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Pharmacy, Volume 10, Issue 4 (August 2022) – 33 articles

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Article
Primary Care Wound Clinics: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Patient Experiences in Community Pharmacies
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040099 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 196
Abstract
The expansion of primary care wound services serves to alleviate secondary and tertiary care utilization. However, patient satisfaction is required to ensure service uptake. In recent years, various community pharmacies in Australia have begun to offer dedicated wound clinics; however, evaluations of patient [...] Read more.
The expansion of primary care wound services serves to alleviate secondary and tertiary care utilization. However, patient satisfaction is required to ensure service uptake. In recent years, various community pharmacies in Australia have begun to offer dedicated wound clinics; however, evaluations of patient experiences have yet to be conducted. Thus, the present study seeks to explore: (1) the experiences and satisfaction of patients who have received wound care consultations for their acute wounds in a community pharmacy setting; and (2) how current pharmacy-based wound services can be improved. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with patients across five pharmacy-based wound care clinics in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into QSR NVivo 12 Plus. Interview transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed using the framework method. Twelve interviews were required to reach data saturation. Five key themes emerged: the accessibility of wound services, the comprehensiveness of wound care services, confidence in wound care consultants, the awareness and promotion of wound services, and the expansion of wound care services. Overall, participants were satisfied with the accessibility and comprehensiveness of pharmacy-based wound service delivery, trusted the health care providers, and wanted the service to be expanded. The reported patient satisfaction, confidence in the health care provider, and desire to expand the service suggests there is potential for the service to grow in Australia. Due to the growing costs of wound care globally, there is scope to further evaluate and expand wound care services in the primary care setting on an international level. Full article
Article
Evaluating UK Pharmacy Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour towards Antimicrobial Stewardship and Assessing the Impact of Training in Community Pharmacy
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040098 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The Antibiotic Guardian (AG) campaign, developed in 2014 is an online ‘pledge’ approach to engage health workers and the public about antimicrobial resistance. It is underpinned by models of science communication and behaviour change. Since its launch until the end of 2021, more [...] Read more.
The Antibiotic Guardian (AG) campaign, developed in 2014 is an online ‘pledge’ approach to engage health workers and the public about antimicrobial resistance. It is underpinned by models of science communication and behaviour change. Since its launch until the end of 2021, more than 140,000 individuals pledged. A service evaluation was conducted to determine the impact of the campaign upon UK pharmacy workers, in response to national training introduced in 2020. Pledged pharmacy workers were sent an online questionnaire collating demographics, self-reported behaviour and opportunity to support prudent antibiotic use. It also investigated respondents’ daily practice and antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) efforts, and motivations for pledging. Capability was measured with a set of knowledge questions. Awareness of changes to the Community Pharmacy Quality Scheme in England to include incentivized training on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was explored. Of the 5344 pharmacy workers invited to participate, 783 (14.6%) responded to the survey. There was a statistically significant difference between job roles and capability score. Pharmacists, including Academic and Hospital Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians reported higher confidence and capability scores than Dispensers and Pharmacy Assistants (F = 13.776, p = 0.0002). Respondents reported strong knowledge on antimicrobial resistance and high confidence in fulfilling their AG stewardship pledge within daily practices (92.7% of all respondents answered all capability questions, as measured by knowledge, correctly). Two thirds of respondents (61.6% (423/693)) agreed or strongly agreed that they had access to and were able to utilise local antibiotic prescribing guidance and a similar proportion of responding community pharmacists (60%) were aware of the content of their workplace AMS plans. No statistically significant relationships were found between motivations for pledging and subsequent behaviour; pledging due to mandatory requirements of work-place training was the most common answer in both 2019 (42%) and 2020 (54%) cohorts. This evaluation supports the value of the AG pledge-based approach to engage and educate pharmacy workers. Reflections show its impact on increasing evidence-based stewardship for pharmacy workers and their response to mandatory training requirement by employers highlights the effectiveness of the AG campaign to promote AMS within pharmacy teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist-Led Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Article
Effects of Adjuvant Medications on A1C, Body Mass Index, and Insulin Requirements among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040097 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that noninsulin medications used to treat type 2 diabetes can improve health outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study assessed the effects of adjuvant diabetes medications on glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body mass index (BMI), or [...] Read more.
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that noninsulin medications used to treat type 2 diabetes can improve health outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study assessed the effects of adjuvant diabetes medications on glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body mass index (BMI), or total daily insulin (TDI) among patients with T1D in a real-world setting. This was an analysis of the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry, using the study periods of 2010–2012, 2015–2016, and 2016–2017, to assess differences in A1C, BMI, and TDI between patients with and without adjuvant medications. The relationships between characteristics and A1C in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 were determined. Analysis included 517 patients in the adjuvant medication cohort and 4968 in the insulin-only cohort. No significant improvement in A1C was observed. A significant difference in BMI and TDI between the insulin-only (median BMI: 25.5, 26.2, 26.4 and median TDI: 45, 44 units) and adjuvant medication cohorts (median BMI: 29.8, 30.5, 30.5 and median TDI: 51, 52 units) (p < 0.001) was observed. Patients with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), higher education level, higher annual income, and older age were associated with lower A1C (p ≤ 0.001). Higher BMI and self-description as African American/Black were associated with higher A1C (p ≤ 0.01). Insulin pump use was associated with lower A1C (p < 0.01) in 2015–2016. Patients who used adjuvant medications did not demonstrate significant improvement in disease control. These data suggest that findings from well-designed research studies may not be consistently reproducible in real-world settings, due to patient-specific factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine Use in Chronic Disease)
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Article
Drug Utilization and Potential Drug-Drug Interactions within an Intensive Care Unit at a University Tertiary Care Hospital in Egypt
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040096 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 213
Abstract
There are few reports on drug utilization and drug-drug interactions in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in Egypt. A total of 94 patients participated in this retrospective observational study. Patient’s medical records were used to collect demographics, medical history, admission and discharge dates and [...] Read more.
