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Biomolecules, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 146 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The molecular scaffold manipulation of phenols/polyphenols by the insertion of S/Se/Te-containing functionalities or by the replacement of oxygen atoms with heavier chalcogens is a currently pursued approach to boost or modulate their properties, with particular reference to their antioxidant properties. These latter properties are evaluated by conventional chemical assays and different model systems in association with computational approaches. Overall, the studies that are illustrated in this review contribute to the effort of drawing a well-defined picture of the mode of action of polyphenols and how their activity is affected by heavier chalcogens from the viewpoint of chemical mechanisms, an issue that is not frequently addressed in discussions regarding natural polyphenol activity. View this paper
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Review
The Role of the lncRNA MALAT1 in Neuroprotection against Hypoxic/Ischemic Injury
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010146 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Hypoxic and ischemic brain injury can cause neurological disability and mortality, and has become a serious public health problem worldwide. Long-chain non-coding RNAs are involved in the regulation of many diseases. Metastasis-related lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a type of long non-coding [...] Read more.
Hypoxic and ischemic brain injury can cause neurological disability and mortality, and has become a serious public health problem worldwide. Long-chain non-coding RNAs are involved in the regulation of many diseases. Metastasis-related lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a type of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), known as long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA), and is highly abundant in the nervous system. The enrichment of MALAT1 in the brain indicates that it may be associated with important functions in pathophysiological processes. Accordingly, the role of MALAT1 in neuronal cell hypoxic/ischemic injury has been gradually discovered over recent years. In this article, we summarize recent research regarding the neuroprotective molecular mechanism of MALAT1 and its regulation of pathophysiological processes of brain hypoxic/ischemic injury. MALAT1 may function as a regulator through interaction with proteins or RNAs to perform its role, and may therefore serve as a therapeutic target in cerebral hypoxia/ischemia. Full article
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Review
Chemistry and Biochemistry Aspects of the 4-Hydroxy-2,3-trans-nonenal
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010145 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 538
Abstract
4-hydroxy-2,3-trans-nonenal (C9H16O2), also known as 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (C9H16O2; HNE) is an α,β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenal. HNE is a major aldehyde, formed in the peroxidation process of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFAs), [...] Read more.
4-hydroxy-2,3-trans-nonenal (C9H16O2), also known as 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (C9H16O2; HNE) is an α,β-unsaturated hydroxyalkenal. HNE is a major aldehyde, formed in the peroxidation process of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFAs), such as linoleic and arachidonic acid. HNE is not only harmful but also beneficial. In the 1980s, the HNE was regarded as a “toxic product of lipid peroxidation” and the “second toxic messenger of free radicals”. However, already at the beginning of the 21st century, HNE was perceived as a reliable marker of oxidative stress, growth modulating factor and signaling molecule. Many literature data also indicate that an elevated level of HNE in blood plasma and cells of the animal and human body is observed in the course of many diseases, including cancer. On the other hand, it is currently proven that cancer cells divert to apoptosis if they are exposed to supraphysiological levels of HNE in the cancer microenvironment. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the biological properties of HNE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aldehyde Toxicity and Metabolism)
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Article
Fatty Acid Composition and Contents of Fish of Genus Salvelinus from Natural Ecosystems and Aquaculture
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010144 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 500
Abstract
Fatty acids (FA) of muscle tissue of Salvelinus species and its forms, S. alpinus, S. boganidae, S. drjagini, and S. fontinalis, from six Russian lakes and two aquacultures, were analyzed. Considerable variations in FA compositions and contents were found, [...] Read more.
Fatty acids (FA) of muscle tissue of Salvelinus species and its forms, S. alpinus, S. boganidae, S. drjagini, and S. fontinalis, from six Russian lakes and two aquacultures, were analyzed. Considerable variations in FA compositions and contents were found, including contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA), which are important indicators of fish nutritive value for humans. As found, contents of EPA+DHA (mg·g−1 wet weight) in muscle tissue of Salvelinus species and forms varied more than tenfold. These differences were supposed to be primarily determined by phylogenetic factors, rather than ecological factors, including food. Two species, S. boganidae and S. drjagini, had the highest EPA+DHA contents in their biomass and thereby could be recommended as promising species for aquaculture to obtain production with especially high nutritive value. Basing on revealed differences in FA composition of wild and farmed fish, levels of 15-17-BFA (branched fatty acids), 18:2NMI (non-methylene interrupted), 20:2NMI, 20:4n-3, and 22:4n-3 fatty acids were recommended for verifying trade label information of fish products on shelves, as the biomarkers to differentiate wild and farmed charr. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids in Natural Ecosystems and Human Nutrition 2021)
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Review
Antioxidant Roles of SGLT2 Inhibitors in the Kidney
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010143 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
The reduction-oxidation (redox) system consists of the coupling and coordination of various electron gradients that are generated thanks to serial reduction-oxidation enzymatic reactions. These reactions happen in every cell and produce radical oxidants that can be mainly classified into reactive oxygen species (ROS) [...] Read more.
