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Biomedicines, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessReview
The Glucosinolates: A Sulphur Glucoside Family of Mustard Anti-Tumour and Antimicrobial Phytochemicals of Potential Therapeutic Application
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030062
Received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 17 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
This study reviewed aspects of the biology of two members of the glucosinolate family, namely sinigrin and glucoraphanin and their anti-tumour and antimicrobial properties. Sinigrin and glucoraphanin are converted by the β-sulphoglucosidase myrosinase or the gut microbiota into their bioactive forms, allyl isothiocyanate [...] Read more.
This study reviewed aspects of the biology of two members of the glucosinolate family, namely sinigrin and glucoraphanin and their anti-tumour and antimicrobial properties. Sinigrin and glucoraphanin are converted by the β-sulphoglucosidase myrosinase or the gut microbiota into their bioactive forms, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and sulphoraphanin (SFN) which constitute part of a sophisticated defence system plants developed over several hundred million years of evolution to protect them from parasitic attack from aphids, ticks, bacteria or nematodes. Delivery of these components from consumption of cruciferous vegetables rich in the glucosinolates also delivers many other members of the glucosinolate family so the dietary AITCs and SFN do not act in isolation. In vitro experiments with purified AITC and SFN have demonstrated their therapeutic utility as antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. AITC and SFN are as potent as Vancomycin in the treatment of bacteria listed by the World Health Organisation as antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens” and also act as anti-cancer agents through the induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes which inactivate potential carcinogens. Glucosinolates may be useful in the treatment of biofilms formed on medical implants and catheters by problematic pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and are potent antimicrobials against a range of clinically important bacteria and fungi. The glucosinolates have also been applied in the prevention of bacterial and fungal spoilage of food products in advanced atmospheric packaging technology which improves the shelf-life of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Compounds in Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview
Perspective on Adenoviruses: Epidemiology, Pathogenicity, and Gene Therapy
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030061
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Human adenoviruses are large (150 MDa) doubled-stranded DNA viruses that cause respiratory infections. These viruses are particularly pathogenic in healthy and immune-compromised individuals, and currently, no adenovirus vaccine is available for the general public. The purpose of this review is to describe (i) [...] Read more.
Human adenoviruses are large (150 MDa) doubled-stranded DNA viruses that cause respiratory infections. These viruses are particularly pathogenic in healthy and immune-compromised individuals, and currently, no adenovirus vaccine is available for the general public. The purpose of this review is to describe (i) the epidemiology and pathogenicity of human adenoviruses, (ii) the biological role of adenovirus vectors in gene therapy applications, and (iii) the potential role of exosomes in adenoviral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviruses: From Virus to Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
A Classic Herbal Formula Guizhi Fuling Wan for Menopausal Hot Flushes: From Experimental Findings to Clinical Applications
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030060
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract
A classic herbal formula Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) has been used for managing menopausal hot flushes (MHFs), but the evidence across different study types has not been systematically summarized. This project investigated the clinical effects, phytochemistry, pharmacodynamics, and potential mechanisms of actions of [...] Read more.