There are few reports on drug utilization and drug-drug interactions in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in Egypt. A total of 94 patients participated in this retrospective observational study. Patient’s medical records were used to collect demographics, medical history, admission and discharge dates and medications used. The mean ± SD of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores was 9.9 ± 4.4 and the median length of stay was 7 days (range 1–47 days). The total number of prescribed medications ranged from 4–29 with a mean ± SD of 14.1 ± 5.5 medications per patient. The top three most prescribed categories belonged to (1) anti-infective agents (23.9%); (2) electrolyte, caloric and water balance agents (14.6%); and (3) blood formation, coagulation and thrombosis (11.3%). The proton pump inhibitor, esomeprazole, was the most frequently prescribed medication accounting for 6.5% of total prescriptions, followed by clindamycin and magnesium sulfate each accounting for 3.5% of total prescriptions. The potential Drug-Drug Interactions (pDDIs) showed a total of 968 pDDIs with a mean ± SD (range) of 10.2 ± 9.4 (0–43) pDDIs per patient: severe (contraindicated) (3), major (178), moderate (618) and minor (169). Overall, the drug utilization patterns in this study were consistent with ICU drug utilization from other countries in the region. The implementation of clinical decision support systems and the involvement of clinical pharmacists may help improve medication safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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Review
Colon Cancer Pharmacogenetics: A Narrative Review
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040095 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Currently, metastatic colon cancer is treated with monotherapeutic regimens such as folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapeOX), and leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan hydrochloride (FOLFIRI). Other treatments include biological therapies and immunotherapy with drugs such as bevacizumab, panitumumab, cetuximab, and [...] Read more.
Currently, metastatic colon cancer is treated with monotherapeutic regimens such as folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapeOX), and leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan hydrochloride (FOLFIRI). Other treatments include biological therapies and immunotherapy with drugs such as bevacizumab, panitumumab, cetuximab, and pembrolizumab. After the research, it was found that some mutations make those treatments not as effective in all patients. In this bibliographic review, we investigated the pharmacogenetic explanations for how mutations in the genes coding for rat sarcoma virus (RAS) and rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) reduce the effectiveness of these treatments and allow the continued proliferation of tumors. Furthermore, we note that patients with mutations in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPDY) gene usually require lower doses of therapies such as 5-fluorouracyl (5-FU) and capecitabine to avoid severe adverse effects. Some other mutations in the thymidylate synthase gene (TSYM), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), and ATP binding cassette transporter B (ABCB1 and ABCB2) affect efficacy and security of the treatments. It is important to address the clinical implication of the oncologist in the study of gene mutations than can influence in the antitumoral response and safety of colon cancer treatments. Full article
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Review
The Pharmacist’s Role in Managing COVID-19 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Review of Existing Strategies and Future Implications
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040094 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The global burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has not only disrupted healthcare delivery but has also compromised patients’ access to healthcare on account of the scarcity of medications and trained healthcare professionals. COVID-19 has been particularly challenging for patient subpopulations constituting immunocompromised individuals, [...] Read more.
The global burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has not only disrupted healthcare delivery but has also compromised patients’ access to healthcare on account of the scarcity of medications and trained healthcare professionals. COVID-19 has been particularly challenging for patient subpopulations constituting immunocompromised individuals, geriatric patients, and those afflicted by chronic ailments. Reports indicate that diminished kidney function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) renders patients highly susceptible to complications during COVID-19 treatment. Pharmacists, being medication experts, have a significant role in making treatment decisions during COVID-19 infection. This article describes pharmacists’ interventions for monitoring and managing COVID-19 in patients with CKD. Given the massive increase in off-label use of medications to treat COVID-19, pharmacists can contribute substantially towards dosing decisions, reporting adverse medication events, and managing drug–drug interactions in COVID-19 patients suffering from CKD. In addition to traditional methods of delivering their services, the pharmacist should also adopt innovative tele-health systems to optimize patient care and ensure that patients receive safe and effective therapy during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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Brief Report
A Systematic Approach to Providing COVID-19 Vaccinations in the Community by Student Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040093 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students and faculty at University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) were highly motivated to support local and regional COVID-19 vaccination efforts, which began in January 2021. A system was created to streamline [...] Read more.
Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students and faculty at University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) were highly motivated to support local and regional COVID-19 vaccination efforts, which began in January 2021. A system was created to streamline requests for SSPPS volunteers, maximize opportunities for student learning and engagement, and ensure adherence to pharmacy practice standards and laws in the process of assisting with vaccination efforts in the community. An existing model for approving student organized events was modified to fit additional needs for COVID-19 vaccination efforts by SSPPS students and faculty. For each event, students completed a standardized form containing event details including location, date, time, pharmacist preceptors, and duties. All requests were screened by designated SSPPS faculty to ensure student safety, availability, and feasibility. After each event, students and faculty completed a unique online form designed to track volunteer hours. Students received course credit for volunteering and completing a standardized self-reflection. Comments from students’ reflections (n = 74) were analyzed to identify common challenges. Between 11 January 2021 and 31 May 2021, SSPPS faculty and students volunteered for 245 shifts, totaling 1346 h. Students encountered several logistical challenges, such as availability of vaccines. The system utilized allowed for SSPPS students and faculty to play an integral role in COVID-19 vaccination efforts throughout the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection New Insights into Pharmacy Teaching and Learning during COVID-19)
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Article
Changes in Academic Performance after Transitioning to Remote Proctoring: A Before-After Evaluation
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040092 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Remote proctoring is often used to ensure testing integrity in a distance education environment but may impact academic performance. This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate changes in examination scores after transitioning to remote proctoring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Student pharmacists (n = [...] Read more.
