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A Brief Review about the Role of Nanomaterials, Mineral-Organic Nanoparticles, and Extra-Bone Calcification in Promoting Carcinogenesis and Tumor Progression
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Breaking Therapy Resistance: An Update on Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Improvements of Cancer Therapy

Immune-Oncological Center Cologne (IOZK), D-50674 Cologne, Germany
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Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030066
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 23 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy)
Resistance to therapy is a major obstacle to cancer treatment. It may exist from the beginning, or it may develop during therapy. The review focusses on oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a biological agent with potential to break therapy resistance. This avian virus combines, upon inoculation into non-permissive hosts such as human, 12 described anti-neoplastic effects with 11 described immune stimulatory properties. Fifty years of clinical application of NDV give witness to the high safety profile of this biological agent. In 2015, an important milestone was achieved, namely the successful production of NDV according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Based on this, IOZK in Cologne, Germany, obtained a GMP certificate for the production of a dendritic cell vaccine loaded with tumor antigens from a lysate of patient-derived tumor cells together with immunological danger signals from NDV for intracutaneous application. This update includes single case reports and retrospective analyses from patients treated at IOZK. The review also presents future perspectives, including the concept of in situ vaccination and the combination of NDV or other oncolytic viruses with checkpoint inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: NDV; viral oncolysis; immunogenic cell death; type I interferon; dendritic cells; active-specific immunotherapy; bispecific antibodies; gene therapy; checkpoint inhibition; T cell costimulation; RIG-I; IFNAR NDV; viral oncolysis; immunogenic cell death; type I interferon; dendritic cells; active-specific immunotherapy; bispecific antibodies; gene therapy; checkpoint inhibition; T cell costimulation; RIG-I; IFNAR
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Schirrmacher, V.; van Gool, S.; Stuecker, W. Breaking Therapy Resistance: An Update on Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Improvements of Cancer Therapy. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 66.

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