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Healthcare, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 860-1283

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Open AccessArticle
Psychosocial Impact of Epilepsy in Older Adults
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1271-1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041271 - 18 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the quality of life of older adults with seizures or epilepsy and compare its psychosocial impact between those who were new diagnosed and those diagnosed before the age of 65. Methods: In-depth [...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the quality of life of older adults with seizures or epilepsy and compare its psychosocial impact between those who were new diagnosed and those diagnosed before the age of 65. Methods: In-depth face to face interviews with open ended questions were conducted with two participant groups: Incident group: 42 older adults (>65 years) with new onset or newly diagnosed after age of 65; and Prevalent group: 15 older adults (>65 years) diagnosed before age of 65. Interviews were reviewed and coded using a list of themes and results were compared between the two groups. Eight topics were selected from the participants’ responses to questions about the psychosocial impact of epilepsy and seizures. The topics were then analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The topics analyzed were: Emotional and physical impact, significant life changes, co-morbidities, information gathering, stigma, AED side effects, changes in relationships and attitude toward diagnosis. Conclusion: We concluded that the age at onset and duration does seem to have a negative correlation with health related quality of life. However, the perceived health status of older adults with chronic epilepsy was significantly better and reflected in their more positive approach to the diagnosis of seizures or epilepsy probably because they have had a longer opportunity to learn to cope with their diagnosis. Full article
Open AccessReview
Sleep and Cognition in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Review of Literature
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1243-1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041243 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Changes in sleep and cognition occur with advancing age. While both may occur independently of each other, it is possible that alterations in sleep parameters may increase the risk of age-related cognitive changes. This review aimed to understand the relationship between sleep parameters [...] Read more.
Changes in sleep and cognition occur with advancing age. While both may occur independently of each other, it is possible that alterations in sleep parameters may increase the risk of age-related cognitive changes. This review aimed to understand the relationship between sleep parameters (sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep duration, general sleep complaints) and cognition in community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older without sleep disorders. Systematic, computer-aided searches were conducted using multiple sleep and cognition-related search terms in PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Twenty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest an inconsistent relationship between sleep parameters and cognition in older adults and modifiers such as depressive symptoms, undiagnosed sleep apnea and other medical conditions may influence their association. Measures of sleep and cognition were heterogeneous. Future studies should aim to further clarify the association between sleep parameters and cognitive domains by simultaneously using both objective and subjective measures of sleep parameters. Identifying which sleep parameters to target may lead to the development of novel targets for interventions and reduce the risk of cognitive changes with aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
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Open AccessArticle
A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1228-1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041228 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, [...] Read more.
In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology in Healthcare Settings)
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Open AccessReview
Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1212-1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041212 - 26 Nov 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in [...] Read more.
Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Mothers of Children with Food Allergy: A Case Series
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1194-1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041194 - 25 Nov 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine [...] Read more.
Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriateness and effectiveness of CBT to improve psychological outcomes in parents of children with food allergy. Methods: Five parents (all mothers) from a local allergy clinic requested to have CBT; six mothers acted as controls and completed questionnaires only. CBT was individual and face-to face and lasted 12 weeks. All participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, worry, stress, general mental health, generic and food allergy specific quality of life at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Anxiety, depression and worry in the CBT group significantly reduced and overall mental health and QoL significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks (all p < 0.05) in mothers in the CBT group; control group scores remained stable. Conclusions: CBT appears to be appropriate and effective in mothers of children with food allergy and a larger randomised control trial now needs to be conducted. Ways in which aspects of CBT can be incorporated into allergy clinic visits need investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology in Healthcare Settings)
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Open AccessReview
Spirituality in Renal Supportive Care: A Thematic Review