The reduction-oxidation (redox) system consists of the coupling and coordination of various electron gradients that are generated thanks to serial reduction-oxidation enzymatic reactions. These reactions happen in every cell and produce radical oxidants that can be mainly classified into reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS modulate cell-signaling pathways and cellular processes fundamental to normal cell function. However, overproduction of oxidative species can lead to oxidative stress (OS) that is pathological. Oxidative stress is a main contributor to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) onset. In the kidney, the proximal tubular cells require a high energy supply to reabsorb proteins, metabolites, ions, and water. In a diabetic milieu, glucose-induced toxicity promotes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, impairing tubular function. Increased glucose level in urine and ROS enhance the activity of sodium/glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), which in turn exacerbates OS. SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated clear cardiovascular benefits in DKD which may be in part ascribed to the generation of a beneficial equilibrium between oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Imbalance and Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Kidney Disease)
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Review
β-Synuclein: An Enigmatic Protein with Diverse Functionality
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010142 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
α-Synuclein (αS) is a small, unstructured, presynaptic protein expressed in the brain. Its aggregated form is a major component of Lewy bodies, the large proteinaceous deposits in Parkinson’s disease. The closely related protein, β-Synuclein (βS), is co-expressed with αS. In vitro, βS acts [...] Read more.
α-Synuclein (αS) is a small, unstructured, presynaptic protein expressed in the brain. Its aggregated form is a major component of Lewy bodies, the large proteinaceous deposits in Parkinson’s disease. The closely related protein, β-Synuclein (βS), is co-expressed with αS. In vitro, βS acts as a molecular chaperone to inhibit αS aggregation. As a result of this assignation, βS has been largely understudied in comparison to αS. However, recent reports suggest that βS promotes neurotoxicity, implying that βS is involved in other cellular pathways with functions independent of αS. Here, we review the current literature pertaining to human βS in order to understand better the role of βS in homeostasis and pathology. Firstly, the structure of βS is discussed. Secondly, the ability of βS to (i) act as a molecular chaperone; (ii) regulate synaptic function, lipid binding, and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system; (iii) mediate apoptosis; (iv) participate in protein degradation pathways; (v) modulate intracellular metal levels; and (vi) promote cellular toxicity and protein aggregation is explored. Thirdly, the P123H and V70M mutations of βS, which are associated with dementia with Lewy bodies, are discussed. Finally, the importance of post-translational modifications on the structure and function of βS is reviewed. Overall, it is concluded that βS has both synergistic and antagonistic interactions with αS, but it may also possess important cellular functions independent of αS. Full article
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Review
Smart Bioinks for the Printing of Human Tissue Models
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010141 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
3D bioprinting has tremendous potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine by automating the process of tissue engineering. A significant number of new and advanced bioprinting technologies have been developed in recent years, enabling the generation of increasingly accurate models of human [...] Read more.
3D bioprinting has tremendous potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine by automating the process of tissue engineering. A significant number of new and advanced bioprinting technologies have been developed in recent years, enabling the generation of increasingly accurate models of human tissues both in the healthy and diseased state. Accordingly, this technology has generated a demand for smart bioinks that can enable the rapid and efficient generation of human bioprinted tissues that accurately recapitulate the properties of the same tissue found in vivo. Here, we define smart bioinks as those that provide controlled release of factors in response to stimuli or combine multiple materials to yield novel properties for the bioprinting of human tissues. This perspective piece reviews the existing literature and examines the potential for the incorporation of micro and nanotechnologies into bioinks to enhance their properties. It also discusses avenues for future work in this cutting-edge field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in USA 2021-2022)
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Article
How Far Are We from the Completion of the Human Protein Interactome Reconstruction?
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010140 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 734
Abstract
After more than fifteen years from the first high-throughput experiments for human protein–protein interaction (PPI) detection, we are still wondering how close the completion of the genome-scale human PPI network reconstruction is, what needs to be further explored and whether the biological insights [...] Read more.
After more than fifteen years from the first high-throughput experiments for human protein–protein interaction (PPI) detection, we are still wondering how close the completion of the genome-scale human PPI network reconstruction is, what needs to be further explored and whether the biological insights gained from the holistic investigation of the current network are valid and useful. The unique structure of PICKLE, a meta-database of the human experimentally determined direct PPI network developed by our group, presently covering ~80% of the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed human complete proteome, enables the evaluation of the interactome expansion by comparing the successive PICKLE releases since 2013. We observe a gradual overall increase of 39%, 182%, and 67% in protein nodes, PPIs, and supporting references, respectively. Our results indicate that, in recent years, (a) the PPI addition rate has decreased, (b) the new PPIs are largely determined by high-throughput experiments and mainly concern existing protein nodes and (c), as we had predicted earlier, most of the newly added protein nodes have a low degree. These observations, combined with a largely overlapping k-core between PICKLE releases and a network density increase, imply that an almost complete picture of a structurally defined network has been reached. The comparative unsupervised application of two clustering algorithms indicated that exploring the full interactome topology can reveal the protein neighborhoods involved in closely related biological processes as transcriptional regulation, cell signaling and multiprotein complexes such as the connexon complex associated with cancers. A well-reconstructed human protein interactome is a powerful tool in network biology and medicine research forming the basis for multi-omic and dynamic analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Approaches for the Study of Biomolecular Networks)
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Article
Whole-Cell Display of Phosphotransferase in Escherichia coli for High-Efficiency Extracellular ATP Production