A classic herbal formula Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) has been used for managing menopausal hot flushes (MHFs), but the evidence across different study types has not been systematically summarized. This project investigated the clinical effects, phytochemistry, pharmacodynamics, and potential mechanisms of actions of GFW on the causative target proteins potentially driving MHFs. Twenty English and Chinese databases were searched for relevant clinical and experimental studies. A total of 12,988 studies were identified, of which 46 were included. Seven clinical studies demonstrated GFW had no statistically significant changes in the frequency and severity of MHFs; however, it could improve peripheral blood flow in the fingertips, jaw, and toes. Thirty-five studies on phytochemistry identified 169 chemical compounds of GFW. Four experimental studies revealed GFW’s therapeutic effects (e.g., normalize calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) level) and potential target protein/cytokine (estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) with genetic variation, CGRP receptor, and interleukin-8) on MHFs. Therapeutic effects across different study types were inconsistent, possibly due to the dose difference and genotype variety of ESR2 in the human population. Further clinical and experimental studies, as well as biochemical investigation on the mechanisms of actions of GFW, are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Compounds in Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Vindoline—A Natural Product from Catharanthus Roseus Reduces Hyperlipidemia and Renal Pathophysiology in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030059 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and kidney diseases in diabetes are linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vindoline derived from Catharanthus roseus in diabetes-induced CVDs and kidney disease through assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and kidney diseases in diabetes are linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vindoline derived from Catharanthus roseus in diabetes-induced CVDs and kidney disease through assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and kidney function parameters. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by 10% fructose water intake for two weeks, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ). Six groups (n = 8) of randomly divided rats received vindoline (20 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) daily for 6 weeks via oral gavage. Lipid profile markers and markers of atherogenic index were decreased in diabetic rats after treatment with vindoline and glibenclamide. The levels of urea were significantly increased in the diabetic control group (13.66 ± 0.9) compared to the diabetic groups treated with vindoline and glibenclamide (10.62 ± 0.6 and 10.82 ± 0.8), respectively. Vindoline did not significantly alter the levels of inflammatory cytokines; however glibenclamide lowered the levels of TNF-α in kidney and heart tissues. Vindoline improved the ferric reducing antioxidant power in diabetic hearts, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) oxygen radical absorbance capacity was increased in the kidneys. Lipid peroxidation was reduced when compared to the diabetic controls. Vindoline restored the structure of the renal parenchyma and was accompanied by significant decrease in the expression of caspase 9 in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Compounds in Biomedicine)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Signaling in Gastrointestinal Cancers
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030058
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
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Abstract
In the tumor microenvironment, various stromal and immune cells accumulate and interact with cancer cells to contribute to tumor progression. Among stromal players, nerves have recently been recognized as key regulators of tumor growth. More neurotransmitters, such as catecholamines and acetylcholine (ACh), are [...] Read more.
In the tumor microenvironment, various stromal and immune cells accumulate and interact with cancer cells to contribute to tumor progression. Among stromal players, nerves have recently been recognized as key regulators of tumor growth. More neurotransmitters, such as catecholamines and acetylcholine (ACh), are present in tumors, as the cells that secrete neurotransmitters accumulate by the release of neurotrophic factors from cancer cells. In this short review, we focus on the role of nerve signaling in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Given that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor signaling seems to be a dominant regulator of GI stem cells and cancers, we review the function and mechanism of the muscarinic ACh pathway as a regulator of GI cancer progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that ACh, which is secreted from nerves and tuft cells, stimulates GI epithelial stem cells and contributes to cancer progression via muscarinic receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastric Cancer Research: From Basic Science to the Clinic)
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Open AccessArticle
Olfactory Stimulation Effect of Aldehydes, Nonanal, and Decanal on the Human Electroencephalographic Activity, According to Nostril Variation
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030057
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
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Abstract
Fragrances play a pivotal role in humans’ psychological and physiological functions through the olfactory system. Aldehydes are important organic compounds with a variety of fragrance notes. Particularly, nonanal (C9) and decanal (C10) aldehydes are important natural fragrant components used to enhance floral, as [...] Read more.
Fragrances play a pivotal role in humans’ psychological and physiological functions through the olfactory system. Aldehydes are important organic compounds with a variety of fragrance notes. Particularly, nonanal (C9) and decanal (C10) aldehydes are important natural fragrant components used to enhance floral, as well as citrus notes in perfumery products. In general, each nostril of the human nose is tuned to smell certain odor molecules better than others due to slight turbinate swelling between the nostrils. Hence, the objective of the present investigation was aimed to evaluate the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations of C9 and C10 aldehydes on human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Twenty healthy participants (10 males and 10 females) participated in this study. The EEG readings were recorded from 8 electrodes (QEEG-8 system) according to the International 10-20 System. The results revealed that C10 exposure exhibited significantly different EEG changes, during binasal and uninasal inhalations. In different brain regions, C10 odor markedly decreased the absolute alpha and absolute beta power spectra. In regards to C9 odor, significant changes of EEG power spectra were noticed only during binasal inhalation. In addition, C10 mainly produced changes at the left parietal site (P3) than other brain sites. In conclusion, the variations in EEG activities of C9 and C10 aldehydes might be owing to their characteristic fragrance quality, as well as the influence of nostril differences. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030056
