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Inorganics, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 7 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) An unusual tetra-nuclear nickel complex resulted, unexpectedly, from a known and common protocol [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Chemistry of Phosphorene: Synthesis, Functionalization and Biomedical Applications in an Update Review
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040029 - 20 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The present review aims to highlight the potential of an emerging 2D single element material: phosphorene. Attention is focused on the more recent studies on phosphorene, in terms of synthetic approaches, modification aimed at its stabilization, and potential applications in the biomedical field. [...] Read more.
The present review aims to highlight the potential of an emerging 2D single element material: phosphorene. Attention is focused on the more recent studies on phosphorene, in terms of synthetic approaches, modification aimed at its stabilization, and potential applications in the biomedical field. Critical aspects for a practical use of phosphorene are discussed, in order to show a realistic scenario and challenges facing researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Layered Compounds)
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Open AccessReview
Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: An Alternative for Positive Contrast in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040028 - 10 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively utilised as negative (T2) contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In the past few years, researchers have also exploited their application as positive (T1) contrast agents to overcome the limitation of [...] Read more.
Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively utilised as negative (T2) contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In the past few years, researchers have also exploited their application as positive (T1) contrast agents to overcome the limitation of traditional Gd3+ contrast agents. To provide T1 contrast, these particles must present certain physicochemical properties with control over the size, morphology and surface of the particles. In this review, we summarise the reported T1 iron oxide nanoparticles and critically revise their properties, synthetic protocols and application, not only in MRI but also in multimodal imaging. In addition, we briefly summarise the most important nanoparticulate Gd and Mn agents to evaluate whether T1 iron oxide nanoparticles can reach Gd/Mn contrast capabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mixed-Valence Tetra-Nuclear Nickel Dithiolene Complex: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and the Lability of Its Nickel Sulfur Bonds
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040027 - 09 Apr 2020
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Abstract
In this study, by employing a common synthetic protocol, an unusual and unexpected tetra-nuclear nickel dithiolene complex was obtained. The synthesis of the [Ni4(ecpdt)6]2− dianion (ecpdt = (Z)-3-ethoxy-3-oxo-1-phenylprop-1-ene-1,2-bis-thiolate) with two K+ as counter ions was [...] Read more.
In this study, by employing a common synthetic protocol, an unusual and unexpected tetra-nuclear nickel dithiolene complex was obtained. The synthesis of the [Ni4(ecpdt)6]2− dianion (ecpdt = (Z)-3-ethoxy-3-oxo-1-phenylprop-1-ene-1,2-bis-thiolate) with two K+ as counter ions was then intentionally reproduced. The formation of this specific complex is attributed to the distinct dithiolene precursor used and the combination with the then coordinated counter ion in the molecular solid-state structure, as determined by X-ray diffraction. K2[Ni4(ecpdt)6] was further characterized by ESI-MS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and cyclic voltammetry. The tetra-nuclear complex was found to have an uncommon geometry arising from the combination of four nickel centers and six dithiolene ligands. In the center of the arrangement, suspiciously long Ni–S distances were found, suggesting that the tetrameric structure can be easily split into two identical dimeric fragments or two distinct groups of monomeric fragments, for instance, upon dissolving. A proposed variable magnetism in the solid-state and in solution due to the postulated dissociation was confirmed. The Ni–S bonds of the “inner” and “outer” nickel centers differed concurrently with their coordination geometries. This observation also correlates with the fact that the complex bears two anionic charges requiring the four nickel centers to be present in two distinct oxidation states (2 × +2 and 2 × +3), i.e., to be hetero-valent. The different coordination geometries observed, together with the magnetic investigation, allowed the square planar “outer” geometry to be assigned to d8 centers, i.e., Ni2+, while the Ni3+ centers (d7) were in a square pyramidal geometry with longer Ni–S distances due to the increased number of donor atoms and interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Partial Anion Disorder in SrVO2H Induced by Biaxial Tensile Strain
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040026 - 08 Apr 2020
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Abstract
SrVO2H, obtained by a topochemical reaction of SrVO3 perovskite using CaH2, is an anion-ordered phase with hydride anions exclusively at the apical site. In this study, we conducted a CaH2 reduction of SrVO3 thin films epitaxially [...] Read more.