Remote proctoring is often used to ensure testing integrity in a distance education environment but may impact academic performance. This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate changes in examination scores after transitioning to remote proctoring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Student pharmacists (n = 384) served as their own controls in this before-after analysis of examination scores with in-person versus remote proctoring. To assess differences in examination scores among students with varying levels of testing anxiety, students were classified into low, moderate, or high testing anxiety groups based on their Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Second Edition (CTAS-2) score. Students were also stratified into two groups based on their cumulative grade point average (GPA). After transitioning to remote proctoring, examination scores significantly decreased for first-year (P1) students but significantly increased for second-year (P2) students. When stratified by CTAS-2 score, no significant difference in examination scores was found. When stratified by GPA, no significant difference in examination scores was found for P1 students, but a significant improvement was noted for P2 students with remote proctoring. The results of this study indicate that examination scores do not consistently improve or decline after introducing remote proctoring even when considering a student’s GPA and level of testing anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection New Insights into Pharmacy Teaching and Learning during COVID-19)
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Article
Discordance in Addressing Opioid Crisis in Rural Communities: Patient and Provider Perspectives
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040091 - 27 Jul 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Providing patient-centered care to manage chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with improved health outcomes. However, adopting a holistic approach to providing care is often challenging in rural communities. This study aims to identify and contrast challenges to providing patient-centered [...] Read more.
Providing patient-centered care to manage chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with improved health outcomes. However, adopting a holistic approach to providing care is often challenging in rural communities. This study aims to identify and contrast challenges to providing patient-centered care from the perspective of patients and providers. A participatory design approach was adopted to elicit the perceptions of providers and patients with lived experiences of chronic pain and/or OUD in Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Two focus groups were conducted with each stakeholder group to identify problems that participants face with respect to chronic pain management and OUD and possible solutions. Four interviews were conducted with providers experienced in chronic pain management. Analysis of focus group sessions and interviews show consensus among patients and providers that lack of behavioral health and recovery resources create barriers to effectively manage OUD and chronic pain. However, there was discordance among the two groups about other barriers such as patient and provider attitudes, tapering approach, and access to medications for OUD. This tension among patients and providers can influence patients’ retention in therapy. More efforts are needed to mitigate stigma among providers in rural communities and support psychosocial needs of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
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Article
Competency-Based Assessment in Experiential Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacy Programmes: Qualitative Exploration of Facilitators’ Views and Needs (ACTp Study)
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040090 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Newly registered pharmacists will need to possess higher-level competencies and, in Great Britain, there is an expectation that assessments are undertaken during experiential learning (EL). The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and educational needs of practice-based EL facilitators of [...] Read more.
Newly registered pharmacists will need to possess higher-level competencies and, in Great Britain, there is an expectation that assessments are undertaken during experiential learning (EL). The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and educational needs of practice-based EL facilitators of student pharmacists, undertaking competency-based assessments during EL. Semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with EL facilitators working in the community, hospital, and primary-care pharmacies. Data were thematically analysed. Fifteen facilitators were interviewed, and there were five from each site. There was general support for this role, but also anxiety due to the lack of knowledge about assessments and the repercussions on students. Benefits were that students would receive real-time feedback from workplace-based practitioners and facilitators would benefit from self-development. Challenges included additional workload and lack of consistency in marking. The majority agreed that clinical, professional, and communication skills could be assessed; however, a consensus was not reached regarding the tools, methods, and grading of assessments. The need for training and support were highlighted. A co-design method was proposed to ensure that the assessment methods and processes are accepted by all stakeholders. Training and resources should be tailored to the needs of facilitators. Full article
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Article
Assessing Job Satisfaction and Stress among Pharmacists in Cyprus
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040089 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Background: Inadequate staffing, increased responsibilities and a high workload are some of the factors that are directly related to stress levels experienced by pharmacists, which in turn affect job satisfaction. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess job satisfaction [...] Read more.
Background: Inadequate staffing, increased responsibilities and a high workload are some of the factors that are directly related to stress levels experienced by pharmacists, which in turn affect job satisfaction. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess job satisfaction and stress levels of pharmacists in Cyprus, involving those working in the public and private sector. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed which involved the completion of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) questionnaire to estimate job satisfaction, and the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14) questionnaire to evaluate perceived stress. Data collection took place between January and March 2020 and the participation rate was 71.6% (n = 585). Results: Employees in private pharmacies overall reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to public sector pharmacists. Public sector pharmacists were found to have stronger self-efficacy beliefs compared to other groups (p < 0.001). Female pharmacists had a higher average level of perceived helplessness than male pharmacists (p = 0.001). Regarding public sector pharmacists, it was generally observed that pharmacists working under the management of the Ministry of Health (MoH) had reduced job satisfaction than those working for other organizations. Additionally, pharmacists working under the management of the State Health Services Organization (SHSO) had the least overall perceived stress levels (p = 0.008), high self-efficacy beliefs (p = 0.006) and low perceived helplessness (p = 0.031) compared to pharmacists in other workplaces. Employees of private pharmacies were found to have higher levels of job satisfaction (p < 0.001) than SHSO pharmacists. However, those employees demonstrated increased perceived stress levels (p < 0.001) in comparison with SHSO pharmacists. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ job satisfaction is negatively correlated with perceived stress levels and helplessness, and positively correlated with self-efficacy beliefs. In the public sector, it seems that a re-evaluation is critical regarding the determinants that adversely influence job satisfaction amongst pharmacists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Job Satisfaction)
Article
Assessing the Association of Hispanic Ethnicity and Other Personal Characteristics with Pharmacy School Admissions
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040088 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Access to healthcare services for underrepresented minority populations can be improved by having a diverse profession that reflects the diversity of the patient population being served. The criteria used for pharmacy school admissions may inhibit or strengthen the opportunities that URM students have [...] Read more.