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
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Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that results in varying degrees of disability. Progressive multiple sclerosis, characterized by a steady increase in neurological disability independently of relapses, can occur from onset (primary progressive) or after a relapsing–remitting [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that results in varying degrees of disability. Progressive multiple sclerosis, characterized by a steady increase in neurological disability independently of relapses, can occur from onset (primary progressive) or after a relapsing–remitting course (secondary progressive). As opposed to active inflammation seen in the relapsing–remitting phases of the disease, the gradual worsening of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis results from complex immune mechanisms and neurodegeneration. A few anti-inflammatory disease-modifying therapies with a modest but significant effect on measures of disease progression have been approved for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis. The treatment effect of anti-inflammatory agents is particularly observed in the subgroup of patients with younger age and evidence of disease activity. For this reason, a significant effort is underway to develop molecules with the potential to induce myelin repair or halt the degenerative process. Appropriate trial methodology and the development of clinically meaningful disability outcome measures along with imaging and biological biomarkers of progression have a significant impact on the ability to measure the efficacy of potential medications that may reverse disease progression. In this issue, we will review current evidence on the physiopathology, diagnosis, measurement of disability, and treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
A Mini-Review: Clinical Development and Potential of Aptamers for Thrombotic Events Treatment and Monitoring
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030055
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 21 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
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Abstract
The unique opportunity for aptamer uses in thrombotic events has sparked a considerable amount of research in the area. The short half-lives of unmodified aptamers in vivo remain one of the major challenges in therapeutic aptamers. Much of the incremental successful therapeutic aptamer [...] Read more.
The unique opportunity for aptamer uses in thrombotic events has sparked a considerable amount of research in the area. The short half-lives of unmodified aptamers in vivo remain one of the major challenges in therapeutic aptamers. Much of the incremental successful therapeutic aptamer stories were due to modifications in the aptamer bases. This mini-review briefly summarizes the successes and challenges in the clinical development of aptamers for thrombotic events, and highlights some of the most recent developments in using aptamers for anticoagulation monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Aptamers for Biomedical Applications II)
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Open AccessReview
Management of Bleeding from Unresectable Gastric Cancer
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030054
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
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Abstract
Bleeding from unresectable gastric cancer (URGC) is not a rare complication. Two major ways in which the management of this issue differs from the management of benign lesions are the high rate of rebleeding after successful hemostasis and that not only endoscopic therapy [...] Read more.
Bleeding from unresectable gastric cancer (URGC) is not a rare complication. Two major ways in which the management of this issue differs from the management of benign lesions are the high rate of rebleeding after successful hemostasis and that not only endoscopic therapy (ET) and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) but palliative radiotherapy (PRT) can be applied in the clinical setting. However, there are no specific guidelines concerning the management of URGC with bleeding. We herein discuss strategies for managing bleeding from URGC. A high rate of initial hemostasis for active bleeding is expected when using various ET modalities properly. If ET fails in patients with hemostatic instability, emergent TAE is considered in order to avoid a life-threating condition due to massive bleeding. Early PRT, especially, regimens with a high biologically effective dose (BED) of ≥39 Gy should be considered not only for patients with hemostatic failure but also for those with successful hemostasis and inactive hemorrhage, as longer duration of response with few complications can be expected. Further prospective, comparative studies considering not only the hemostatic efficacy of these modalities but the patients’ quality of life are needed in order to establish treatment strategies for bleeding from URGC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastric Cancer Research: From Basic Science to the Clinic)
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Open AccessReview
A Brief Overview of the Antitumoral Actions of Leelamine
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030053
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
For the last couple of decades, natural products, either applied singly or in conjunction with other cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have allowed us to combat different types of human cancers through the inhibition of their initiation and progression. The principal sources [...] Read more.
For the last couple of decades, natural products, either applied singly or in conjunction with other cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have allowed us to combat different types of human cancers through the inhibition of their initiation and progression. The principal sources of these useful compounds are isolated from plants that were described in traditional medicines for their curative potential. Leelamine, derived from the bark of pine trees, was previously reported as having a weak agonistic effect on cannabinoid receptors and limited inhibitory effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). It has been reported to possess a strong lysosomotropic property; this feature enables its assembly inside the acidic compartments within a cell, such as lysosomes, which may eventually hinder endocytosis. In this review, we briefly highlight the varied antineoplastic actions of leelamine that have found implications in pharmacological research, and the numerous intracellular targets affected by this agent that can effectively negate the oncogenic process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Compounds in Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Roles of Dendritic Cells in Expanding CD4 T Cells in Sepsis
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030052
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Sepsis is a systemically dysregulated inflammatory syndrome, in which dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in coordinating aberrant immunity. The aim of this study is to shed light on the differential roles played by systemic versus mucosal DCs in regulating immune responses [...] Read more.
