Next Article in Journal
Instructions for Authors 2008
Previous Article in Journal
Illicium verum Hook. f. and Illicium anisatum L.: Anatomical Characters and their Value for Differentiation
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
Open AccessArticle
Sci. Pharm. 2008, 76(1), 77-90;

The Influence of Selected Parameters on the Size and Shape of Alginate Beads Prepared by Ionotropic Gelation

Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Verovškova 57, 1526 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 February 2008 / Accepted: 12 March 2008 / Published: 30 March 2008
PDF [1894 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]


Many bead biopharmaceutical characteristics are dependent on the bead shape. Furthermore, the shape is one of crucial parameters for incorporation of beads in more complex drug delivery system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of various processing parameters such as hardening time, temperature and concentration of calcium chloride solution and drying conditions on size, shape and morphology of alginate beads prepared by ionotropic gelation method. Theophylline was selected as a model drug. It was found that all studied parameters markedly affected bead form, resembling in most cases to ellipsoid spheres. Their sphericity was estimated three-dimensionally by measuring diameters of frontal and lateral side which were perpendicular to each other. Smaller and more spherical beads were obtained at longer hardening time and higher temperature of calcium chloride solution. The freeze-dried beads were the largest and the most spherical. It was demonstrated that optimization of bead shape as well as size and morphology could be achieved by altering processing parameters.
Keywords: alginate beads; ionotropic gelation; shape; sphericity alginate beads; ionotropic gelation; shape; sphericity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

SMRDEL, P.; BOGATAJ, M.; MRHAR, A. The Influence of Selected Parameters on the Size and Shape of Alginate Beads Prepared by Ionotropic Gelation. Sci. Pharm. 2008, 76, 77-90.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sci. Pharm. EISSN 2218-0532 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top