Access to healthcare services for underrepresented minority populations can be improved by having a diverse profession that reflects the diversity of the patient population being served. The criteria used for pharmacy school admissions may inhibit or strengthen the opportunities that URM students have to be accepted into the University of Arizona R. Ken Coit College of Pharmacy (COP) program. It is currently unclear how personal characteristics are associated with pharmacy school admissions at the COP. This study evaluates whether Hispanic ethnicity was associated with pharmacy school admission status, and secondarily, determines other characteristics associated with admissions. This retrospective database study used admissions data from 2005 to 2018. Completed applications were included in the analysis. The outcome variable was admitted versus not admitted to the pharmacy program. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with admission status using an a priori alpha level of 0.05. A total of 2096 applicants were included in the analysis (mean age 25.1 ± 5.2 years, 59.9% female, 13.0% Hispanic). Hispanic ethnicity was not associated with admission status. Characteristics significantly associated with admission to pharmacy school were age, gender, high school attended, previous application to the college, and Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) biology and chemistry scores. Although bias was not seen in the admissions process, this study highlights the need for intervention to ensure future cohorts better reflect the diversity of the region. Full article
Article
Adherence to and Persistence with Adalimumab Therapy among Swedish Patients with Crohn’s Disease
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040087 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Objectives: (1) to determine the adherence and persistence rates of adalimumab therapy among Swedish patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), and (2) to compare self-administration devices to predict the medication adherence and persistence. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Swedish National Board [...] Read more.
Objectives: (1) to determine the adherence and persistence rates of adalimumab therapy among Swedish patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), and (2) to compare self-administration devices to predict the medication adherence and persistence. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare database during a unique time period, when both the pen and the syringe were available. The pen was proposed to indicate a larger extent of internal control, according to health locus of control. Medication adherence was defined as a medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥ 0.8. A patient was considered nonpersistent if the time between any two dispensing records, minus the days of supply dispensed exceeded 180 days. The predictors of adherence were evaluated using a logistic regression, and the predictors of persistence were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Among the 1083 patients studied, 89% were adherent and 77% were persistent. The patients using the pen and the patients treated in gastroenterology centers were more likely to be adherent and less likely to be nonpersistent. Conclusions: The adherence rate to adalimumab therapy was 89% and the one-year persistence rate was 70%. The pen and treatment in a gastroenterology center had a positive impact on the adherence and persistence among Swedish patients with CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing the Knowledge and Application of Health Behavior Theories)
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Article
A Guide to a Pharmacist-Led Pharmacogenetic Testing and Counselling Service in an Interprofessional Healthcare Setting
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040086 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Genetic predisposition is one factor influencing interindividual drug response. Pharmacogenetic information can be used to guide the selection and dosing of certain drugs. However, the implementation of pharmacogenetics (PGx) in clinical practice remains challenging. Defining a formal structure, as well as concrete procedures [...] Read more.
Genetic predisposition is one factor influencing interindividual drug response. Pharmacogenetic information can be used to guide the selection and dosing of certain drugs. However, the implementation of pharmacogenetics (PGx) in clinical practice remains challenging. Defining a formal structure, as well as concrete procedures and clearly defined responsibilities, may facilitate and increase the use of PGx in clinical practice. Over 140 patient cases from an observational study in Switzerland formed the basis for the design and refinement of a pharmacist-led pharmacogenetics testing and counselling service (PGx service) in an interprofessional setting. Herein, we defined a six-step approach, including: (1) patient referral; (2) pre-test-counselling; (3) PGx testing; (4) medication review; (5) counselling; (6) follow-up. The six-step approach supports the importance of an interprofessional collaboration and the role of pharmacists in PGx testing and counselling across healthcare settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Emerging Role of Pharmacists in Pharmacogenomics)
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Review
The Moderating Power of Impulsivity: A Systematic Literature Review Examining the Theory of Planned Behavior
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040085 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that behavioral intention is the best predictor of actual behavior change. However, intention explains only a portion of the variance in behavior. Of specific interest is the question of which moderating or mediating variables can be [...] Read more.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that behavioral intention is the best predictor of actual behavior change. However, intention explains only a portion of the variance in behavior. Of specific interest is the question of which moderating or mediating variables can be leveraged to aid health promotion interventions utilizing the tenets of behavioral economics (delay discounting and commitment contracts) in the intention–behavior pathway. Impulsivity has been postulated to fill this role and may be applied to multiple behaviors. We aim to determine if impulsivity moderates the association between intention and actual behavior in the TPB, to discover what other variables may moderate or mediate this association, and to apply the findings to future studies in the field of behavioral economics. To this end, a systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase online databases. Eligible studies in peer-reviewed journals published prior to November 2021 were selected. Thirty-three studies were included in the final review, examining physical activity, diet, preventive health, mental health, addiction, and medication adherence behaviors. Three main concepts emerged: (1) impulsivity moderates the association between intention and behavior change; (2) self-efficacy moderates the association between intention and behavior change; and (3) planning and self-efficacy contribute to moderated mediation. This review demonstrates a gap in the literature regarding the application of the TPB to the intention–behavior pathway for health behaviors. Future studies in behavioral economics may leverage the variables of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and planning to predict follow-through in this area and to develop targeted change initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing the Knowledge and Application of Health Behavior Theories)
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Communication
The Resilience of Final-Year Pharmacy Students and Aspects of the Course They Found to Be Resilience-Building
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040084 - 17 Jul 2022
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Background: This work aimed to investigate final year pharmacy students’ resilience (as determined by the CD-RISC-25 tool), whether students considered certain aspects of the course to be resilience-building, and the role of the university in developing this attribute. Methods: Following ethical approval and [...] Read more.
