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Children, Volume 5, Issue 5 (May 2018) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Since the start of the millennium, there has been an exponential increase in the number of Children on the Move. This wave of stateless refugees, immigrants, asylum seekers, including children and youths, have been uprooted from their homes and forced to flee due to conflict and natural disasters. New twenty-first century strategies are imperative to mitigate and solve this dilemma. The International Society of Social Pediatrics and Child Health’s (ISSOP) Budapest Declaration, a child rights-based framework, provides a vehicle for global pediatric leadership and action. View this paper.
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10 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Efficacy, Safety, and Usability of Remifentanil as Premedication for INSURE in Preterm Neonates
by Hadiyah Y. Audil, Sara Tse, Chad Pezzano, Amy Mitchell-van Steele and Joaquim M. B. Pinheiro
Children 2018, 5(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050063 - 22 May 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3889
Abstract
Background: We previously reported a 67% extubation failure with INSURE (Intubation, Surfactant, Extubation) using morphine as analgosedative premedication. Remifentanil, a rapid- and short-acting narcotic, might be ideal for INSURE, but efficacy and safety data for this indication are limited. Objectives: To [...] Read more.
Background: We previously reported a 67% extubation failure with INSURE (Intubation, Surfactant, Extubation) using morphine as analgosedative premedication. Remifentanil, a rapid- and short-acting narcotic, might be ideal for INSURE, but efficacy and safety data for this indication are limited. Objectives: To assess whether remifentanil premedication increases extubation success rates compared with morphine, and to evaluate remifentanil’s safety and usability in a teaching hospital context. Methods: Retrospective review of remifentanil orders for premedication, at a large teaching hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We compared INSURE failure rates (needing invasive ventilation after INSURE) with prior morphine-associated rates. Additionally, we surveyed NICU staff to identify usability and logistic issues with remifentanil. Results: 73 remifentanil doses were administered to 62 neonates (mean 31.6 ± 3.8 weeks’ gestation). Extubation was successful in 88%, vs. 33% with morphine premedication (p < 0.001). Significant adverse events included chest wall rigidity (4%), one case of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) post-surfactant, naloxone reversal (5%), and notable transient desaturation (34%). Among 137 completed surveys, 57% indicated concerns, including delayed drug availability (median 1.1 h after order), rapid desaturations narrowing intubation timeframes and hindering trainee involvement, and difficulty with bag-mask ventilation after unsuccessful intubation attempts. Accordingly, 33% of ultimate intubators were attending neonatologists, versus 16% trainees. Conclusions: Remifentanil premedication was superior to morphine in allowing successful extubation, despite occasional chest wall rigidity and unfavorable conditions for trainees. We recommend direct supervision and INSURE protocols aimed at ensuring rapid intubation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
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14 pages, 578 KiB  
Article
Development of the Mental Synthesis Evaluation Checklist (MSEC): A Parent-Report Tool for Mental Synthesis Ability Assessment in Children with Language Delay
by Julia Braverman, Rita Dunn and Andrey Vyshedskiy
Children 2018, 5(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050062 - 20 May 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6260
Abstract
Mental synthesis is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images from objects stored in memory. Mental synthesis ability is essential for understanding complex syntax, spatial prepositions, and verb tenses. In typical children, the timeline of mental synthesis acquisition is highly correlated [...] Read more.
Mental synthesis is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images from objects stored in memory. Mental synthesis ability is essential for understanding complex syntax, spatial prepositions, and verb tenses. In typical children, the timeline of mental synthesis acquisition is highly correlated with an increasing vocabulary. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), on the other hand, may learn hundreds of words but never acquire mental synthesis. In these individuals, tests assessing vocabulary comprehension may fail to demonstrate the profound deficit in mental synthesis. We developed a parent-reported Mental Synthesis Evaluation Checklist (MSEC) designed to assess mental synthesis acquisition in ASD children. The psychometric quality of MSEC was tested with 3715 parents of ASD children. Internal reliability of the 20-item MSEC was good (Cronbach’s alpha >0.9). MSEC exhibited adequate test–retest reliability; good construct validity, supported by a positive correlation with the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) Communication subscale; and good known group validity reflected by the difference in MSEC scores for children of different ASD severity levels. The MSEC questionnaire is copyright-free and can be used by researchers as a complimentary subscale for the ATEC evaluation. We hope that the addition of MSEC will make the combined assessment more sensitive to small steps in a child’s development. As MSEC does not rely on productive language, it may be an especially useful tool for assessing the development of nonverbal and minimally verbal children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child Neurology)
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5 pages, 201 KiB  
Opinion
The Rights of Children on the Move and the Budapest Declaration
by Charles Oberg
Children 2018, 5(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050061 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3617
Abstract
It has been estimated that more than 50,000,000 children and youth have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced within their own country. They consist of refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons (IDP), economic migrants, and exploited trafficked children. They are virtually “stateless”, [...] Read more.