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010139 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as a universal energy currency, takes a central role in many biochemical reactions with potential for the synthesis of numerous high-value products. However, the high cost of ATP limits industrial ATP-dependent enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Here, we investigated the effect of cell-surface [...] Read more.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as a universal energy currency, takes a central role in many biochemical reactions with potential for the synthesis of numerous high-value products. However, the high cost of ATP limits industrial ATP-dependent enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Here, we investigated the effect of cell-surface display of phosphotransferase on ATP regeneration in recombinant Escherichia coli. By N-terminal fusion of the super-folder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP), we successfully displayed the phosphotransferase of Pseudomonas brassicacearum (PAP-Pb) on the surface of E. coli cells. The catalytic activity of sfGFP-PAP-Pb intact cells was 2.12 and 1.47 times higher than that of PAP-Pb intact cells, when the substrate was AMP and ADP, respectively. The conversion of ATP from AMP or ADP were up to 97.5% and 80.1% respectively when catalyzed by the surface-displayed enzyme at 37 °C for only 20 min. The whole-cell catalyst was very stable, and the enzyme activity of the whole cell was maintained above 40% after 40 rounds of recovery. Under this condition, 49.01 mg/mL (96.66 mM) ATP was accumulated for multi-rounds reaction. This ATP regeneration system has the characteristics of low cost, long lifetime, flexible compatibility, and great robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering)
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Systematic Review
Role of Lipopolysaccharide, Derived from Various Bacterial Species, in Pulpitis—A Systematic Review
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010138 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used for induction of inflammation in various human tissues, including dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to summarize current medical literature focusing on (1) cell types used by researchers to simulate dental pulp inflammation, (2) LPS variants [...] Read more.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used for induction of inflammation in various human tissues, including dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to summarize current medical literature focusing on (1) cell types used by researchers to simulate dental pulp inflammation, (2) LPS variants utilized in experimental settings and how these choices affect the findings. Our study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched for studies reporting outcomes of lipopolysaccharide application on dental pulp cells in vitro using electronic databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus. Having gathered data from 115 papers, we aimed to present all known effects LPS has on different cell types present in dental pulp. We focused on specific receptors and particles that are involved in molecular pathways. Our review provides an essential foundation for further research using in vitro models of pulpitis. Full article
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Article
Association of Angio-LncRNAs MIAT rs1061540/MALAT1 rs3200401 Molecular Variants with Gensini Score in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undergoing Angiography
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010137 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential biomolecules with variable diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in several diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed for the first time to investigate the potential association of five angiogenesis-related lncRNAs (PUNISHER, SENCR, MIAT, MALAT1, and [...] Read more.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential biomolecules with variable diagnostic and/or prognostic utility in several diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed for the first time to investigate the potential association of five angiogenesis-related lncRNAs (PUNISHER, SENCR, MIAT, MALAT1, and GATA6-AS) variants with CAD susceptibility and/or severity. TaqMan Real-Time genotyping for PUNISHER rs12318065A/C, SENCR rs12420823C/T, MIAT rs1061540C/T, MALAT1 rs3200401T/C, and GATA6-AS1 rs73390820A/G were run on the extracted genomic DNA from 100 unrelated patients with stable CAD undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and from 100 controls. After adjusting covariates, the studied variants showed no association with disease susceptibility; however, MIAT*T/T genotype was associated with a more severe Gensini score. In contrast, MALAT1*T/C heterozygosity was associated with a lower score. The lipid profile, and to a lesser extent smoking status, male sex, weight, hypertension, and MALAT1 (T > C) (negative correlation), explained the variance between patients/control groups via a principal component analysis. Incorporating the principal components into a logistic regression model to predict CAD yielded a 0.92 AUC. In conclusion: MIAT rs1061540 and MALAT1 rs3200401 variants were associated with CAD severity and Gensini score in the present sample of the Egyptian population. Further large multi-center and functional analyses are needed to confirm the results and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomarkers In Cardiology 2021)
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Article
O-methylated N-glycans Distinguish Mosses from Vascular Plants
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010136 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
In the animal kingdom, a stunning variety of N-glycan structures have emerged with phylogenetic specificities of various kinds. In the plant kingdom, however, N-glycosylation appears to be strictly conservative and uniform. From mosses to all kinds of gymno- and angiosperms, land plants mainly [...] Read more.
In the animal kingdom, a stunning variety of N-glycan structures have emerged with phylogenetic specificities of various kinds. In the plant kingdom, however, N-glycosylation appears to be strictly conservative and uniform. From mosses to all kinds of gymno- and angiosperms, land plants mainly express structures with the common pentasaccharide core substituted with xylose, core α1,3-fucose, maybe terminal GlcNAc residues and Lewis A determinants. In contrast, green algae biosynthesise unique and unusual N-glycan structures with uncommon monosaccharides, a plethora of different structures and various kinds of O-methylation. Mosses, a group of plants that are separated by at least 400 million years of evolution from vascular plants, have hitherto been seen as harbouring an N-glycosylation machinery identical to that of vascular plants. To challenge this view, we analysed the N-glycomes of several moss species using MALDI-TOF/TOF, PGC-MS/MS and GC-MS. While all species contained the plant-typical heptasaccharide with no, one or two terminal GlcNAc residues (MMXF, MGnXF and GnGnXF, respectively), many species exhibited MS signals with 14.02 Da increments as characteristic for O-methylation. Throughout all analysed moss N-glycans, the level of methylation differed strongly even within the same family. In some species, methylated glycans dominated, while others had no methylation at all. GC-MS revealed the main glycan from Funaria hygrometrica to contain 2,6-O-methylated terminal mannose. Some mosses additionally presented very large, likewise methylated complex-type N-glycans. This first finding of the methylation of N-glycans in land plants mirrors the presumable phylogenetic relation of mosses to green algae, where the O-methylation of mannose and many other monosaccharides is a common trait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation—The Most Diverse Post-Translational Modification)
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Review
Mass Spectrometry-Based Structural Proteomics for Metal Ion/Protein Binding Studies
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010135 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Metal ions are critical for the biological and physiological functions of many proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based structural proteomics is an ever-growing field that has been adopted to study protein and metal ion interactions. Native MS offers information on metal binding and its stoichiometry. [...] Read more.