Background: This work aimed to investigate final year pharmacy students’ resilience (as determined by the CD-RISC-25 tool), whether students considered certain aspects of the course to be resilience-building, and the role of the university in developing this attribute. Methods: Following ethical approval and an invitation to participate, data were collected from consenting students at Queen’s University Belfast via a pre-piloted paper-based questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were performed. To ascertain significant differences (p < 0.05) by gender, the Welch Two Sample t-test was used for the CD-RISC-25 mean scores and the Mann-Whitney U Test and Chi-squared test for Section B data. Results: The response rate was 80.61% (79/98). The mean CD-RISC-25 score for males was higher (not significantly) than the female mean score (70.39 versus 67.18, p = 0.2355, possible score range 0–100). While 93.67% (74/79) considered the School has a responsibility to develop resilience, <20.00% availed of the free resilience building events. Activities deemed to help build resilience included being able to make mistakes in a safe environment and needing to achieve a high grade to pass assessments. Conclusions: Resilience levels among future pharmacists at Queen’s University Belfast should be improved going forward. A strategy, developed in light of conducting this research (from one institution), will now be implemented to enhance the curriculum with regard to resilience building opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Pharmacy Students’ Experiences with an Interactive Video Platform to Develop Clinical Reasoning
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040083 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Activities used to evaluate clinical reasoning include the use of standardized patients, role play, and case studies. To provide a standardized student experience at a lower cost than a standardized patient, standardized patients were developed using an interactive video platform. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Activities used to evaluate clinical reasoning include the use of standardized patients, role play, and case studies. To provide a standardized student experience at a lower cost than a standardized patient, standardized patients were developed using an interactive video platform. The purpose of this article is to report pharmacy students’ perceptions of the interactive video standardized patients used to practice applying clinical reasoning in a self-care therapeutics course. Students participated in the following five methods to assess clinical reasoning: case studies, interactive patient videos, role play, case creation, and Zoom® polls. Four of the five methods (case studies, interactive patient videos, role play, and case creation) were used in small breakout groups consisting of two to three students. Upon completion of the small group work, Zoom® polls assessed the clinical reasoning of the entire class. Students completed a survey that assessed their level of agreement with 17 statements about the course on a five-point Likert scale and 2 questions that asked the students to rank the activities based on their experiences. There were 127 students that took the self-care therapeutics course, and 112 completed the survey (88%). Overall, the students preferred the Zoom® poll activity; however, of the four different methods utilized within the small breakout groups, the findings of our survey indicated that students preferred to receive fully written-out patient cases followed by the interactive patient videos. Additionally, the students thought that the written-out patient cases and interactive patient videos were most efficient for learning and recall. The interactive patient videos may be an alternative activity that allows students to demonstrate and assess their clinical reasoning for each patient case, in addition to seeing how this impacted their patient’s outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Understanding Color Associations and Their Effects on Expectations of Drugs’ Efficacies
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040082 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Colors influence our daily perceptions and expectations that manifest in a variety of ways. This research has three main objectives: to demonstrate the relationship between the colors of pills and their expected efficacies, to test this effect on a wide variety of demographics, [...] Read more.
Colors influence our daily perceptions and expectations that manifest in a variety of ways. This research has three main objectives: to demonstrate the relationship between the colors of pills and their expected efficacies, to test this effect on a wide variety of demographics, thereby demonstrating their influence on choices made by participants. Finally, to understand the reasoning behind the choices made by participants, and the color associations exhibited. The results of a series of surveys showed clear similarities and differences across various demographics. The strongest and most consistent color associations were those of white with pain relief and red with stimulant efficacies. The color associations found were red with aggression and power, blue with calmness and serenity, white with calm and purity, yellow with energy, and green with environment and health. The findings of this study can help pharmaceutical companies, and medical practitioners, to better make, market, and prescribe pills, depending on the geographical location, ethnicity, and age group of the patient. This may also strengthen the perceived effects of the pills on patients overall by increasing their compliance rates. Full article
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Palliative Care: A Primary Care Pharmacist Perspective
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040081 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The overview approaches pharmacy practice in palliative care from a global viewpoint and aims to provide insight into front-line pharmacist–patient relationships by sharing case studies and personal experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Pharmacists in Palliative and End of Life Care)
Article
Exploring the Views of Healthcare Professionals Working in a Mental Health Trust on Pharmacists as Future Approved Clinicians
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040080 - 12 Jul 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
This qualitative research explored the views and attitudes of healthcare professionals towards the role of the mental health pharmacist, and whether this group should be enabled to become approved clinicians (ACs) in England and Wales under the Mental Health Act in future. Following [...] Read more.