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1174-1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041174 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease is marked by a reduced life expectancy and a high symptom burden. For those who reach end-stage renal disease, the prognosis is poor, and this combined with the growing prevalence of the disease necessitates supportive and palliative care programmes that [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease is marked by a reduced life expectancy and a high symptom burden. For those who reach end-stage renal disease, the prognosis is poor, and this combined with the growing prevalence of the disease necessitates supportive and palliative care programmes that will address people’s psychosocial, cultural and spiritual needs. While there is variation between countries, research reveals that many renal specialist nurses and doctors are reluctant to address spirituality, initiate end-of-life conversations or implement conservative treatment plans early. Yet, other studies indicate that the provision of palliative care services, which includes the spiritual dimension, can reduce symptom burden, assist patients in making advanced directives/plans and improve health-related quality of life. This review brings together the current literature related to renal supportive care and spirituality under the following sections and themes. The introduction and background sections situate spirituality in both healthcare generally and chronic kidney disease. Gaps in the provision of chronic kidney disease spiritual care are then considered, followed by a discussion of the palliative care model related to chronic kidney disease and spirituality. Chronic kidney disease spiritual needs and care approaches are discussed with reference to advanced care planning, hope, grief and relationships. A particular focus on quality of life is developed, with spirituality named as a key dimension. Finally, further challenges, such as culture, training and limitations, are explicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive and Palliative Care in Renal Disease)
Open AccessConcept Paper
The Application of Informatics in Delineating the Proof of Concept for Creating Knowledge of the Value Added by Interprofessional Practice and Education
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1158-1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041158 - 12 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
The resurgence of interest in the promise of interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) to positively impact health outcomes, requires the collection of appropriate data that can be analyzed and from which information and knowledge linking IPECP interventions to improved health outcomes might [...] Read more.
The resurgence of interest in the promise of interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) to positively impact health outcomes, requires the collection of appropriate data that can be analyzed and from which information and knowledge linking IPECP interventions to improved health outcomes might be produced and reported to stakeholders such as health systems, policy makers and regulators, payers, and accreditation agencies. To generate such knowledge the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota has developed three strategies, the first two of which are: (1) creating an IPECP research agenda, and (2) a national Nexus Innovation Network (NIN) of intervention projects that are generating data that are being input and housed in a National Center Data Repository (NCDR). In this paper, the informatics platform supporting the work of these first two strategies is presented as the third interconnected strategy for knowledge generation. The proof of concept for the informatics strategy is developed in this paper by describing: data input from the NIN into the NCDR, the linking and merging of those data to produce analyzable data files that incorporate institutional and individual level data, and the production of meaningful analyses to create and provide relevant information and knowledge. This paper is organized around the concepts of data, information and knowledge—the three conceptual foundations of informatics. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Showing Value in Newborn Screening: Challenges in Quantifying the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Early Detection of Phenylketonuria and Cystic Fibrosis
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1133-1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041133 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Decision makers sometimes request information on the cost savings, cost-effectiveness, or cost-benefit of public health programs. In practice, quantifying the health and economic benefits of population-level screening programs such as newborn screening (NBS) is challenging. It requires that one specify the frequencies of [...] Read more.
Decision makers sometimes request information on the cost savings, cost-effectiveness, or cost-benefit of public health programs. In practice, quantifying the health and economic benefits of population-level screening programs such as newborn screening (NBS) is challenging. It requires that one specify the frequencies of health outcomes and events, such as hospitalizations, for a cohort of children with a given condition under two different scenarios—with or without NBS. Such analyses also assume that everything else, including treatments, is the same between groups. Lack of comparable data for representative screened and unscreened cohorts that are exposed to the same treatments following diagnosis can result in either under- or over-statement of differences. Accordingly, the benefits of early detection may be understated or overstated. This paper illustrates these common problems through a review of past economic evaluations of screening for two historically significant conditions, phenylketonuria and cystic fibrosis. In both examples qualitative judgments about the value of prompt identification and early treatment to an affected child were more influential than specific numerical estimates of lives or costs saved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
Open AccessOpinion
The Concept of Missing Incidents in Persons with Dementia
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1121-1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041121 - 10 Nov 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Behavioral symptoms of dementia often present the greatest challenge for informal caregivers. One behavior, that is a constant concern for caregivers, is the person with dementia leaving a designated area such that their whereabouts become unknown to the caregiver or a missing incident. [...] Read more.