Sepsis is a systemically dysregulated inflammatory syndrome, in which dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in coordinating aberrant immunity. The aim of this study is to shed light on the differential roles played by systemic versus mucosal DCs in regulating immune responses in sepsis. We identified a differential impact of the systemic and mucosal DCs on proliferating allogenic CD4 T cells in a mouse model of sepsis. Despite the fact that the frequency of CD4 T cells was reduced in septic mice, septic mesenteric lymph node (MLN) DCs proved superior to septic spleen (SP) DCs in expanding allogeneic CD4 T cells. Moreover, septic MLN DCs markedly augmented the surface expression of MHC class II and CD40, as well as the messaging of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Interestingly, IL-1β-treated CD4 T cells expanded in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that this cytokine acts as a key mediator of MLN DCs in promoting septic inflammation. Thus, mucosal and systemic DCs were found to be functionally different in the way CD4 T cells respond during sepsis. Our study provides a molecular basis for DC activity, which can be differential in nature depending on location, whereby it induces septic inflammation or immune-paralysis. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Biofunctional Textiles for Aging Skin
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030051
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
The skin is the largest organ in the human body, acting as the first protective barrier against the external environment aggression, such as UV rays and atmospheric nanoparticulate pollutants. On the one hand, the skin employs different antioxidant agents to protect its natural [...] Read more.
The skin is the largest organ in the human body, acting as the first protective barrier against the external environment aggression, such as UV rays and atmospheric nanoparticulate pollutants. On the one hand, the skin employs different antioxidant agents to protect its natural oxidative balance. On the other hand, ageing phenomena are the main cause of skin barrier damages, leading to a disequilibrium in the physiological redox system. Thus, the necessity to find new innovative cosmetic means, such as biodegradable non-woven tissues able to load, carry and release active ingredients in the right skin layers. These innovative cosmetic tissues can not only protect the skin from toxic environmental agents, but may balance the natural skin barrier, also acting as anti-aging agents when their fibers are bound to the right ingredients. The proposed tissues, consisting of polysaccharide natural fibers made of chitin nanofibrils and nanochitin, seem to be an ideal candidate for the production of new and effective biofunctional textiles, also because they are able to mimic the skin’s extra cellular matrix (ECM) when electrospun. These innovative cosmeceuticals have shown the possibility of being used for food formulations as well as for topic anti-aging agents, having shown an interesting repairing effectiveness on skin and also on hair. Thus, they could be used both as active ingredient and as skin smart active carriers in substitution of normal emulsions, being also biodegradable, free of chemicals, and obtainable from waste material. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Function of Lgr5+ Cells in the Gastric Antrum Does Not Require Fzd7 or Myc In Vivo
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030050
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The extreme chemical and mechanical forces endured by the gastrointestinal tract drive a constant renewal of the epithelial lining. Stem cells of the intestine and stomach, marked by the cell surface receptor Lgr5, preserve the cellular status-quo of their respective tissues through [...] Read more.
The extreme chemical and mechanical forces endured by the gastrointestinal tract drive a constant renewal of the epithelial lining. Stem cells of the intestine and stomach, marked by the cell surface receptor Lgr5, preserve the cellular status-quo of their respective tissues through receipt and integration of multiple cues from the surrounding niche. Wnt signalling is a critical niche component for gastrointestinal stem cells and we have previously shown that the Wnt receptor, Frizzled-7 (Fzd7), is required for gastric homeostasis and the function of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells. Additionally, we have previously shown a requirement for the Wnt target gene Myc in intestinal homeostasis, regeneration and tumourigenesis. However, it is unknown whether Fzd7 or Myc have conserved functions in gastric Lgr5+ stem cells. Here we show that gastric Lgr5+ stem cells do not require Fzd7 or Myc and are able to maintain epithelial homeostasis, highlighting key differences in the way Wnt regulates homeostasis and Lgr5+ stem cells in the stomach compared to the intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, deletion of Myc throughout the epithelium of the gastric antrum has no deleterious effects suggesting therapeutic targeting of Myc in gastric cancer patients will be well tolerated by the surrounding normal tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastric Cancer Research: From Basic Science to the Clinic)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Biological Examination of Two Glatiramer Acetate Products
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030049
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
Herein we compared 40 mg/mL lots of the active ingredient, glatiramer acetate, manufactured by Mylan/Natco to the active ingredient, glatiramer acetate in Copaxone (Teva Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., Netanya Israel) using physicochemical (PCC) methods and biological assays. No differences were seen between the Mylan/Natco and [...] Read more.