This qualitative research explored the views and attitudes of healthcare professionals towards the role of the mental health pharmacist, and whether this group should be enabled to become approved clinicians (ACs) in England and Wales under the Mental Health Act in future. Following ethical approval, recruitment based on systematic purposive sampling principles took place at one mental health trust in England. Six pharmacists, five medical ACs and two mental health nurses participated in one-to-one digitally audio-recorded semi-structured interviews between June and November 2020. The recordings were transcribed verbatim before being inductively coded and thematically analysed. Notwithstanding the wide recognition among participants of several key skills possessed by mental health pharmacists, various obstacles were identified to them becoming ACs in future, including prevalent conventional models of pharmacy services delivery restricting adequate patient access, as well as insufficient training opportunities to acquire advanced clinical skills, particularly in diagnosis and assessment. In addition to the inherent legislative hurdles, fundamental changes to the skill mix within multidisciplinary mental health teams and improvements to the training of pharmacists were reported by participants to be required to equip them with essential skills to facilitate their transition towards the AC role in future. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the challenges facing the clinical development and enhanced utilisation of mental health pharmacists and non-medical ACs across services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in UK)
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Article
Barriers Associated with Access to Prescription Medications in Patients Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated at Federally Qualified Health Centers
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040079 - 08 Jul 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
This study describes access to prescription medications and examines personal, financial, and structural barriers associated with access to prescription medications in patients with type 2 diabetes treated at Federally Qualified Health Centers. We used a cross-sectional design to analyze data retrieved from the [...] Read more.
This study describes access to prescription medications and examines personal, financial, and structural barriers associated with access to prescription medications in patients with type 2 diabetes treated at Federally Qualified Health Centers. We used a cross-sectional design to analyze data retrieved from the 2014 Health Center Patient Survey. Adult participants who self-reported having type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Predictor variables were categorized into personal, financial, and structural barriers. Outcomes include being unable to get and delayed in getting prescription medications. Chi-square and multivariable regression models were conducted to examine associations between predictor and outcome variables. A total of 1097 participants with type 2 diabetes were included in analyses. Approximately 29% of participants were delayed, and 24% were unable to get medications. Multivariable regression results showed that personal barriers, such as federal poverty level, health status, and psychological distress were associated with being unable to get medications. Financial barriers including out-of-pocket medication cost and employment were associated with access to prescription medications. Type of health center funding program as a structural barrier was associated with access to medications. In conclusion, multi-level tailored strategies and policy changes are needed to address these barriers to improve access to prescription medications and health outcomes in underserved patient populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine Use in Chronic Disease)
Article
Patients’ Opinions towards the Services of Pharmacists Based in General Practice
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040078 - 07 Jul 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Pharmacists have been included in general practice teams to provide non-dispensing services for patients. In Australia, pharmacists’ role in general practice has been slowly expanding. However, there is a paucity of research to explore patients’ opinions toward pharmacist-led services in general practice. This [...] Read more.
Pharmacists have been included in general practice teams to provide non-dispensing services for patients. In Australia, pharmacists’ role in general practice has been slowly expanding. However, there is a paucity of research to explore patients’ opinions toward pharmacist-led services in general practice. This study aimed to assess patient awareness, perceived needs, and satisfaction with these services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a purposeful sample of patients who visited six general practices in the Australian Capital Territory that included pharmacists in their team. The survey was informed by the literature and pre-tested. The survey was distributed to two samples: patients who had seen a pharmacist and those who had not seen a pharmacist. Of 100 responses received, 86 responses were included in the analysis: patients who had seen a pharmacist (n = 46) and patients who had not seen a pharmacist (n = 40). Almost all the patients who utilised pharmacist-led services were highly satisfied with those services. Among patients who had not seen a pharmacist, 50% were aware of the existence of general practice pharmacists. Patients who had visited the pharmacist rated higher scores for perceived needs. Patient satisfaction towards the pharmacist-led services in general practices was very high, and patients supported the expansion of these services. However, awareness of the availability of general practice pharmacist services could be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Australia)
Article
Closing the Integration Gap: A Pilot for Incorporating Foundational Sciences, DEI-Decision Making, Empathy, and Communication for Congestive Heart Failure and Arrhythmia Management by Pharmacy Students
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040077 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Pharmacists must integrate foundational sciences with pharmacy practice for providing optimal patient care. Pharmacy students need to be trained to provide culturally competent, linguistically accessible, and empathetic care while integrating foundational science principles. However, such holistic integration is challenging to achieve and assess. [...] Read more.