Metal ions are critical for the biological and physiological functions of many proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based structural proteomics is an ever-growing field that has been adopted to study protein and metal ion interactions. Native MS offers information on metal binding and its stoichiometry. Footprinting approaches coupled with MS, including hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX), “fast photochemical oxidation of proteins” (FPOP) and targeted amino-acid labeling, identify binding sites and regions undergoing conformational changes. MS-based titration methods, including “protein–ligand interactions by mass spectrometry, titration and HD exchange” (PLIMSTEX) and “ligand titration, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins and mass spectrometry” (LITPOMS), afford binding stoichiometry, binding affinity, and binding order. These MS-based structural proteomics approaches, their applications to answer questions regarding metal ion protein interactions, their limitations, and recent and potential improvements are discussed here. This review serves as a demonstration of the capabilities of these tools and as an introduction to wider applications to solve other questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Binding Proteins 2022)
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Editorial
Lipids of Marine Algae—Biomolecules with High Nutritional Value and Important Bioactive Properties
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010134 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Marine microalgae are a multitude of taxonomically diverse unicellular organisms, ranging from diatoms to dinoflagellates and several other well-known groups, that may dwell in the water column, occur in marine sediments, or even associate symbiotically with marine animals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids of Marine Algae)
Article
The Effects of Low-Level Helium–Neon (He–Ne) Laser Irradiation on Lipids and Fatty Acids, and the Activity of Energetic Metabolism Enzymes and Proteome in the Blastula Stage and Underyearlings of the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar: A Novel Approach in Salmonid Restoration Procedures in the North
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010133 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The effect of He–Ne laser irradiation on fishery parameters as well as on biochemical state, including the lipids and fatty acids, the activity of energy metabolism enzymes and the proteome in the blastula stage and in underyearlings of wild Atlantic salmon after irradiation [...] Read more.
The effect of He–Ne laser irradiation on fishery parameters as well as on biochemical state, including the lipids and fatty acids, the activity of energy metabolism enzymes and the proteome in the blastula stage and in underyearlings of wild Atlantic salmon after irradiation at the cleavage stage/early blastula (considered as the stages when the cell has a high potential for differentiation) was studied. Low mortality rates of eggs were determined during embryogenesis, as well as increased weight gain and lower morality rates of underyearlings in the experimental group. This is confirmed by changes in a number of interrelated indicators of lipid metabolism: a decrease in total lipids content, including diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, cholesterol esters, and the phospholipids content remained unchanged. The embryos in the blastula stage (experimental group) had higher aerobic capacity and an increase in pentose phosphate pathway activity. The proteome profiles of eggs in the blastula stage were 131 proteins, of which 48 were significantly identified. The major protein was found to be phosvitin. The proteomes of underyearlings were represented by 2018 proteins, of which 49 were unique for the control and 39 for the experimental group. He–Ne laser irradiation had a strong effect on the contents of histone proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids in Natural Ecosystems and Human Nutrition 2021)
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Review
Extracellular Vesicles as Mediators of Therapy Resistance in the Breast Cancer Microenvironment
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010132 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Resistance to various therapies, including novel immunotherapies, poses a major challenge in the management of breast cancer and is the leading cause of treatment failure. Bidirectional communication between breast cancer cells and the tumour microenvironment is now known to be an important contributor [...] Read more.
Resistance to various therapies, including novel immunotherapies, poses a major challenge in the management of breast cancer and is the leading cause of treatment failure. Bidirectional communication between breast cancer cells and the tumour microenvironment is now known to be an important contributor to therapy resistance. Several studies have demonstrated that crosstalk with the tumour microenvironment through extracellular vesicles is an important mechanism employed by cancer cells that leads to drug resistance via changes in protein, lipid and nucleic acid cargoes. Moreover, the cargo content enables extracellular vesicles to be used as effective biomarkers for predicting response to treatments and as potential therapeutic targets. This review summarises the literature to date regarding the role of extracellular vesicles in promoting therapy resistance in breast cancer through communication with the tumour microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Tumour Microenvironment in Therapeutic Resistance)
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Article
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Benzo[b]thiophene Acylhydrazones as Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010131 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The benzo[b]thiophene nucleus and the acylhydrazone functional group were combined to prepare three new series of compounds for screening against Staphylococcus aureus. The reaction of substituted benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide and various aromatic or heteroaromatic aldehydes led to a collection [...] Read more.
