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J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Description and Economic Evaluation of a “Zero-Waste Mortar-Producing Process” for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Greece
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030046 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
The constant increase of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as well as their daily management pose a major challenge to European countries. A significant percentage of MSW originates from household activities. In this study we calculate the costs of setting up and running a [...] Read more.
The constant increase of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as well as their daily management pose a major challenge to European countries. A significant percentage of MSW originates from household activities. In this study we calculate the costs of setting up and running a zero-waste mortar-producing (ZWMP) process utilizing MSW in Northern Greece. The process is based on a thermal co-processing of properly dried and processed MSW with raw materials (limestone, clay materials, silicates and iron oxides) needed for the production of clinker and consequently of mortar in accordance with the Greek Patent 1003333, which has been proven to be an environmentally friendly process. According to our estimations, the amount of MSW generated in Central Macedonia, Western Macedonia and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace regions, which is conservatively estimated at 1,270,000 t/y for the year 2020 if recycling schemes in Greece are not greatly ameliorated, may sustain six ZWMP plants while offering considerable environmental benefits. This work can be applied to many cities and areas, especially when their population generates MSW at the level of 200,000 t/y, hence requiring one ZWMP plant for processing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing an Improved Risk-Adjusted Net Present Value Technology Valuation Model for the Biopharmaceutical Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030045
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
The financial valuation of a drug that is still under development is required for various purposes. The risk-adjusted net present value (r-NPV) method, which recently emerged in the biotech industry, uses the development attrition rate as a discount factor to reflect risk during [...] Read more.
The financial valuation of a drug that is still under development is required for various purposes. The risk-adjusted net present value (r-NPV) method, which recently emerged in the biotech industry, uses the development attrition rate as a discount factor to reflect risk during each development phase. The r-NPV method was developed to overcome the disadvantages of the prevailing discounted cash flow and real options methods and considers drug type, as well as the stage of development in its approach. Using this method, the current study examines technology values in the biopharmaceutical industry and matches the clinical development periods and success rates of these new drugs by analyzing datasets from ClinicalTrials.gov and MedTrack DB. It thus provides support for an empirical valuation model for experts in the field. Notably, there is limited research on the attrition rate and development period of new substance drugs and the research results are not consistently presented. In addition to new substance drugs, further research is necessary to deepen understanding of the attrition rate and development period of biologically-based drugs because of their inherent physical and developmental differences. Similarly, research on performance specifics within drug class models would enable refinement of the model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Emerging Technology and Business Model Innovation: The Case of Artificial Intelligence
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030044
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI) has been altering industries as evidenced by Airbnb, Uber and other companies that have embraced its use to implement innovative new business models. Yet we may not fully understand how this emerging and rapidly advancing technology influences business model innovation. [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has been altering industries as evidenced by Airbnb, Uber and other companies that have embraced its use to implement innovative new business models. Yet we may not fully understand how this emerging and rapidly advancing technology influences business model innovation. While many companies are being made vulnerable to new competitors equipped with AI technology, this study attempts to focus on the proactive side of the use of AI technology to drive business model innovation. Describing AI technology as the catalyst of business model innovation, this study sheds light on contingent factors shaping business model innovation initiated by the emerging technology. This study first provides a brief overview of AI, current issues being tackled in developing AI and explains how it transforms business models. Our case study of two companies that innovated their business models using AI shows its potential impact. We also discuss how executives can create an innovative AI-based culture, which rephrases the process of AI-based business model innovation. Companies that successfully capitalize on AI can create disruptive innovation through their new business models and processes, enabling them to potentially transform the global competitive landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Business Model Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Universities in the National Innovation Systems: Emerging Innovation Landscapes in Asia-Pacific
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030043
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Historically, universities and institutions of higher learning have gone through three academic revolutions, namely, teaching, research, and innovation. Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in the last two decades have come to occupy an important part in the national innovation systems (NIS), which [...] Read more.