Pharmacists must integrate foundational sciences with pharmacy practice for providing optimal patient care. Pharmacy students need to be trained to provide culturally competent, linguistically accessible, and empathetic care while integrating foundational science principles. However, such holistic integration is challenging to achieve and assess. To bridge this gap, we implemented and assessed an “integrated cardiovascular simulation” (ICS) module for P2 students, employing case-based and team-based learning. ICS focused on congestive heart failure with preexisting arrhythmia and incorporated patient counseling relating to diversity factors such as cultural competency, linguistic challenges, and the impact of population diversity on cardiac diseases. Students learned the SBAR communication technique (situation, background, assessment, and recommendation) and recommended therapy while elaborating on drug MOA and adverse effects. ICS was assessed through pre-and post-session quizzes and perception data immediately after the activity, and after two years, when students progressed to the cardiovascular APPE block. Student performance improved on a post-test (80.2%) compared to the pre-test (66.9%), p < 0.01 paired student t-test, with an increase in symptom and arrhythmia pattern recognition (41.2% and 36.7%, respectively). ICS was effective for teaching (1) arrhythmia pathophysiology (85%), (2) EKG interpretation (89%), (3) drug adverse effects (93%), (4) DEI-clinical decision making (92%), and (5) communication skills (85%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cardiovascular Disease Management by Pharmacists)
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Article
Development and Validation of Comprehensive Healthcare Providers’ Opinions, Preferences, and Attitudes towards Deprescribing (CHOPPED Questionnaire)
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040076 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Successful implementation of deprescribing requires exploring healthcare professionals’ opinions, preferences, and attitudes towards deprescribing. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the questionnaire exploring healthcare providers’ opinions preferences and attitudes towards deprescribing (CHOPPED questionnaire). This was a cross-sectional on-line survey. [...] Read more.
Successful implementation of deprescribing requires exploring healthcare professionals’ opinions, preferences, and attitudes towards deprescribing. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the questionnaire exploring healthcare providers’ opinions preferences and attitudes towards deprescribing (CHOPPED questionnaire). This was a cross-sectional on-line survey. A comprehensive 58-item questionnaire, in two versions (for pharmacists and physicians), was developed through an extensive literature review and interviews with experts. The questionnaire was validated, and its reliability was assessed through data collected from 356 pharmacists and 109 physicians. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, and 37- and 35-item questionnaires were developed. Ten factors were identified: knowledge, awareness, patient barriers and facilitators, competencies barriers and facilitators, collaboration barriers and facilitators, and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. The CHOPPED tool has satisfactory face, content (CVR > 0.62) (content validity ratio), construct, and criterion validity. The reliability statistics of all factors in both versions was acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.6. Test–retest reliability analysis showed that gamma rank correlations of total factor scores were strong and very strong (between 0.519 and 0.938). The CHOPPED tool can be used as a valid and reliable tool to explore healthcare providers’ opinions and attitudes toward discontinuing medications in the primary care setting in Croatia. Full article
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Article
Information and Communication Technologies in Lung Transplantation: Perception of Patients and Medical Teams
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040075 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Optimal therapeutic management is a major determinant of patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) represent an opportunity to enhance therapeutic management in complex chronic diseases, such as lung transplantation (LT). The objective of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Optimal therapeutic management is a major determinant of patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) represent an opportunity to enhance therapeutic management in complex chronic diseases, such as lung transplantation (LT). The objective of this study was to assess the preferences of LT patients and healthcare professionals regarding ICTs in LT therapeutic management. A cross-sectional opinion survey was conducted among lung transplant patients and healthcare professionals from the French lung transplantation centers. Five ICTs were defined (SMS, email, phone, internet, and smartphone application) in addition to face-to-face communication. An unsupervised approach by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified lung transplant patient profiles according to their preferences for ICTs. Fifty-three lung transplant patients and 15 healthcare professionals of the French LT centers were included. Both expected ICTs for treatment management and communication. Phone call, face-to-face, and emails were the most preferred communication tools for treatment changes and initiation. PCA identified four ICTs-related profiles (“no ICT”, “email”, “SMS”, and “oral communication”). “Email” and “oral communication” profiles are mainly concerned with treatment changes and transmission of new prescriptions. The “SMS” profile expected reminders for healthcare appointments and optimizing therapeutic management. This study provides practical guidance to enhance LT therapeutic management by ICT intervention. The type of ICT used should take into account patient profiles to improve adherence and thereby the prognosis. A combination of strategies including information, education by a multidisciplinary team, and reminders is a promising approach to ensure an optimal management of our patients. Full article
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Article
The Pharmacist’s Role in the Implementation of FASTHUG-MAIDENS, a Mnemonic to Facilitate the Pharmacotherapy Assessment of Critically Ill Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040074 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 595
Abstract
FASTHUG is a mnemonic used by intensive care physicians to ensure the proper management of patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). FASTHUG-MAIDENS is a modified version that incorporates key pharmacotherapeutic elements such as delirium management, drug dosing, and drug interactions for [...] Read more.
FASTHUG is a mnemonic used by intensive care physicians to ensure the proper management of patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). FASTHUG-MAIDENS is a modified version that incorporates key pharmacotherapeutic elements such as delirium management, drug dosing, and drug interactions for an appropriate medication assessment of critically ill patients. An analytical cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients was carried out to determine aspects related to the pharmacotherapeutic management of critically ill patients that required to be optimized, to design and implement a protocol based on the FASTHUG-MAIDENS mnemonic. A total of 435 evaluations were performed to assess the status of current critical patient management. The main parameters with opportunities to be improved were analgesia, feeding, and sedation. With the implementation of MAIDENS, the parameters of analgesia, sedation, and thromboprophylaxis showed an increase in the percentage of optimal management. Furthermore, 103 drug-related problems were detected, and most of them were associated with feeding (21.3%), glucose control (11.7%), and delirium (9.7%). The FASTHUG MAIDENS protocol implementation allows for the evaluation of more vital aspects in the management of critically ill patients. The daily review of patients admitted to the ICU by a clinical pharmacist (CP) using the FASTHUG-MAIDENS checklist instead of the FASTHUG mnemonic facilitates the identification of DRPs for the performance of possible interventions by the CP to improve the pharmacotherapeutic management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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Article
Investigation of Biomedical Students’ Attitudes toward Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Study
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040073 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Background: The utilization of pharmacogenomics in everyday practice has shown several notable benefits. Keeping in mind the rising trend of applicability of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, we sought to compare the attitudes of future healthcare workers in different branches of the healthcare system. [...] Read more.