The benzo[b]thiophene nucleus and the acylhydrazone functional group were combined to prepare three new series of compounds for screening against Staphylococcus aureus. The reaction of substituted benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide and various aromatic or heteroaromatic aldehydes led to a collection of 26 final products with extensive structural diversification on the aromatic ring and on position 6 of the benzo[b]thiophene nucleus. The screening lead to the identification of eight hits, including (E)-6-chloro-N’-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide (II.b), a non-cytotoxic derivative showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of 4 µg/mL on three S. aureus strains, among which were a reference classical strain and two clinically isolated strains resistant to methicillin and daptomycin, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Chemical Biology)
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Article
Lithocholic Acid Amides as Potent Vitamin D Receptor Agonists
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010130 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 528
Abstract
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3, 1] is an active form of vitamin D3 and regulates various biological phenomena, including calcium and phosphate homeostasis, bone metabolism, and immune response via binding to and activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR). [...] Read more.
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3, 1] is an active form of vitamin D3 and regulates various biological phenomena, including calcium and phosphate homeostasis, bone metabolism, and immune response via binding to and activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR). Lithocholic acid (LCA, 2) was identified as a second endogenous agonist of VDR, though its potency is very low. However, the lithocholic acid derivative 3 (Dcha-20) is a more potent agonist than 1α,25(OH)2D3, (1), and its carboxyl group has similar interactions to the 1,3-dihydroxyl groups of 1 with amino acid residues in the VDR ligand-binding pocket. Here, we designed and synthesized amide derivatives of 3 in order to clarify the role of the carboxyl group. The synthesized amide derivatives showed HL-60 cell differentiation-inducing activity with potency that depended upon the substituent on the amide nitrogen atom. Among them, the N-cyanoamide 6 is more active than either 1 or 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Vitamin D and Its Analog)
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Review
Mechanistic Link between Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer’s Disease
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010129 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly population, affecting over 55 million people worldwide. Histopathological hallmarks of this multifactorial disease are an increased plaque burden and tangles in the brains of affected individuals. Several lines of evidence [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly population, affecting over 55 million people worldwide. Histopathological hallmarks of this multifactorial disease are an increased plaque burden and tangles in the brains of affected individuals. Several lines of evidence indicate that B12 hypovitaminosis is linked to AD. In this review, the biochemical pathways involved in AD that are affected by vitamin B12, focusing on APP processing, Aβ fibrillization, Aβ-induced oxidative damage as well as tau hyperphosphorylation and tau aggregation, are summarized. Besides the mechanistic link, an overview of clinical studies utilizing vitamin B supplementation are given, and a potential link between diseases and medication resulting in a reduced vitamin B12 level and AD are discussed. Besides the disease-mediated B12 hypovitaminosis, the reduction in vitamin B12 levels caused by an increasing change in dietary preferences has been gaining in relevance. In particular, vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with vitamin B12 deficiency, and therefore might have potential implications for AD. In conclusion, our review emphasizes the important role of vitamin B12 in AD, which is particularly important, as even in industrialized countries a large proportion of the population might not be sufficiently supplied with vitamin B12. Full article
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Review
Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Marfan Syndrome
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010128 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
About 20% of individuals afflicted with thoracic aortic disease have single-gene mutations that predispose the vessel to aneurysm formation and/or acute aortic dissection often without associated syndromic features. One widely studied exception is Marfan syndrome (MFS) in which mutations in the extracellular protein [...] Read more.
About 20% of individuals afflicted with thoracic aortic disease have single-gene mutations that predispose the vessel to aneurysm formation and/or acute aortic dissection often without associated syndromic features. One widely studied exception is Marfan syndrome (MFS) in which mutations in the extracellular protein fibrillin-1 cause additional abnormalities in the heart, eyes, and skeleton. Mouse models of MFS have been instrumental in delineating major cellular and molecular determinants of thoracic aortic disease. In spite of research efforts, translating experimental findings from MFS mice into effective drug therapies for MFS patients remains an unfulfilled promise. Here, we describe a series of studies that have implicated endothelial dysfunction and improper angiotensin II and TGFβ signaling in driving thoracic aortic disease in MFS mice. We also discuss how these investigations have influenced the way we conceptualized possible new therapies to slow down or even halt aneurysm progression in this relatively common connective tissue disorder. Full article
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Review
The Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in Modulating Key Tumor Suppressor Genes in Associated Malignancies: Epigenetics, Transcriptional, and Post-Translational Modifications
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010127 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ubiquitous and carried by approximately 90% of the world’s adult population. Several mechanisms and pathways have been proposed as to how EBV facilitates the pathogenesis and progression of malignancies, such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric [...] Read more.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ubiquitous and carried by approximately 90% of the world’s adult population. Several mechanisms and pathways have been proposed as to how EBV facilitates the pathogenesis and progression of malignancies, such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancers, the majority of which have been linked to viral proteins that are expressed upon infection including latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (EBNAs). EBV expresses microRNAs that facilitate the progression of some cancers. Mostly, EBV induces epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes, degradation of tumor suppressor mRNA transcripts, post-translational modification, and inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which EBV modulates different tumor suppressors at the molecular and cellular levels in associated cancers. Briefly, EBV gene products upregulate DNA methylases to induce epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes via hypermethylation. MicroRNAs expressed by EBV are also involved in the direct targeting of tumor suppressor genes for degradation, and other EBV gene products directly bind to tumor suppressor proteins to inactivate them. All these processes result in downregulation and impaired function of tumor suppressors, ultimately promoting malignances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epstein-Barr Virus Disease Mechanisms and Stress Responses)
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Communication
Mutation of the Conserved Threonine 8 within the Human ARF Tumour Suppressor Protein Regulates Autophagy
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010126 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Background: The ARF tumour suppressor plays a well-established role as a tumour suppressor, halting cell growth by both p53-dependent and independent pathways in several cellular stress response circuits. However, data collected in recent years challenged the traditional role of this protein as a [...] Read more.
