel and dentinal collagen were observed, respectively, following incubation with S. mutans cultures (O/N and NEW), intracellular components, and supernatant. This study demonstrates that intracellular and extracellular proteolytic activities from S. mutans enable this cariogenic bacterium to degrade type I and dentinal collagen in a growth-phase dependent manner, potentially contributing to the progression of dental caries. Full article
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Review
Resin Composites in Posterior Teeth: Clinical Performance and Direct Restorative Techniques
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120222 - 27 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Resin composites are the most versatile restorative materials used in dentistry and the first choice for restoring posterior teeth. This article reviews aspects that influence the clinical performance of composite restorations and addresses clinically relevant issues regarding different direct techniques for restoring posterior [...] Read more.
Resin composites are the most versatile restorative materials used in dentistry and the first choice for restoring posterior teeth. This article reviews aspects that influence the clinical performance of composite restorations and addresses clinically relevant issues regarding different direct techniques for restoring posterior teeth that could be performed in varied clinical situations. The article discusses the results of long-term clinical trials with resin composites and the materials available in the market for posterior restorations. The importance of photoactivation is presented, including aspects concerning the improvement of the efficiency of light-curing procedures. With regard to the restorative techniques, the article addresses key elements and occlusion levels for restoring Class I and Class II cavities, in addition to restorative strategies using different shades/opacities of resin composites in incremental techniques, restorations using bulk-fill composites, and shade-matching composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials and Their Clinical Applications II)
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Systematic Review
Effect of Photobiomodulation on Atrophic–Erosive Clinical Forms of Oral Lichen Planus: A Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120221 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Introduction. Oral lichen planus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by various clinical forms of which the atrophic–erosive causes patients the greatest symptomatology. For this reason, there are different treatments that improve the associated signs and symptoms. One of [...] Read more.
Introduction. Oral lichen planus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by various clinical forms of which the atrophic–erosive causes patients the greatest symptomatology. For this reason, there are different treatments that improve the associated signs and symptoms. One of these therapies is photobiomodulation (PBM), which, although new, has a high level of acceptance in dentistry based on evidence. However, there are inconsistent results in its application against lichen planus. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation and its effectiveness as a therapeutic alternative for atrophic–erosive lesions. Material and methods. The databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies investigating the photobiomodulation treatment in atrophic–erosive lesions of oral lichen planus. A total of 294 articles were identified, published between 2017 and 2022, and then evaluated; 7 articles that met all the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Results. The type of laser light source used in PBM was the diode laser (four cases), the Nd–YAG laser at the same wavelength of 1064 nm (two cases) and the He–Ne laser (one case). The minimum and maximum wavelengths used were 630 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Most studies used lesions treated with topical corticosteroids as a control group. The follow-up times of the studies were highly variable. Conclusions. Photobiomodulation is a treatment that competently combats oral lichen planus lesions by improving signs and symptoms, with no known adverse reactions so far, which makes it more beneficial compared to more conventional therapies, such as corticosteroids, for which side effects have been found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photobiomodulation and Its Application in Dentistry)
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Article
Topographical and Ultrastructural Evaluation of Titanium Plates Coated with PLGA, Chitosan, and/or Meropenem: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120220 - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the topographical and ultrastructural architecture of titanium plates coated with polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA), chitosan (CH), and/or meropenem (MEM) with or without Staphylococcus aureus (SA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bacteria. Single-hole segments [...] Read more.
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the topographical and ultrastructural architecture of titanium plates coated with polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA), chitosan (CH), and/or meropenem (MEM) with or without Staphylococcus aureus (SA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bacteria. Single-hole segments of 0.4 mm thick, low-profile titanium plates were spray coated using an airbrush with polymeric carriers (PLGA or CH) loaded with MEM, in addition to the negative control group (uncoated titanium plates). The coated plates and the negative control group were subjected to bacterial biofilms through a cultivation process while being slowly stirred at 20 rpm for 24 h. The samples were fixed and processed for scanning electron microscopic study at 5, 10, and 20 k magnification. The data were statistically analyzed to compare within and between the different materials. Coating titanium plates with PLGA or CH with MEM appeared to enhance bacterial inhibition over uncoated plates, hindering biofilm formation and preventing bacterial proliferation. In the staphylococcus aureus group, the highest bacterial count was observed in the uncoated plates, whereas the lowest count was detected in meropenem-PLGA, followed by PLGA, chitosan, meropenem, and meropenem-chitosan, respectively. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa group with the uncoated plates had the highest bacterial count, whereas the lowest bacterial count was found related to CH, followed by PLGA, MP, MC, and MEM, respectively. Full article
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Review
Effect of Endodontic Irrigating Solutions on Radicular Dentine Structure and Matrix Metalloproteinases—A Comprehensive Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120219 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Irrigating solutions play an important role in the eradication of intracanal microbes and debris dissolution during endodontic treatment. Different combinations of solutions and protocols have been advocated, with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) remaining the most widely [...] Read more.
Irrigating solutions play an important role in the eradication of intracanal microbes and debris dissolution during endodontic treatment. Different combinations of solutions and protocols have been advocated, with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) remaining the most widely used ones by many clinicians. Although these solutions provide efficient inorganic dissolution and antimicrobial capacity, their use has also been reported to cause undesired effects on root dentin composition and mechanical and biomechanical properties, such as microhardness, surface roughness, bond strength, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Several corroborating studies attribute these changes in mechanical properties of dentine to the use of irrigating solutions, and there are limited reports on how the solutions affect the expression of MMPs, which may be a correlating link to understanding the role of these enzymes in dentin collagen and changes in the mechanical properties of dentin. Hence, using the basis of several studies from the literature, the objective is to comprehensively review the influence of individual and combined irrigating solutions on root dentine structure and the activity of the MMPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics and Restorative Sciences)
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Article
Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Parents Regarding Early Childhood Caries Prevention of Preschool Children in Western Region of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120218 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 658
Abstract
The knowledge and beliefs of parents have an impact on their children’s general and oral health. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude, and behavior of parents and identify possible associated factors of early childhood caries (ECC) in the western [...] Read more.
The knowledge and beliefs of parents have an impact on their children’s general and oral health. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude, and behavior of parents and identify possible associated factors of early childhood caries (ECC) in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Parents aged 18 and older were invited to complete a self-administered, validated questionnaire. Questions covered demographics, knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding ECC etiology and prevention. Of the 644 parents who completed the questionnaire, 51.4% were not aware of the early signs of tooth decay, such as white lines. Pain and trauma were reported as the major reasons for a child to visit a dentist (42.4%). Only 37% of parents were aware of the importance of fissure sealant, and only 23% knew how it is applied. Compared with mothers, fathers were significantly less aware of hidden sugar and the relation between the frequency of consuming breast milk or bottled milk and caries development (p = 0.001). Similarly, fathers were more likely to believe that children could achieve effective teeth cleaning without parental assistance (p = 0.001). Preventive guidance should be provided by oral healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia to improve parents’ knowledge of ECC prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Preventive Dentistry)
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