Behavioral symptoms of dementia often present the greatest challenge for informal caregivers. One behavior, that is a constant concern for caregivers, is the person with dementia leaving a designated area such that their whereabouts become unknown to the caregiver or a missing incident. Based on an extensive literature review and published findings of their own research, members of the International Consortium on Wandering and Missing Incidents constructed a preliminary missing incidents model. Examining the evidence base, specific factors within each category of the model were further described, reviewed and modified until consensus was reached regarding the final model. The model begins to explain in particular the variety of antecedents that are related to missing incidents. The model presented in this paper is designed to be heuristic and may be used to stimulate discussion and the development of effective preventative and response strategies for missing incidents among persons with dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
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Open AccessReview
Vitamin D and Reproduction: From Gametes to Childhood
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1097-1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041097 - 09 Nov 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
Vitamin D is well recognized for its essentiality in maintaining skeletal health. Recent research has suggested that vitamin D may exert a broad range of roles throughout the human life cycle starting from reproduction to adult chronic disease risk. Rates of vitamin D [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is well recognized for its essentiality in maintaining skeletal health. Recent research has suggested that vitamin D may exert a broad range of roles throughout the human life cycle starting from reproduction to adult chronic disease risk. Rates of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy remain high worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of fertility problems, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and allergic disease in the offspring. Vitamin D is found naturally in only a few foods thus supplementation can provide an accessible and effective way to raise vitamin D status when dietary intakes and sunlight exposure are low. However, the possibility of overconsumption and possible adverse effects is under debate. The effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and early life on maternal and infant outcomes will be of particular focus in this review. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Family History of Sudden Cardiac Death of the Young: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1086-1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041086 - 09 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death of the young (SCDY) is a devastating event for families and communities. Family history is a significant risk factor for this potentially preventable cause of death, however a complete and detailed family history is not commonly obtained during routine health [...] Read more.
Sudden cardiac death of the young (SCDY) is a devastating event for families and communities. Family history is a significant risk factor for this potentially preventable cause of death, however a complete and detailed family history is not commonly obtained during routine health maintenance visits. To estimate the proportion of adults with a family history of SCDY, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) Genomics Program included two questions within the 2007 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (MiBRFS). Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Among adults in Michigan, 6.3% reported a family history of SCDY, with a greater prevalence among blacks, those with lower household income, and those with less education. Among those reporting a family history of SCDY, 42.3% had at least one first-degree relative and 26.2% had multiple affected family members. This is the first study to demonstrate the prevalence of family history of SCDY while also highlighting key sociodemographic characteristics associated with increased prevalence. These findings should guide evidence-based interventions to reach those at greatest risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
Open AccessReview
Ageing Renal Patients: We Need More Collaboration between Geriatric Services and Nephrology Departments
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1075-1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041075 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
There has been a significant increase in the number of frail older patients diagnosed with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the past thirty years. These elderly patients have high levels of comorbidity, and as a consequence the face of renal medicine is [...] Read more.
There has been a significant increase in the number of frail older patients diagnosed with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the past thirty years. These elderly patients have high levels of comorbidity, and as a consequence the face of renal medicine is changing—There is an increasing need to focus on traditionally geriatric areas of expertise such as falls prevention and rehabilitation, and to shift our emphasis onto improving patient well-being rather than longevity. Over the past decade, many nephrologists have found that they are already acting as de facto “amateur geriatricians”. This denies patients both the benefits of specialist geriatric assessment, and equally importantly denies them access to the wider geriatric multidisciplinary team. This article describes the prevalence and underlying causes of the so-called “Geriatric Giants” in patients with advanced CKD, and discusses possible improvements in care that closer working with geriatricians could bring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive and Palliative Care in Renal Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Home Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary Results
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1064-1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041064 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Healthcare for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) on conservative treatment very often poses healthcare problems that are difficult to solve. At the end of 2011, we began a program based on the care and monitoring of these patients by Primary Care [...] Read more.