Historically, universities and institutions of higher learning have gone through three academic revolutions, namely, teaching, research, and innovation. Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in the last two decades have come to occupy an important part in the national innovation systems (NIS), which is a complex of ‘all important economic, social, political, organizational, institutional and other factors that influence the development, diffusion and use of innovations’. From a broader perspective, universities, together with public Research and Development (R&D) labs and science agencies, public policies (on industry, research, innovation and higher education, etc.) and business enterprises are now considered as important actors in the NIS of Asia-Pacific economies. The rise of Asia in the global knowledge-based economy from mid-1990s is closely associated with the rise of knowledge institutions of higher learning and scientific research output. Every Asia-Pacific country embraced and introduced policies relating to innovation in varying forms. Consultancy and collaborative links with industry being traditional forms of engagement, new policy and institutional measures in technology transfer and innovation to engage with society and business enterprises are gaining prominence. Policies for incubation, start-ups, and spin-offs, technology transfer offices (TTOs), and science and technology parks have gained tremendous prominence in leading Asia-Pacific universities. Different national innovation systems in the Asia-Pacific region have given rise to varying roles of universities. Whilst universities in Southeast Asian countries and India continue to play a traditional role of teaching and generating human capital, there are countries such as Singapore, China, Taiwan, and Japan, wherein universities are being transformed as entrepreneurial universities. Science and innovation policies in these countries have orchestrated the goal direction of universities as frontiers of innovation. Universities in Australia and New Zealand have so far been quite successful in marketing higher education to neighboring Asian countries. They have in recent years begun to embark on innovation and commercialization of research. The paper focuses on South East Asia and draws some comparison with more dynamic university ecosystems in East Asia. In doing so, the paper brings into focus the emerging innovation landscapes across the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Investigation on Responsible Innovation in the Emerging Shared Bicycle Industry: Case Study of a Chinese Firm
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030042
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
In the current era of Industrial 4.0, open innovation, and the sharing economy, innovation ecosystems are formed through government-industry-university (triple helix) interaction. The concept of responsible innovation has emerged to explore how innovation can be conducted in a transparent, trustworthy, and sustainable way [...] Read more.
In the current era of Industrial 4.0, open innovation, and the sharing economy, innovation ecosystems are formed through government-industry-university (triple helix) interaction. The concept of responsible innovation has emerged to explore how innovation can be conducted in a transparent, trustworthy, and sustainable way so as to respond to the public interest. While current literature provides a conceptual framework, details of how responsible innovation can be formed, developed, and sustained in the sharing economy, in particular in developing countries, have been under-explored. This paper aims to explore factors of responsible innovation, linking dimensions with business practice, and identify the dynamic stages of the industry life cycle. Through an in-depth case study of China’s shared bicycle industry and the firm Hellobike, this paper has prioritized factors which lead to responsibility, such as user safety and friendliness in product design, real-time operations combined with big data, collaboration between industry and local government for industry standardization, and user credit systems. It has enriched key dimensions based on literature and case studies and proposed dynamic interaction models for industry, government, users, and universities at different stages of responsible innovation in the shared bicycle sector. From this empirical study, future research areas have been identified. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Basic Income with High Open Innovation Dynamics: The Way to the Entrepreneurial State
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030041
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Currently, the world economy is approaching a near-zero growth rate. Governments should move from a market-failure-oriented to a system-failure-oriented approach to understanding this problem, and transform to an entrepreneurial state to motivate the Schumpeterian dynamics of open innovation. We want to answer the [...] Read more.
Currently, the world economy is approaching a near-zero growth rate. Governments should move from a market-failure-oriented to a system-failure-oriented approach to understanding this problem, and transform to an entrepreneurial state to motivate the Schumpeterian dynamics of open innovation. We want to answer the following research question in this study: “How can a government enact policies to conquer the growth limits imposed on the economy by inequality or the control of big businesses?” First, we conducted a literature review to establish the concept of building a causal loop model of basic income with open innovation dynamics. Second, we built a causal loop model which includes basic income and all factors of open innovation dynamics. Third, we proved our causal loop model through a meta-analysis of global cases of basic income. Our research indicates that reflective basic income with permissionless open innovation, capital fluidity, a sharing economy, and a platform tax can motivate open innovation dynamics and arrive at a method by which an entrepreneurial state can conquer the growth limits of capitalism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Student Activity Participation on Accounting Education
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030040
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
Accounting education focuses on delivering knowledge to students. Most student are passive, behaving as bystanders or listeners in lecturer-oriented learning. However, student-centered learning requires active and positive engagement from students to generate effective learning. Board games represent a key driving tool in inducing [...] Read more.
Accounting education focuses on delivering knowledge to students. Most student are passive, behaving as bystanders or listeners in lecturer-oriented learning. However, student-centered learning requires active and positive engagement from students to generate effective learning. Board games represent a key driving tool in inducing student participation and interest in active learning. This study investigates whether the active participation of students in class activities has positive effects on accounting education. Specifically, it tests whether active student involvement in board game activities in introductory accounting courses contributes to effective learning. There were a few key findings. Firstly, the more actively that students participate in the game, the higher their favorable changes are in terms of perception of accounting. Secondly, the higher their positive perceptions are, the higher the effects of accounting education are. These results imply that the active involvement of learners is a precondition for the effect of accounting education activities, and that positive perception is a mediator for learning effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Productivity Slowdown, Exhausted Opportunities and the Power of Human Ingenuity—Schumpeter Meets Georgescu-Roegen
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030039
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Western economies nowadays are confronted with a predicted productivity slowdown resulting in diminishing rates of economic growth. While some scholars see these developments as an indication of the approaching end of growth due to fully exploited technological opportunities, this article contends that the [...] Read more.