Herein we compared 40 mg/mL lots of the active ingredient, glatiramer acetate, manufactured by Mylan/Natco to the active ingredient, glatiramer acetate in Copaxone (Teva Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., Netanya Israel) using physicochemical (PCC) methods and biological assays. No differences were seen between the Mylan/Natco and Teva lots with some low resolution release PCC assays (amino acid analysis, molecular weight distribution, interaction with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250). Changes in polydispersity between Mylan/Natco and Copaxone lots were found using size exclusion chromatography and the high resolution PCC method, known as Viscotek, and suggestive of a disparity in the homogeneity of mixture, with a shift towards high molecular weight polypeptides. Using RPLC-2D MALLS, 5 out of 8 Mylan/Natco lots fell outside the Copaxone range, containing a high molecular weight and high hydrophobicity subpopulation of polypeptides not found in Copaxone lots. Cation exchange chromatography showed differences in the surface charge distribution between the Copaxone and Mylan/Natco lots. The Mylan/Natco lots were found to be within Copaxone specifications for the EAE model, monoclonal and polyclonal binding assays and the in vitro cytotoxicity assay, however higher IL-2 secretion was shown for three Mylan/Natco lots in a potency assay. These observations provide data to inform the ongoing scientific discussion about the comparability of glatiramer acetate in Copaxone and follow-on products. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Zimmermann-Laband-1 Syndrome: Clinical, Histological, and Proteomic Findings of a 3-Year-Old Patient with Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030048
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Zimmermann-Laband-1 syndrome (ZLS-1; OMIM# 135500) is a rare genetic disorder whose oral pathognomonic sign is the development of progressive, diffuse, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Most children with abnormally gingival hyperplasia may also present multiple unerupted teeth and skeletal deformities of maxillary arches [...] Read more.
Background: Zimmermann-Laband-1 syndrome (ZLS-1; OMIM# 135500) is a rare genetic disorder whose oral pathognomonic sign is the development of progressive, diffuse, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Most children with abnormally gingival hyperplasia may also present multiple unerupted teeth and skeletal deformities of maxillary arches (i.e., skeletal anterior open bite). Despite phenotypic variability of the clinical spectrum, gingival fibromatosis is the hallmark of ZLS-1. Method: In this study, we report a 3-year-old male patient with a ZLS-1-related gingival overgrowth and failure of eruption of the deciduous teeth in the molar area. Surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Results: At three weeks follow-up, esthetics was significantly improved in terms of gingival appearance, and teeth eruption allowed an adequate masticatory function. Conclusion: In severe cases, surgical removal of the hyperplasic fibrous tissue may be required to expose unerupted teeth and establish a proper gingival contour. Surgical excision under general anesthesia is an elective procedure for patients with special needs, mental disability, as well as young and adult patients with dental anxiety type II and IV associated with poor oral health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Evaluation of Endotoxin Activity Level and Various Biomarkers for Infection and Outcome of ICU-Admitted Patients
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030047
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract
Here, we concurrently measured the endotoxin activity (EA) level and levels of multiple biomarkers in patient blood obtained within 24 h after being admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU) and analyzed whether there were links between these markers and their associations with [...] Read more.
Here, we concurrently measured the endotoxin activity (EA) level and levels of multiple biomarkers in patient blood obtained within 24 h after being admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU) and analyzed whether there were links between these markers and their associations with patient conditions and outcomes. The EA levels highly correlated with disease severity and patient survival, and showed a significant positive association with levels of lactate, procalcitonin, presepsin, and interleukin-6. Notably, the EA level was the marker that most highly correlated with the results of blood culture, and the presepsin level was the marker most highly correlated with the survival outcome at 28 days. Thus, the optimal biomarker should be selected based on whether it will be used to discriminate the presence of an infection or to predict survival. Full article
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