Healthcare for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) on conservative treatment very often poses healthcare problems that are difficult to solve. At the end of 2011, we began a program based on the care and monitoring of these patients by Primary Care Teams. ACKD patients who opted for conservative treatment were offered the chance to be cared for mainly at home by the Primary Care doctor and nurse, under the coordination of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department. During 2012, 2013, and 2014, 76 patients received treatment in this program (mean age: 81 years; mean Charlson age-comorbidity index: 10, and mean glomerular filtration rate: 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m2). The median patient follow-up time (until death or until 31 December 2014) was 165 days. During this period, 51% of patients did not have to visit the hospital’s emergency department and 58% did not require hospitalization. Forty-eight of the 76 patients died after a median time of 135 days in the program; 24 (50%) died at home. Our experience indicates that with the support of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department, ACKD patients who are not dialysis candidates may be monitored at home by Primary Care Teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive and Palliative Care in Renal Disease)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
From a Reductionist to a Holistic Approach in Preventive Nutrition to Define New and More Ethical Paradigms
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1054-1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041054 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
This concept paper intends to define four new paradigms for improving nutrition research. First, the consequences of applying a reductionist versus a holistic approach to nutrition science will be discussed. The need for a more focused preventive nutrition approach, as opposed to a [...] Read more.
This concept paper intends to define four new paradigms for improving nutrition research. First, the consequences of applying a reductionist versus a holistic approach to nutrition science will be discussed. The need for a more focused preventive nutrition approach, as opposed to a curative one, will then be presented on the basis of the ‘healthy core metabolism’ concept. This will lead us to propose a new classification of food products based on processing for future epidemiological studies. As a result of applying the holistic approach, health food potential will be redefined based on both food structure and nutrient density. These new paradigms should help define a more ethical preventive nutrition for humans to improve public recommendations while preserving the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethics, Health, and Natural Resources)
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Open AccessReview
Comprehensive Care Plan Development Using Resident Assessment Instrument Framework: Past, Present, and Future Practices
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1031-1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041031 - 26 Oct 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
Development of the comprehensive care plan (CCP) is a requirement for nursing homes participating in the federal Medicare and Medicaid programs, referred to as skilled nursing facilities. The plan must be developed within the context of the comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment framework—the Resident Assessment [...] Read more.
Development of the comprehensive care plan (CCP) is a requirement for nursing homes participating in the federal Medicare and Medicaid programs, referred to as skilled nursing facilities. The plan must be developed within the context of the comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment framework—the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI). Consistent compliance with this requirement has been difficult to achieve. To improve the quality of CCP development within this framework, an increased understanding of complex factors contributing to inconsistent compliance is required. In this commentary, we examine the history of the comprehensive care plan; its development within the RAI framework; linkages between the RAI and registered nurse staffing; empirical evidence of the CCP’s efficacy; and the limitations of extant standards of practices in CCP development. Because of the registered nurse’s educational preparation, professional practice standards, and licensure obligations, the essential contributions of professional nurses in CCP development are emphasized. Recommendations for evidence-based micro and macro level practice changes with the potential to improve the quality of CCP development and regulatory compliance are presented. Suggestions for future research are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
Open AccessCommentary
Screening for Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children: What Can We Learn From Adult Screening Programs?
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 1018-1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3041018 - 26 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4126
Abstract
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant atherosclerotic disease, is a common monogenic subtype of cardiovascular disease. Patients with FH suffer an increased risk of early onset heart disease. Early identification of abnormally elevated cholesterol signpost clinicians to interventions that will significantly decrease risk [...] Read more.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant atherosclerotic disease, is a common monogenic subtype of cardiovascular disease. Patients with FH suffer an increased risk of early onset heart disease. Early identification of abnormally elevated cholesterol signpost clinicians to interventions that will significantly decrease risk of related morbidity and mortality. Cascade genetic testing can subsequently identify at-risk relatives. Accordingly, a number of screening approaches have been implemented for FH in countries including the UK and the Netherlands. However, incomplete identification of cases remains a challenge. Moreover, the potential for early intervention is now raising questions about the value of implementing universal cholesterol screening approaches that focus on children. In this report, we briefly discuss the potential benefit of such screening. Additionally, we submit that ever increasing genome technological capability will force a discussion of including genetic tests in these screening programs. We discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by such an approach. We close with recommendations that the success of such screening endeavors will rely on a better integrated practice model in public health genomics that bridges stakeholders including practitioners in primary care, clinical genetics and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
Open AccessArticle
Community-Based Family Health History Education: The Role of State Health Agencies in Engaging Medically Underserved Populations in Understanding Genomics and Risk of Chronic Disease
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 995-1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040995 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3438
Abstract
Although family health history (FHH) collection has been recognized as an influential method for assessing a person’s risk of chronic disease, studies have shown that people who are low-income, from racial and ethnic minorities, and poorly educated are less likely to collect their [...] Read more.