Background: The ARF tumour suppressor plays a well-established role as a tumour suppressor, halting cell growth by both p53-dependent and independent pathways in several cellular stress response circuits. However, data collected in recent years challenged the traditional role of this protein as a tumour suppressor. Cancer cells expressing high ARF levels showed that its expression, far from being dispensable, is required to guarantee tumour cell survival. In particular, ARF can promote autophagy, a self-digestion pathway that helps cells cope with stressful growth conditions arising during both physiological and pathological processes. Methods: We previously showed that ARF is regulated through the activation of the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway and that an ARF phospho-mimetic mutant on the threonine residue 8, ARF-T8D, sustains cell proliferation in HeLa cells. We now explored the role of ARF phosphorylation in both basal and starvation-induced autophagy by analysing autophagic flux in cells transfected with either WT and ARF phosphorylation mutants by immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Results: Here, we show that endogenous ARF expression in HeLa cells is required for starvation-induced autophagy. Further, we provide evidence that the hyper-expression of ARF-T8D appears to inhibit autophagy in both HeLa and lung cancer cells H1299. This effect is due to the cells’ inability to elicit autophagosomes formation upon T8D expression. Conclusions: Our results lead to the hypothesis that ARF phosphorylation could be a mechanism through which the protein promotes or counteracts autophagy. Several observations underline how autophagy could serve a dual role in cancer progression, either protecting healthy cells from damage or aiding cancerous cells to survive. Our results indicate that ARF phosphorylation controls protein’s ability to promote or counteract autophagy, providing evidence of the dual role played by ARF in cancer progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Many Faces of Autophagy: Balancing Survival and Cell Death)
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Review
The Role of COA6 in the Mitochondrial Copper Delivery Pathway to Cytochrome c Oxidase
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010125 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Copper is essential for the stability and activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Copper is bound to COX1 and COX2, two core subunits of CcO, forming the CuB and CuA sites, respectively. Biogenesis [...] Read more.
Copper is essential for the stability and activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Copper is bound to COX1 and COX2, two core subunits of CcO, forming the CuB and CuA sites, respectively. Biogenesis of these two copper sites of CcO occurs separately and requires a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins that form the mitochondrial copper delivery pathway. Pathogenic mutations in some of the proteins of the copper delivery pathway, such as SCO1, SCO2, and COA6, have been shown to cause fatal infantile human disorders, highlighting the biomedical significance of understanding copper delivery mechanisms to CcO. While two decades of studies have provided a clearer picture regarding the biochemical roles of SCO1 and SCO2 proteins, some discrepancy exists regarding the function of COA6, the new member of this pathway. Initial genetic and biochemical studies have linked COA6 with copper delivery to COX2 and follow-up structural and functional studies have shown that it is specifically required for the biogenesis of the CuA site by acting as a disulfide reductase of SCO and COX2 proteins. Its role as a copper metallochaperone has also been proposed. Here, we critically review the recent literature regarding the molecular function of COA6 in CuA biogenesis. Full article
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Review
The Patent Eligibility of 3D Bioprinting: Towards a New Version of Living Inventions’ Patentability
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010124 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 604
Abstract
A combination of 3D printing techniques and synthetic biology, 3D bioprinting is a promising field. It is expected that 3D bioprinting technologies will have applications across an array of fields, spanning biotechnology, medical surgery and the pharmaceutical industry. Nonetheless, the progress of these [...] Read more.
A combination of 3D printing techniques and synthetic biology, 3D bioprinting is a promising field. It is expected that 3D bioprinting technologies will have applications across an array of fields, spanning biotechnology, medical surgery and the pharmaceutical industry. Nonetheless, the progress of these technologies could be hindered, unless there is adequate and effective protection for related applications. In this article, the authors examine the patent eligibility of 3D bioprinting technologies. This issue raises concern given that existing patent systems are generally averse to nature-derived inventions and many of them exclude products of nature or discoveries from patentability. This qualitative study analyses the current patent systems in key jurisdictions, particularly, the U.S. and the EU, and their applicability, as well as effectiveness, in the context of 3D bioprinting. The study argues that the main reason for the apathy of existing patent systems towards bio-inventions is that they were designed to deal with mechanical inventions. It suggests an innovation framework that encompasses both mechanical and biological inventions to cater adequately to emerging technologies. Full article
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Article
The Molecular Mechanism of Human Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 Blockade by the Metallofullerenol [email protected]82(OH)22: An In Silico Study
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010123 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 393
Abstract
The endohedral metallofullerenol [email protected]82(OH)22 has been identified as a possible antineoplastic agent that can inhibit both the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. Despite these potentially important effects, our understanding of the interactions between [email protected]82(OH)22 and biomacromolecules [...] Read more.