Background: The utilization of pharmacogenomics in everyday practice has shown several notable benefits. Keeping in mind the rising trend of applicability of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, we sought to compare the attitudes of future healthcare workers in different branches of the healthcare system. Methods: The present study was conducted as a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in October of 2020. Students eligible to participate were all the students of the University of Split School of Medicine enrolled in the academic year 2020/2021. Results: The number of students that participated in the study was 503. Students were most interested in clinical examples of pharmacogenomics (31.4%) and the benefits of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice (36.4%). Furthermore, 72.6% of all students agreed that they should be able, in their future practice, to identify patients that could benefit from genetic testing. Conclusion: At the present time, the lack of education and appropriate clinical guidelines appear to be the major barriers to the clinical application of pharmacogenomics, especially in Croatia. Hence, in order to support health care professionals’ evidence-based therapeutic recommendations with patients’ pharmacogenomic data, universities should offer more pharmacogenomics education in their curricula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Emerging Role of Pharmacists in Pharmacogenomics)
Article
Mobile-Based Augmented Reality Application in Pharmacy Schools Implemented in Pharmaceutical Compounding Laboratories: Students’ Benefits and Reception
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040072 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 382
Abstract
Background: Augmented reality (AR) is a technological approach which combines virtual objects such as text, pictures or videos with physical objects (real-world). The study aimed to design, implement and validate a mobile-based AR application, as a self-paced, interactive, student-centered learning tool be used [...] Read more.
Background: Augmented reality (AR) is a technological approach which combines virtual objects such as text, pictures or videos with physical objects (real-world). The study aimed to design, implement and validate a mobile-based AR application, as a self-paced, interactive, student-centered learning tool be used in the pharmaceutical compounding laboratory course for first year pharmacy students. Method: A mobile-based AR application (Amplified Rx app; HeyPayLess Inc) compatible with iOS and android operating system was developed. A cross-over study design was conducted where alternatively, one group was subjected to ARx app implementation in 8 formulations and the other group served as control. The reception and benefits to students were assessed via a 10 questions survey. In this case, 69 (2019) and 55 (2020) students participated in the study. Result: Students’ use of ARx app was increased in 2020 which indicates its usefulness. For acceptability, leaners enjoyed interactive materials and tutorial videos were the most used and appealing item. Learners described the installation, scanning and operation to be very easy in both years. 86.95% of learners were confident conducting the experiments with the assistance of ARx app in 2019 and increased to 92.73% in 2020. 33.33% considered ARx app to be the most helpful resource in 2019, and the percent was significantly increased to 76.36% in 2020. Conclusion: AR technology implementation in pharmaceutical education could create student-centered engaging and interactive learning experience in fundamental areas such as pharmaceutical compounding laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Ranking of Curricular Content by Pharmacy Students and Community Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040071 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the relative rankings of 17 key components in an undergraduate program. The degree of discrepancy between curricular content and that of student and pharmacist expectations was also of interest. An online questionnaire was emailed to both [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the relative rankings of 17 key components in an undergraduate program. The degree of discrepancy between curricular content and that of student and pharmacist expectations was also of interest. An online questionnaire was emailed to both groups in one Canadian province. Respondents considered four questions related to the nature and adequacy of education they did receive (pharmacists) or should receive (students) and the relative importance of key topic areas (along 11-point scales). The response rate was 31.0 (students) and 10.8 percent (pharmacists). As expected, both students and pharmacists identified therapeutics and patient counselling as critical focal points for the program, while the importance of compounding was mixed. Most topics were deemed as best handled during the didactic program, with students seeing greater value in learning a larger portion of two skills (injection training and managerial duties) post-graduation. In conclusion, discrepancies were indeed found. For students, topics such as injection training and minor ailment prescribing were perceived as receiving too little attention, while communication, pharmaceutical sciences, and professionalism received too much attention. In a significant departure in perspective, pharmacists rated communication, ethical decision-making, and professionalism almost two points higher than did students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
Article
Improving Pharmacy Students’ Clinical Knowledge on Providing Care for Patients Belonging to the LGBTQ+ Community
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040070 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
A 12-question survey instrument was developed, pilot-tested, and administered to 191 pharmacy students in their first professional year after engaging in a learning activity focusing on topics across five categories with clinical relevance to providing care to the LGBTQ+ community. A paired student [...] Read more.
A 12-question survey instrument was developed, pilot-tested, and administered to 191 pharmacy students in their first professional year after engaging in a learning activity focusing on topics across five categories with clinical relevance to providing care to the LGBTQ+ community. A paired student t-test was performed on survey tool pre-test and post-test survey responses, with p < 0.05 considered significant. A total of 183 usable pre-test and post-test survey responses were received. Statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test correct responses were observed for scenarios involving proper pronoun use, hormone therapy (HT) counseling, immunization best practices, and communication hesitancy. The greatest knowledge change was reported in the categories of immunization best practices (48.9%), HT counseling (33.6%), and pronoun use (22.8%). Active learning assignments are effective teaching strategies to promote clinical knowledge in providing inclusive and culturally competent care to LGBTQ+ patients. Clinical topic areas including proper pronoun use, HT counseling, immunization best practices, privacy, risk awareness, and communication hesitancy are effective curricula additions for pharmacy colleges to advance inclusive curricula concerning providing care to the LGBTQ+ community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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