Although family health history (FHH) collection has been recognized as an influential method for assessing a person’s risk of chronic disease, studies have shown that people who are low-income, from racial and ethnic minorities, and poorly educated are less likely to collect their FHH or share it with a medical professional. Programs to raise public awareness about the importance of FHH have conventionally targeted patients in primary care clinics or in the general community, but few efforts have been made to coordinate educational efforts across settings. This paper describes a project by the Connecticut Department of Public Health’s Genomics Office to disseminate training materials about FHH as broadly as possible, by engaging partners in multiple settings: a local health department, a community health center, and two advocacy organizations that serve minority and immigrant populations. We used a mixed methods program evaluation to examine the efficacy of the FHH program and to assess barriers in integrating it into the groups’ regular programming. Our findings highlight how a state health department can promote FHH education among underserved communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
Open AccessArticle
The Palliative Treatment Plan as a Bone of Contention between Attending Physicians and Nurses
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 987-994; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040987 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Acute vital crisis in end-of-life situations may result in hospitalization and intensive care without recognizable benefit in many cases. Advance directives regarding indications for resuscitation, hospitalization, and symptomatic treatment help ensure that acute complications can be managed quickly and satisfactorily in the patient’s [...] Read more.
Acute vital crisis in end-of-life situations may result in hospitalization and intensive care without recognizable benefit in many cases. Advance directives regarding indications for resuscitation, hospitalization, and symptomatic treatment help ensure that acute complications can be managed quickly and satisfactorily in the patient’s customary surroundings. A plan was designed and implemented in Austrian nursing homes to provide emergency physicians with rapidly obtainable information on the patient’s current situation, and whether resuscitation attempts and hospitalization are advised or not. This palliative treatment plan is arranged by a physician together with caregivers, close relatives, and the patient or his court-appointed health care guardian or holder of power of attorney. Four years after implementation of the plan, a user satisfaction survey was carried out. The majority of participating nurses, emergency physicians and family doctors judged application and design of the palliative treatment plan positively. However, the low response rate of family doctors indicates nonconformity. In particular, the delegation of symptomatic treatment to nurses proved to be controversial. There is still a need to provide up-to-date information and training for health professionals in order for them to understand advance directives as extended autonomy for patients who have lost their ability to make their own decisions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“I Just Can’t Do It Anymore” Patterns of Physical Activity and Cardiac Rehabilitation in African Americans with Heart Failure: A Mixed Method Study
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 973-986; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040973 - 15 Oct 2015
Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are components of heart failure (HF) self-care. The aims of this study were to describe patterns of physical activity in African Americans (n = 30) with HF and to explore experience in CR. This was a [...] Read more.
Physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are components of heart failure (HF) self-care. The aims of this study were to describe patterns of physical activity in African Americans (n = 30) with HF and to explore experience in CR. This was a mixed method, concurrent nested, predominantly qualitative study. Qualitative data were collected via interviews exploring typical physical activity, and CR experience. It was augmented by quantitative data measuring HF severity, self-care, functional capacity and depressive symptoms. Mean age was 60 ± 15 years; 65% were New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III HF. Forty-three percent reported that they did less than 30 min of exercise in the past week; 23% were told “nothing” about exercise by their provider, and 53% were told to do “minimal exercise”. A measure of functional capacity indicated the ability to do moderate activity. Two related themes stemmed from the narratives describing current physical activity: “given up” and “still trying”. Six participants recalled referral to CR with one person participating. There was high concordance between qualitative and quantitative data, and evidence that depression may play a role in low levels of physical activity. Findings highlight the need for strategies to increase adherence to current physical activity guidelines in this older minority population with HF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
Open AccessArticle
Infrastructure and Educational Needs of Newborn Screening Short-Term Follow-Up Programs within the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening & Genetics Collaborative: A Pilot Survey
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 964-972; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040964 - 15 Oct 2015
Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Newborn screening (NBS) follow-up protocols vary significantly by state, and there is a need to better understand the infrastructure and communication flow of NBS programs. In addition, assessment of the educational needs of families and providers with regard to the implications of NBS [...] Read more.