The endohedral metallofullerenol [email protected]82(OH)22 has been identified as a possible antineoplastic agent that can inhibit both the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. Despite these potentially important effects, our understanding of the interactions between [email protected]82(OH)22 and biomacromolecules remains incomplete. Here, we study the interaction between [email protected]82(OH)22 and the human voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (hVDAC1), the most abundant porin embedded in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and a potential druggable target for novel anticancer therapeutics. Using in silico approaches, we observe that [email protected]82(OH)22 molecules can permeate and form stable interactions with the pore of hVDAC1. Further, this penetration can occur from either side of the MOM to elicit blockage of the pore. The binding between [email protected]82(OH)22 and hVDAC1 is largely driven by long-range electrostatic interactions. Analysis of the binding free energies indicates that it is thermodynamically more favorable for [email protected]82(OH)22 to bind to the hVDAC1 pore when it enters the channel from inside the membrane rather than from the cytoplasmic side of the protein. Multiple factors contribute to the preferential penetration, including the surface electrostatic landscape of hVDAC1 and the unique physicochemical properties of [email protected]82(OH)22. Our findings provide insights into the potential molecular interactions of macromolecular biological systems with the [email protected]82(OH)22 nanodrug. Full article
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Article
Elevated Expression of JMJD5 Protein Due to Decreased miR-3656 Levels Contributes to Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes under Overexpression of Cancer Upregulated Gene 2
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010122 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Overexpression of cancer upregulated gene (CUG) 2 induces cancer stem cell-like phenotypes, such as enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, sphere formation, and doxorubicin resistance. However, the precise mechanism of CUG2-induced oncogenesis remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of overexpression of CUG2 on microRNA levels using [...] Read more.
Overexpression of cancer upregulated gene (CUG) 2 induces cancer stem cell-like phenotypes, such as enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, sphere formation, and doxorubicin resistance. However, the precise mechanism of CUG2-induced oncogenesis remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of overexpression of CUG2 on microRNA levels using a microRNA microarray. Levels of miR-3656 were decreased when CUG2 was overexpressed; on the basis of this result, we further examined the target proteins of this microRNA. We focused on Jumonji C domain-containing protein 5 (JMJD5), as it has not been previously reported to be targeted by miR-3656. When CUG2 was overexpressed, JMJD5 expression was upregulated compared to that in control cells. A 3′ untranslated region (UTR) assay revealed that an miR-3656 mimic targeted the JMJD5 3′UTR, but the miR-3656 mimic failed to target a mutant JMJD5 3′UTR, indicating that miR-3656 targets the JMJD5 transcript. Administration of the miR-3656 mimic decreased the protein levels of JMD5 according to Western blotting. Additionally, the miR-3656 mimic decreased CUG2-induced cell migration, evasion, and sphere formation and sensitized the cells to doxorubicin. Suppression of JMJD5, with its small interfering RNA, impeded CUG2-induced cancer stem cell-like phenotypes. Thus, overexpression of CUG2 decreases miR-3656 levels, leading to upregulation of JMJD5, eventually contributing to cancer stem cell-like phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jumonji Domain-Containing Proteins in Cancer Progression)
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Article
Zn2+ and Cu2+ Binding to the Extramembrane Loop of Zrt2, a Zinc Transporter of Candida albicans
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010121 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Zrt2 is a zinc transporter of the ZIP family. It is predicted to be located in the plasma membrane and it is essential for Candida albicans zinc uptake and growth at acidic pH. Zrt2 from C. albicans is composed of 370 amino acids [...] Read more.
Zrt2 is a zinc transporter of the ZIP family. It is predicted to be located in the plasma membrane and it is essential for Candida albicans zinc uptake and growth at acidic pH. Zrt2 from C. albicans is composed of 370 amino acids and contains eight putative transmembrane domains and an extra-membrane disordered loop, corresponding to the amino acid sequence 126–215. This protein region contains at least three possible metal binding motifs: HxHxHxxD (144–153), HxxHxxEHxD (181–193) and the Glu- and Asp- rich sequence DDEEEDxE (161–168). The corresponding model peptides, protected at their termini (Ac-GPHTHSHFGD-NH2, Ac-DDEEEDLE-NH2 and Ac-PSHFAHAQEHQDP-NH2), have been investigated in order to elucidate the thermodynamic and coordination properties of their Zn2+ and Cu2+ complexes, with the further aim to identify the most effective metal binding site among the three fragments. Furthermore, we extended the investigation to the peptides Ac-GPHTHAHFGD-NH2 and Ac-PAHFAHAQEHQDP-NH2, where serine residues have been substituted by alanines in order to check if the presence of a serine residue may favor the displacement of amidic protons by Cu2+. In the native Zrt2 protein, the Ac-GPHTHSHFGD-NH2 region of the Zrt2 loop has the highest metal binding affinity, showing that three alternated histidines separated by only one residue (-HxHxH-) bind Zn2+ and Cu2+ more strongly than the region in which three histidines are separated by two and three His residues (-HxxHxxxH- in Ac-PSHFAHAQEHQDP-NH2). All studied Zrt2 loop fragments have lower affinity towards Zn2+ than the zinc(II) binding site on the Zrt1 transporter; also, all three Zrt2 regions bind Zn2+ and Cu2+ with comparable affinity below pH 5 and, therefore, may equally contribute to the metal acquisition under the most acidic conditions in which the Zrt2 transporter is expressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic and Essential Metals in Human Health and Disease 2021)
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Article
Erythropoietin Interacts with Specific S100 Proteins