SrVO2H, obtained by a topochemical reaction of SrVO3 perovskite using CaH2, is an anion-ordered phase with hydride anions exclusively at the apical site. In this study, we conducted a CaH2 reduction of SrVO3 thin films epitaxially grown on KTaO3 (KTO) substrates. When reacted at 530 °C for 12 h, we observed an intermediate phase characterized by a smaller tetragonality of c/a = 0.96 (vs. c/a = 0.93 for SrVO2H), while a longer reaction of 24 h resulted in the known phase of SrVO2H. This fact suggests that the intermediate phase is a metastable state stabilized by applying tensile strain from the KTO substrate (1.4%). In addition, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) revealed that the intermediate phase has a hydrogen content close to that of SrVO2H, suggesting a partially disordered anion arrangement. Such kinetic trapping of an intermediate state by biaxial epitaxial strain not only helps to acquire a new state of matter but also advances our understanding of topochemical reaction processes in extended solids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication
A Chiral Bis(salicylaldiminato)zinc(II) Complex with Second-Order Nonlinear Optical and Luminescent Properties in Solution
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040025 - 01 Apr 2020
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Abstract
Whereas there is an increasing amount of reports on the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) and luminescence properties of tetradentate [N2O2] Schiff base–zinc complexes, the study of zinc complexes having two bidentate [NO] Schiff-base ligands is relatively unexplored from an [...] Read more.
Whereas there is an increasing amount of reports on the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) and luminescence properties of tetradentate [N2O2] Schiff base–zinc complexes, the study of zinc complexes having two bidentate [NO] Schiff-base ligands is relatively unexplored from an NLO point of view. This work puts in evidence that the known chiral bis{2-[(R)-(+)-1-phenylethyliminomethyl]phenolato-N,O}zinc(II) complex is a fascinating multifunctional molecular inorganic–organic hybrid material characterized by interesting second-order NLO and luminescent properties in solution. The emissive properties of the organic 2-(R)-(+)-1-phenylethyliminomethyl]phenol proligand are greatly enhanced upon coordination to the inorganic Zn(II) center. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Luminescent Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials with Tailored Magnetic Properties as Adsorbents of Organic Pollutants from Wastewaters
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040024 - 31 Mar 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Water quality has become one of the most critical issue of concern worldwide. The main challenge of the scientific community is to develop innovative and sustainable water treatment technologies with high efficiencies and low production costs. In recent years, the use of nanomaterials [...] Read more.
Water quality has become one of the most critical issue of concern worldwide. The main challenge of the scientific community is to develop innovative and sustainable water treatment technologies with high efficiencies and low production costs. In recent years, the use of nanomaterials with magnetic properties used as adsorbents in the water decontamination process has received considerable attention since they can be easily separated and reused. This review focuses on the state-of-art of magnetic core–shell nanoparticles and nanocomposites developed for the adsorption of organic pollutants from water. Special attention is paid to magnetic nanoadsorbents based on silica, clay composites, carbonaceous materials, polymers and wastes. Furthermore, we compare different synthesis approaches and adsorption performance of every nanomaterials. The data gathered in this review will provide information for the further development of new efficient water treatment technologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photophysical and Biological Properties of Iridium Tetrazolato Complexes Functionalised with Fatty Acid Chains
Inorganics 2020, 8(4), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics8040023 - 26 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Five cyclometalated Ir(III) tetrazolato complexes functionalised with fatty acid chains (octanoic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, and oleic) have been synthesised. The fatty acids were chosen to evaluate the potential effect of the length and degree of unsaturation on the biological properties of the complexes [...] Read more.
Five cyclometalated Ir(III) tetrazolato complexes functionalised with fatty acid chains (octanoic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, and oleic) have been synthesised. The fatty acids were chosen to evaluate the potential effect of the length and degree of unsaturation on the biological properties of the complexes for use as cellular imaging agents. The complexes were analysed in both organic and aqueous media to determine if the presence and nature of the fatty acid chains had a significant effect on their photophysical properties. The complexes display green–yellow emission in dichloromethane solutions with relatively long excited state decays, within the range 360–393 ns, and quantum yields between 5.4% and 6.7% (from degassed solutions). Temperature-dependent photophysical studies suggest that the emitting excited states of the complexes might be quenched by the thermal population of dark states. In water, the quantum yields drop within the range of 0.5%–2.4%, and the photophysical measurements are influenced by the variable degrees of aggregation. In general, the entire series displayed low cytotoxicity and relatively high photostability, which are favourable attributes in the design of cellular imaging agents. Images of live HeLa cells were obtained for all the complexes, but those functionalised with palmitic and stearic acids had limitations due the lower solubility conferred by the saturated aliphatic chains. The complexes were mainly detected within the endoplasmic reticulum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photochemistry & Photophysics of Transition Metal Complexes)
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