Newborn screening (NBS) follow-up protocols vary significantly by state, and there is a need to better understand the infrastructure and communication flow of NBS programs. In addition, assessment of the educational needs of families and providers with regard to the implications of NBS results is required to inform the development of appropriate informational resources and training opportunities. To begin to address these issues, we administered a web-based survey to state NBS coordinators within the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening & Genetics Collaborative (SERC). Fourteen coordinators responded to the survey, including at least one from each of the 10 SERC states/territories. Over one-third of respondents had never received formal training regarding the metabolic conditions identified on NBS. Most communicated results via telephone or fax, though two centers indicated use of a web-based platform. Only two programs were involved in directly reporting results to the family. Four programs reported a long-term follow-up protocol. Deficits were noted for primary care provider (PCP) knowledge of metabolic disorders identified on NBS, and how to inform parents of abnormal results. Close to half indicated that the adequacy of the number of genetic counselors, dietitians, and medical/biochemical geneticists was minimal to insufficient. Respondents uniformly recognized the importance of providing additional educational and informational resources in multiple categories to NBS staff, PCPs, and families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Activities and Impact of State Programs to Address Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, 2011–2014
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 948-963; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040948 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3897
Abstract
In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC), at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA) for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments [...] Read more.
In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC), at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA) for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments to promote the application of best practices for evidence-based breast cancer genomics through education, surveillance, and policy activities. The FOA required that applicants focus on activities related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The DCPC funded three states: Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon. Georgia was a first-time recipient of cancer genomics funding, whereas Michigan and Oregon had long standing activities in cancer genomics and had received CDC funding in the past. By the end of the funding period, each state had well-functioning and impactful state-based programs in breast cancer genomics. This article highlights the impact of a few key state activities by using CDC’s Science Impact Framework. There were challenges to implementing public health genomics programs, including the need to develop relevant partnerships, the highly technical nature of the subject matter, a lack of genetic services in certain areas, and the difficulty in funding genetic services. Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon have served as models for others interested in initiating or expanding cancer genomics programs, and they helped to determine what works well for promoting and integrating public health genomics into existing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
From Their Voices: Barriers to HIV Testing among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men Remain
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 933-947; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040933 - 12 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Background: HIV testing continues to be a major priority for addressing the epidemic among young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Methods: This study explored barriers to HIV testing uptake, and recommendations for motivating HIV testing uptake among Black [...] Read more.
Background: HIV testing continues to be a major priority for addressing the epidemic among young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Methods: This study explored barriers to HIV testing uptake, and recommendations for motivating HIV testing uptake among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) aged 18 to 30. BMSM (N = 36) were recruited through flyers and social media for six focus groups. Results: From the perspectives and experiences of young BMSM, participants recommended that information be included in HIV testing messages that would help young BMSM do self HIV-risk appraisals. Particularly, participants recommended that more knowledge about Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and the role of PrEP in safer-sex practices be provided. This information is important to help those untested, or who infrequently test, better understand their risk and need for testing. Likewise, participants recommended that more information about a person being undetectable and the risk of condomless sex with an HIV negative sex partner; this information will be helpful for both the HIV negative and HIV positive sex partner for making safer sex decisions. Participants also recommended that interventions should focus on more than drug use as risk; the risk posed by the use of alcohol before and during sex deserves attention among young BMSM. Conclusions: These findings may inform new HIV testing interventions being tailored for young BMSM. The interventions should also consider revisiting street-based peer-outreach approaches for those young BMSM with limited access to social media campaigns due to limited access or infrequent use of social media. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Spiritual Pain in Meals on Wheels’ Clients
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 917-932; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040917 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose [...] Read more.
Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping) and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β) in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4). Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001), depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01), and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01). Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
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Open AccessReview
Gut Microbiota: A Modulator of Brain Plasticity and Cognitive Function in Ageing
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 898-916; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040898 - 29 Sep 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4186
Abstract
Gut microbiota have recently been a topic of great interest in the field of microbiology, particularly their role in normal physiology and its influence on human health in disease. A large body of research has supported the presence of a pathway of communication [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota have recently been a topic of great interest in the field of microbiology, particularly their role in normal physiology and its influence on human health in disease. A large body of research has supported the presence of a pathway of communication between the gut and the brain, modulated by gut microbiota, giving rise to the term “microbiota-gut-brain” axis. It is now thought that, through this pathway, microbiota can affect behaviour and modulate brain plasticity and cognitive function in ageing. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the existence of such a connection and possible mechanisms of action whereby microbiota can influence the function of the central nervous system. Since normalisation of gut flora has been shown to prevent changes in behaviour, we further postulate on possible therapeutic targets to intervene with cognitive decline in ageing. The research poses various limitations, for example uncertainty about how this data translates to broad human populations. Nonetheless, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is an exciting field worthy of further investigation, particularly with regards to its implications on the ageing population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Utility of Braden Scale Nutrition Subscale Ratings as an Indicator of Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes among Nursing Home Residents at Risk for Pressure Ulcers
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 879-897; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040879 - 24 Sep 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2486
Abstract
The Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk© is a screening tool to determine overall risk of pressure ulcer development and estimate severity of specific risk factors for individual residents. Nurses often use the Braden nutrition subscale to screen nursing home (NH) residents [...] Read more.
The Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk© is a screening tool to determine overall risk of pressure ulcer development and estimate severity of specific risk factors for individual residents. Nurses often use the Braden nutrition subscale to screen nursing home (NH) residents for nutritional risk, and then recommend a more comprehensive nutritional assessment as indicated. Secondary data analysis from the Turn for Ulcer ReductioN (TURN) study’s investigation of U.S. and Canadian NH residents (n = 690) considered at moderate or high pressure ulcer (PrU) risk was used to evaluate the subscale’s utility for identifying nutritional intake risk factors. Associations were examined between Braden Nutritional Risk subscale screening, dietary intake (mean % meal intake and by meal timing, mean number of protein servings, protein sources, % intake of supplements and snacks), weight outcomes, and new PrU incidence. Of moderate and high PrU risk residents, 61.9% and 59.2% ate a mean meal % of <75. Fewer than 18% overall ate <50% of meals or refused meals. No significant differences were observed in weight differences by nutrition subscale risk or in mean number protein servings per meal (1.4 (SD = 0.58) versus 1.3 (SD = 0.53)) for moderate versus high PrU risk residents. The nutrition subscale approximates subsequent estimated dietary intake and can provide insight into meal intake patterns for those at either moderate or high PrU risk. Findings support the Braden Scale’s use as a preliminary screening method to identify focused areas for potential intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
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Open AccessReview
When is Genomic Testing Cost-Effective? Testing for Lynch Syndrome in Patients with Newly-Diagnosed Colorectal Cancer and Their Relatives
Healthcare 2015, 3(4), 860-878; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare3040860 - 24 Sep 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3803
Abstract
Varying estimates of the cost-effectiveness of genomic testing applications can reflect differences in study questions, settings, methods and assumptions. This review compares recently published cost-effectiveness analyses of testing strategies for Lynch Syndrome (LS) in tumors from patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) [...] Read more.
Varying estimates of the cost-effectiveness of genomic testing applications can reflect differences in study questions, settings, methods and assumptions. This review compares recently published cost-effectiveness analyses of testing strategies for Lynch Syndrome (LS) in tumors from patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) for either all adult patients or patients up to age 70 along with cascade testing of relatives of probands. Seven studies published from 2010 through 2015 were identified and summarized. Five studies analyzed the universal offer of testing to adult patients with CRC and two others analyzed testing patients up to age 70; all except one reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) < $ 100,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained. Three studies found lower ICERs for selective testing strategies using family history-based predictive models compared with universal testing. However, those calculations were based on estimates of sensitivity of predictive models derived from research studies, and it is unclear how sensitive such models are in routine clinical practice. Key model parameters that are influential in ICER estimates included 1) the number of first-degree relatives tested per proband identified with LS and 2) the cost of gene sequencing. Others include the frequency of intensive colonoscopic surveillance, the cost of colonoscopy, and the inclusion of extracolonic surveillance and prevention options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of Public Health Genomics)
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