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010120 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a clinically significant four-helical cytokine, exhibiting erythropoietic, cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, and cancer-promoting activities. Despite vast knowledge on its signaling pathways and physiological effects, extracellular factors regulating EPO activity remain underexplored. Here we show by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, that among eighteen [...] Read more.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a clinically significant four-helical cytokine, exhibiting erythropoietic, cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, and cancer-promoting activities. Despite vast knowledge on its signaling pathways and physiological effects, extracellular factors regulating EPO activity remain underexplored. Here we show by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, that among eighteen members of Ca2+-binding proteins of the S100 protein family studied, only S100A2, S100A6 and S100P proteins specifically recognize EPO with equilibrium dissociation constants ranging from 81 nM to 0.5 µM. The interactions occur exclusively under calcium excess. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the EPO-S100 interactions could be relevant to progression of neoplastic diseases, including cancer, and other diseases. The detailed knowledge of distinct physiological effects of the EPO-S100 interactions could favor development of more efficient clinical implications of EPO. Summing up our data with previous findings, we conclude that S100 proteins are potentially able to directly affect functional activities of specific members of all families of four-helical cytokines, and cytokines of other structural superfamilies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Binding Proteins 2022)
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Commentary
Plasmalemmal V-ATPase as a Potential Biomarker for Lactoferrin-Based Anticancer Therapy
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010119 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 361
Abstract
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a milk-derived protein with well-recognized potential as a therapeutic agent against a wide variety of cancers. This natural protein exhibits health-promoting effects and has several interesting features, including its selectivity towards cancer cells, good tolerability in humans, worldwide availability, and [...] Read more.
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a milk-derived protein with well-recognized potential as a therapeutic agent against a wide variety of cancers. This natural protein exhibits health-promoting effects and has several interesting features, including its selectivity towards cancer cells, good tolerability in humans, worldwide availability, and holding a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. To prompt the rational clinical application of this promising anticancer compound, previous works aimed to unveil the molecular mechanisms underlying its selective anticancer activity, where plasmalemmal V-ATPase was identified as an Lf target in cancer cells. V-ATPase is a proton pump critical for cellular homeostasis that migrates to the plasma membrane of highly metastatic cancer cells contributing to the acidity of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells were found to be susceptible to Lf only when this proton pump is present at the plasma membrane. Plasmalemmal V-ATPase can thus be an excellent biomarker for driving treatment decisions and forecasting clinical outcomes of Lf-based anticancer strategies. Future research endeavors should thus seek to validate this biomarker by thorough preclinical and clinical studies, as well as to develop effective methods for its detection under clinical settings. Full article
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Review
Melittin-Based Nano-Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010118 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
Melittin (MEL) is a 26-amino acid polypeptide with a variety of pharmacological and toxicological effects, which include strong surface activity on cell lipid membranes, hemolytic activity, and potential anti-tumor properties. However, the clinical application of melittin is restricted due to its severe hemolytic [...] Read more.
Melittin (MEL) is a 26-amino acid polypeptide with a variety of pharmacological and toxicological effects, which include strong surface activity on cell lipid membranes, hemolytic activity, and potential anti-tumor properties. However, the clinical application of melittin is restricted due to its severe hemolytic activity. Different nanocarrier systems have been developed to achieve stable loading, side effects shielding, and tumor-targeted delivery, such as liposomes, cationic polymers, lipodisks, etc. In addition, MEL can be modified on nano drugs as a non-selective cytolytic peptide to enhance cellular uptake and endosomal/lysosomal escape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in MEL’s nano-delivery systems and MEL-modified nano drug carriers for cancer therapy. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Antiplatelet Effects of Phenol Derivatives in Humans
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010117 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Flavonoids are associated with positive cardiovascular effects. However, due to their low bioavailability, metabolites are likely responsible for these properties. Recently, one of these metabolites, 4-methylcatechol, was described to be a very potent antiplatelet compound. This study aimed to compare its activity with [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are associated with positive cardiovascular effects. However, due to their low bioavailability, metabolites are likely responsible for these properties. Recently, one of these metabolites, 4-methylcatechol, was described to be a very potent antiplatelet compound. This study aimed to compare its activity with its 22 close derivatives both of natural or synthetic origin in order to elucidate a potential structure–antiplatelet activity relationship. Blood from human volunteers was induced to aggregate by arachidonic acid (AA), collagen or thrombin, and plasma coagulation was also studied. Potential toxicity was tested on human erythrocytes as well as on a cancer cell line. Our results indicated that 17 out of the 22 compounds were very active at a concentration of 40 μM and, importantly, seven of them had an IC50 on AA-triggered aggregation below 3 μM. The effects of the most active compounds were confirmed on collagen-triggered aggregation too. None of the tested compounds was toxic toward erythrocytes at 50 μM and four compounds partly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cell line at 100 μM but not at 10 μM. Additionally, none of the compounds had a significant effect on blood coagulation or thrombin-triggered aggregation. This study hence reports four phenol derivatives (4-ethylcatechol, 4-fluorocatechol, 2-methoxy-4-ethylphenol and 3-methylcatechol) suitable for future in vivo testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacology of Cardiovascular Disease)
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