It has been estimated that more than 50,000,000 children and youth have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced within their own country. They consist of refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons (IDP), economic migrants, and exploited trafficked children. They are virtually “stateless”, children deprived of the protective structures of state and family that they need and deserve and unrecognized by either their country of origin or the international community. This opinion piece starts with the personal reflections of its author on his recent work in Middle East refugee camps. It then explores the prevalence and demographics of these children and their plight. It examines the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and other international conventions designed to protect them. It also summarizes the International Society of Social Pediatrics and Child Health (ISSOP) Budapest Declaration on the Rights, Health andWell-Being of Children and Youth on the Move as a framework for improved care and vehicle for change. Full article
15 pages, 815 KiB  
Review
Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Evidence from Literature
by Muhammad Asim and Yasir Nawaz
Children 2018, 5(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050060 - 4 May 2018
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 18101
Abstract
Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the [...] Read more.
Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000–2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO) weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan. Full article
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9 pages, 221 KiB  
Article
Hearing Loss in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy
by Amber Khan, Amy Budnick, Dana Barnea, Darren R. Feldman, Kevin C. Oeffinger and Emily S. Tonorezos
Children 2018, 5(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050059 - 4 May 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4549
Abstract
The ototoxic effects of radiotherapy have been poorly characterized. We examined adult survivors of childhood cancer who were treated with radiotherapy, which included the head, before the age of 22 years and between 1952 and 2016. Those who received platinum chemotherapy were excluded. [...] Read more.
The ototoxic effects of radiotherapy have been poorly characterized. We examined adult survivors of childhood cancer who were treated with radiotherapy, which included the head, before the age of 22 years and between 1952 and 2016. Those who received platinum chemotherapy were excluded. Demographic, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes were captured. Audiograms were graded using the Chang and International Society of Paediatric Oncology ototoxicity (SIOP) scales. Among 276 patients with a history of radiation to sites that included the brain, orbit, nasopharynx, and total body irradiation, the median age at treatment was 10.1 years and 59% were male. Of 51 survivors who had post-treatment audiograms, 19 demonstrated severe hearing impairment according to both the Chang and SIOP scales after a median follow-up of 16.6 years. Of those with severe impairment, 10 were using hearing aids. Among the 23 patients with more than one audiogram, five had normal hearing on the first audiogram but hearing loss upon subsequent study. Ototoxic effects of radiotherapy are present in a significant portion of survivors, but impairment may present over time, and our results suggest that many are not being screened. Further, among patients with severe hearing loss, use of hearing aids is not universal. Expansion of access to audiology testing and hearing interventions may be warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology and Hematology)
12 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Family Socioeconomic Status at Birth and Youth Impulsivity at Age 15; Blacks’ Diminished Return
by Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell and Ron Mincy
Children 2018, 5(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050058 - 1 May 2018
Cited by 82 | Viewed by 7715
Abstract
Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. To test the relevance of Minorities’ Diminished Return theory for youth impulsivity, we investigated Black–White differences in the effects of [...] Read more.
Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. To test the relevance of Minorities’ Diminished Return theory for youth impulsivity, we investigated Black–White differences in the effects of family SES at birth on subsequent youth impulsivity at age 15. Data came from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), 1998–2016, a 15-year longitudinal study of urban families from the birth of their children to age 15. This analysis included 1931 families who were either White (n = 495) or Black (n = 1436). The independent variables of this study were family income, maternal education, and family structure at birth. Youth impulsivity at age 15 was the dependent variable. Gender was the covariate and race was the focal moderator. We ran linear regressions in the overall sample and specific to each race. In the overall sample, higher household income (b = −0.01, 95% CI = −0.01 to 0.00) and maternal education (b = −0.24, 95% CI = −0.44 to −0.04) at birth were associated with lower youth impulsivity at age 15, independent of race, gender, and family structure. A significant interaction was found between race and household income at birth (b = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.02) on subsequent youth impulsivity, which was indicative of a stronger protective effect for Whites compared to Blacks. Blacks’ diminished return exists for the long-term protective effects of family income at birth against subsequent youth impulsivity. The relative disadvantage of Blacks in comparison to Whites is in line with a growing literature showing that Black families gain less from high SES, which is possibly due to the existing structural racism in the US. Full article
3 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Anti-Epileptic Drug Toxicity in Children
by Imti Choonara
Children 2018, 5(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050057 - 1 May 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4691
Abstract
Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have had a major impact on children, improving their quality of life and significantly reducing both morbidity and mortality. They are, however, associated with significant toxicity. Behavioural problems and somnolence are the most frequent adverse drug reactions for many AEDs. [...] Read more.
Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have had a major impact on children, improving their quality of life and significantly reducing both morbidity and mortality. They are, however, associated with significant toxicity. Behavioural problems and somnolence are the most frequent adverse drug reactions for many AEDs. Unfortunately, the comparative risk of drug toxicity for different AEDs has been inadequately studied. Drug toxicity is poorly reported in randomised controlled trials. Prospective cohort studies are the best way to study drug toxicity. There have been a few prospective cohort studies of children with epilepsy, but the numbers of children have been small. Systemic reviews of the toxicity of individual AEDs have been helpful in identifying the risk of drug toxicity. Parents of children with epilepsy and the children and young people who are due to receive AED treatment have the right to know the likelihood of them experiencing drug toxicity. Unfortunately, the evidence base on which health professionals can provide such information is limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5th Anniversary Issue)
16 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Questionnaire on Breastfeeding Intentions, Attitudes and Knowledge of a Sample of Croatian Secondary-School Students
by Marija Čatipović, Martina Marković and Josip Grgurić
Children 2018, 5(5), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050056 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5339
Abstract
Background: Validating a questionnaire/instrument before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. Methods: An 18-item breastfeeding intention, 39-item attitude and 44-item knowledge questionnaire was validated in a Croatian sample of secondary-school students (N = 277). Results: For the intentions, principal [...] Read more.
Background: Validating a questionnaire/instrument before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. Methods: An 18-item breastfeeding intention, 39-item attitude and 44-item knowledge questionnaire was validated in a Croatian sample of secondary-school students (N = 277). Results: For the intentions, principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a four-factor solution with 8 items explaining 68.3% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0.71) indicated satisfactory internal consistency. For the attitudes, PCA showed a seven-factor structure with 33 items explaining 58.41% of total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0.87) indicated good internal consistency. There were 13 knowledge questions that were retained after item analysis, showing good internal consistency (KR20 = 0.83). In terms of criterion validity, the questionnaire differentiated between students who received breastfeeding education compared to students who were not educated in breastfeeding. Correlations between intentions and attitudes (r = 0.49), intentions and knowledge (r = 0.29), and attitudes and knowledge (r = 0.38) confirmed concurrent validity. Conclusions: The final instrument is reliable and valid for data collection on breastfeeding. Therefore, the instrument is recommended for evaluation of breastfeeding education programs aimed at upper-grade elementary and secondary school students. Full article
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6 pages, 176 KiB  
Case Report
From Inpatient to Clinic to Home to Hospice and Back: Using the “Pop Up” Pediatric Palliative Model of Care
by Martha F. Mherekumombe
Children 2018, 5(5), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5050055 - 26 Apr 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4076
Abstract
Children and young people with life-limiting illnesses who need palliative care often have complex diverse medical conditions that may involve multiple hospital presentations, medical admissions, care, or transfer to other medical care facilities. In order to provide patients with holistic care in any [...] Read more.
Children and young people with life-limiting illnesses who need palliative care often have complex diverse medical conditions that may involve multiple hospital presentations, medical admissions, care, or transfer to other medical care facilities. In order to provide patients with holistic care in any location, palliative care clinicians need to carefully consider the ways to maintain continuity of care which enhances the child’s quality of life. An emerging model of care known as “Pop Up” describes the approaches to supporting children and young people in any facility. A Pop Up is a specific intervention over and above the care that is provided to a child, young person and their family aimed at improving the confidence of local care providers to deliver ongoing care. This paper looks at some of the factors related to care transfer for pediatric palliative patients from one care facility to another, home and the impact of this on the family and medical care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Palliative Care)
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