Western economies nowadays are confronted with a predicted productivity slowdown resulting in diminishing rates of economic growth. While some scholars see these developments as an indication of the approaching end of growth due to fully exploited technological opportunities, this article contends that the possibilities for radical, paradigm changing innovations are far from being exploited. Building on contributions from Schumpeter and Georgescu-Roegen, we argue that the human capacity to expand technological and intellectual frontiers must not be underestimated. In a selective retrospect, our narrative identifies and describes four historical incidents reflecting different perceptions of the power of the human mind. It synthesizes the mentioned economists’ viewpoints with the effects of these incidents to reproduce the intellectual roots of the recently developed concept of Dedicated Innovation Systems (DIS). We conclude that traditional macro-level indicators are not suitable to capture transformation processes, which is why we propose to interpret growth indicators and the alleged productivity slowdown quite differently. We argue that human ingenuity and transformation processes dedicated to sustainability will open up new opportunity spaces, thereby combining an increase in economic welfare and social justice with a reduction of negative environmental impact. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Entrepreneurial Activity in the Czech Republic over the Years 2005–2017
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030038
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Although there is a rich debate about entrepreneurship and its impact on economic development, much less is known about the actual levels of entrepreneurial activity. The main aim of the article is, thus, to map the level of entrepreneurial activity in the Czech [...] Read more.
Although there is a rich debate about entrepreneurship and its impact on economic development, much less is known about the actual levels of entrepreneurial activity. The main aim of the article is, thus, to map the level of entrepreneurial activity in the Czech Republic, its structure, and development during the years 2005–2017. The study is based on the secondary data obtained from national structural business statistics, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and the Labour Force Survey. The average rate of entrepreneurial activity in the Czech Republic was 15.2% of the economically active population aged 15–64 years during the analysed period. The activity is dominated by solo-self-employed workers (own-account workers). Job creators represent only 3.2% of the economically active population. Patterns and cohorts of entrepreneurs were identified regarding gender, age, and education. There were 2.5 times more self-employed males compared to females for the past years, and the proportion of job creators is also higher for males. The Czech job creators are on average older (mostly represented in age cohort 40–49 years) compared to solo-self-employed (mainly represented in age cohort 35–44 years) and they have obtained tertiary education to a larger extent. Classification and monitoring of the Czech entrepreneurial activity might serve as an overview for Czech policymakers and regional scholars. Especially from a job creation perspective, it might be very relevant to understand the characteristics of those individuals who employ other workers, aside from themselves. From an international perspective, this study might serve as an inspiration to shed more light on the national levels of entrepreneurship and self-employment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search to Solve Multi-Level Scheduling and Assignment Problems in Broiler Farms
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2019, 5(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5030037
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
This research aimed to present a solution to the problem of production scheduling and assignment in broiler farms, which thus enabled the farms to achieve maximum profit. In the operation of farms, there are many factors that affect profits, such as the number [...] Read more.
This research aimed to present a solution to the problem of production scheduling and assignment in broiler farms, which thus enabled the farms to achieve maximum profit. In the operation of farms, there are many factors that affect profits, such as the number of broilers being consistent with the demand of production plants, including profits from the sales and transportation costs. Therefore, we formulated a mathematical model and tested it while using three problem groups through the Lingo v.11 program. The results indicated that this mathematical model could find a suitable solution. However, finding the best solution had time constraints, which resulted in various other problems that prevented a search for an optimal solution due to time consumption exceeding 72 h. We developed an algorithm using the Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) method in order to find another possible solution using a shorter time period, which consisted of ALNS1, ALNS2, and ALNS3. These algorithms are based on a combination of the method of destruction solutions and methods accepting different solutions. We aimed to effectively solve the problems and ensure that they are appropriate for the case study, a broiler farm in Buriram. When comparing the algorithm efficiency with the Lingo v.11 program, it was found that the ALNS1 algorithm was the most suitable for finding the optimal solution in the shortest time, which resulted in a 5.74% increase in operating profits. Full article
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J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. EISSN 2199-8531 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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